INTRODUCTION Being attentive to the recent technology advancements, up to date air travelers are getting more difficult in each means. Apart from expecting to receive the best price for cash, passengers conjointly evaluate airport service attributes and airport surroundings. With the aim to increase the general level of service, airports centered on modernization investment and terminal facelifts. A brand-new trend in airport business is to “treat passengers as customers” and to plan the airport surroundings so its atmosphere offers “a sense of place” (Gee, 2013). First, Kotler (1973) planned that service institution atmosphere may support service suppliers differentiate themselves from the competition. This concept led to the event of recent theories concerning surroundings of service settings. According to Baker’s (1987) theory, the retail surrounding is comprised of three groups of stimuli as well as close factors, design factors and social factors, that powerfully influence customers’ perceptions of the provider’s image.
Later, Bitner (1992) planned that the “servicescape” framework had a holistic view on the service surroundings, accenting influences of service surroundings on both staff and customers. The servicescape framework incorporates three environmental dimensions: close conditions, spatial plan and practicality and signs, symbols and articles. In addition, Bitner (1992) distinguished between “lean” servicescapes that are “simple, with few components, few areas and few forms”. Sophisticated or “elaborated” servicescapes. The servicescape framework has been considerably applied in numerous retail or leisure service environments. Even though Bitner (1992) discovered the airport as an “intricateservicescape”, travelers’ opinions of the airport servicescape are vaguely incorporated in service quality and traveler fulfilmentquestionnaires (Chen & Chang 2005; Correia, Wirasanghe & De Barros, 2008; De Barros, Somasundaraswaran & Wirasanghe, 2007).
Only few reports approached the investigation of the airport surroundings through Bitner’s framework (Fodness & Murray, 2007; Jeon & Kim, 2012; van Oel & Van den Berkhof, 2013). For example, Fodness and Murray (2007) includedspatial plan and sign and symbols dimensions into one issue named effectiveness, failing to capture contribution of close and aesthetic attributes to the perceptions of airport service quality. Moreover, Jeon and Kim (2012) applied Baker’s (1987) retail surroundings variables on the surroundings of an international airport, linking them to travelers’ emotional reactions and behavioral intentions. As a result, earlier studies clearly portrayed that travelers understand the airport as a flexible service setting wherever the servicescape components contribute to practicality, comfort and also the attractiveness of the structure. Customer behavior analysis projected that customers react showing emotion to aesthetic characteristics of the service surroundings like color, materials, décor and elegance,experiencing gratifying emotions (Baker, 1987). The state of satisfaction is commonly related to a reduction in perceived risk and stress (Chaudhuri, 2012).
Preceding studies on the airport surroundings verified that aviation will be a stressful expertise (McIntosh, Swanson, Power, Raeside & Dempster, 1998). This anxiety isn’t solely associated with flight however also to poor airport organization and procedures (McIntosh, 1990). Therefore, the adequately designed airport surroundings ought to have the potential to cut back a traveler’s anxiety and contribute to a traveler’s enjoyment.
Additionally, opposite customer emotional reactions were shown to possess a special effect on word- of-mouth (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh & Gremler, 2004) as a logical post-purchase behavior that happens when service/product consumption (Richins, 1983). Therefore, it’s very important to examine the link between the emotional responses of enjoyment and anxiety and word- of-mouth within the context of the airport servicescape. The influence of the physical surroundings on customer behavior has typically been neglected in service connected analysis, wherever various aspects of the service surroundings have usually fallen below a single idea, referred to as “tangibles” (Brady & Cronin, 2001). Measure the impact of the service surroundings on customer behavior with a restricted uniform instrument doesn’t offer objective restrictions of the surroundings perceptions. Service environments vary in quality, average time spent and service offered, that makes it harder to generalize the results. AIRPORT INDUSTRY Due to the most recent technology achievements and enhancements in international transport, the tourism business has been dynamic quickly, with an evident increase within the international travel segment. As a matter of fact, economical air transport is predominant for the development of international tourism (Duval, 2007).
In its 2012 World testimony, the airport Council International (2013) named some fascinating trends within the air transport business. Apparently, the rise in travelertransport in 2012 was 4.2% in distinction to the previous year. The quickest growing market was the Asia-Pacific market, whereas the EU market seasoned depreciation and also the North-American market remained fairly stable. because the range of travelers increase annually, airport revenues are growing. In line with Samadi’s (2012) report, the whole airport business revenue for 2012 was around$1.
0 billion, whereas profit magnified to $266.9 million.Nevertheless, virtually 30 minutes of that revenue share was generated within the Asia-Pacific market (International Civil Aviation Organization, 2012). However, five out of ten of the busiest airports within the world treat the North Yankeecontinent (e.g. Hartsfield Jackson Atlanta International airport, Chicago O’Hare International airport, Los Angeles International airport, Dallas/ Fort Worth International airfield and DenverInternational Airport) (Airport Council International-North America, 2012). AIRPORT DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVES When building a brand-new air terminal facility, it’s vital to execute a design that’s each economical and cost-efficient (Odoni Neufville, 1992).
Odoni and de Neufville (1992) first argued that the standard design techniques designed on theoretical formulas were outdated as a result of they are not capturing distinctive issues that occur throughout building construction. As a result, airports fail to enable traveler and baggage traffic within the quickest and most effective manner attainable (Odoni Neufville, 1992). Several airports are change from the “public utility” approach towards a businesslike management strategy, executing commercially thriving operations that improve their performance (Graham, 2005). Such initiatives absolutely have an effect on airport design, gearing it further concerning experiential design, related to a practical orientation. As a result, the leading principle of contemporary terminal design is flexibility (Chambers, 2007; Shuchi, 2012).
Shuchi (2012) remarks flexibility as an important issue for the thriving design of a particularly unpredictable surrounding, like an airport. Compared to traditionally incorrect statement methods, flexibility permits for easier forthcoming extensions of airports, corresponding with the ceaseless growth of traffic (Chambers, 2007). Except for facilitating the longer-term design method, the versatile design approach provides an additional convenient and pleasant traveling expertise (Shuchi, 2012). PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT The impact of the physical surroundings on individuals in service settings was shown to be a stimulating topic amongst students (Baker, 1987; Bitner, 1990; angular distance & Jang, 2010; Hul, Dube, & Chebat, 1997; Reimer & Kuehn, 2005; Ryu, 2010; Ryu & Jang, 2007; Turley & Milliman, 2000; Wakefield & Blodgett, 1996; Wall & Berry, 2007).
Early analysis within the retail expertise domain presented the concept of service setting within the physical surroundings as a vital facet of the customer expertise (Kotler, 1973). Kotler (1973) expected that the atmosphere of the service setting could become a crucial discriminator amongst service suppliers that may influence the customer’s purchase method. sadly, service- related studies often integrated numerous aspects of the physical surroundings into a solitary service quality dimension, “tangibles” (Brady & Cronin, 2001). Before continuing to the empirical proof of the impact that the physical environment has on customer behavior, relevant theories and frameworks that specify the physical surrounding and its dimensions are going to be introduced.
THEORETICAL CONCEPTS OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONEMT The theoretical conception planned by Baker (1987) took an additional step within the classification of retail surroundings qualities by presenting social components that adhere with physical surrounding. In line with Baker’s (1987) analysis, the retail surroundings consist of three groups of stimuli:1. Ambient factors;2. Functional/Aesthetic factors;3. Social factors. Ambient factors embrace contextual conditions like air quality, scent, noise, music and cleanliness.
These issues may also be clarified because the factors that don’t seem to be object of customers’ immediate consciousness. Contrary to ambient factors, design factors see visible stimuli that are within the sphere of customers’ consciousness, like type of architecture, shape, material types and colors. In addition, social factors embody variety, appearance and also the conduct of consumers and service personnel within the surroundings. Thus, Baker (1987) thought about the place of business as a service surroundings wherever physical attributes area unit indivisible from the human issue. As Bitner (1990) further agreed, each physical proof and social proof of the shop surroundings and should have impact on the perceived performance. SERVICESCAPE FRAMEWORK The most manipulated conception in service surroundings analysis, “servicescape” context, highlights that physical environments in any service industry intensely influence each worker and customer.
The term “servicescape” is employed to see the surroundings wherever the service delivery process takes place (Bitner, 1992). Related to the “natural environment” Bitner (1992) outlined “servicescape” as “built or artificial environment”. The servicescape framework recommends three groups of physical proof factors:1. Ambient conditions (air quality, temperature, music, noise, odor, etc.
);2. Spatial layout and functionality (building layout, furniture or equipment arrangement);3. Signs, symbols and artifacts (signage, décor, artifacts). These three scopes have become typically accepted guidelines for the flourishing design of elaborate servicescapes like hotels, restaurants, hospitals, airports, schools, etc. Nonetheless, in her abstract framework, Bitner (1992) didn’t directly include the social facet of the physical surroundings. In line with the framework, each worker and customer understands objective physical factors that initiate their internal perception, emotional and physiological responses. Building on the stimulus-organism-response scheme from environmental psychology that people react to environmental stimuli in two contradictory responses, approach and rejection (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974), Bitner (1992) recommended that individual internal responses to the service surroundings result in either positive (approach) or negative (avoidance) behavior. Moreover, service customers’ internal responses to the service surroundings have the ability to form their judgments of the company’s look and expected service quality.
additionally, Zeithaml et al. (1993) agreed that tangible cues are usually responsible for the expected level of quality within the pre-consumption part. TRAVEL ANXIETY AND ENJOYMENY Reisinger and Mavondo (2005) outlined anxiety as “a subjective feeling that happens as a result of being exposed to actual or impending risk”.
Additionally, anxiety is alleged as a sense of being disturbed, stressed, apprehensive, nervous, scared, uncomfortable, vulnerable, or terrified (McIntyre & Roggenbuck 1998). Different authors have delineated anxiety as a sense of discomfort and frustration (Hullett & Witte, 2001). The keysource of anxiety could be a worry of negative consequences of any behavior (Gudykunst & Hammer, 1988). In client behavior analysis, anxiety is related to the worry of unknown significances that follow a sale (Dowling & Staelin 1994). For this reason, customers assess the danger of purchase behavior and potential consequences. the target of the service supplier is to produce the maximum amount data as possible concerning the potential purchase that might end in reduced client anxiety (Reisinger & Mavondo, 2005). in addition, psychology analysis proposed that the physical surroundings could generate negative outcomes (Evans & McCoy, 1998; Stokols, 1992). As a consequence, some attributes of physical surroundings might be predictors of anxiety.
McIntosh et al. (1996) examined anxieties and fears related to traveling. Similarly, philosopher and Feinsod (1982) detected that travel enjoyment and travel anxiety area unit reciprocally exclusive. moreover, they claimed that transportation suppliers have to be compelled to minimize the psychological and physical stress travelers endure so as to cut back anxiety and improve travel enjoyment. Travel could cause anxiety from many sources. First, relocation could be a well-known cause of psychological stress (Lucas, 1987).
Second, transfers, delays, crowdedness, physical accessibility and navigation area unit a number of the foremost causes of hysteria related to train travel (Cheng, 2010). notwithstanding, the mode of transportation could cause each psychological and physical stress (McIntosh, 1990). The waiting time for the transportation vehicle is a further supply of hysteria (Stradling, Carreno, Rye & Noble, 2007). Finally, the worry of the unknown consequences of travel outcome could cause anxiety. Even though it’s one among the safest modes of transportation, aviation is perceived by travelers because the most dangerous (McIntosh et al., 1998).
The anxiety with aviation isn’t solely restricted to the flight section of the trip (e.g. being in enclosed areas, concern of heights) however also to “delays, airport congestion, airline and security procedures produce anxiety” (McIntosh et al., 1998, p. 198).
However, solely a little variety of previous studies targeted on examining the “ground segment” of air-travel anxiety generators (Hill, 1996). Additionally, the aviation business, travel agents and airport management seldom self-addressed potential ways that to cut back the anxiety related to airports (Gorman & Smith, 1992). The results of dessert apple et al.’s (1998) study indicate that flight delays were the foremost oft rated supply of hysteria. This result’s vital considering that even “take off’ and “landing” segments of flight were less oft mentioned as potential sources of hysteria. However, some travelers would possibly expertise anxiety towards the unknown airfield surroundings (Fewings, 2001). Within state of affairs confusing building design and unclear assemblage wouldn’t facilitate to cut back travel anxiety however may really increase it. Similarly, it’s reportable that counting on the effectiveness of way-finding connected attributes, passengers could have either a trying or gratifying airfield expertise (Cave, Blackler, Popovic, Kraal, 2013).
A number of e-commerce studies have shown a association between enjoyment and a positive looking expertise (Chen & Dubinski, 2003; Sun & Zhang, 2006). Expressed as AN emotional appraisal of the shopping for method, looking enjoyment presents the extent of enjoyment within the looking expertise itself, except for the analysis of the looking outcome within the style of a product (Cai & Xu, 2006). not like anxiety, the spirit of enjoyment has a sway on magnified purchase intention and, therefore, is helpful for the corporate (Davis,Bagozzi , 1992; Huang, 2003).
to boot, enjoyment is related to a discount in perceived risk (Chaudhuri, 2012) And an improvement in perceived quality (Chen & Dubinski, 2003; Mattila & Wirtz, 2001). Building on Mehrabian and Russel’s model (1974) Donovan and Rossiter (1984) connected physical surroundings perceptions and emotional states, suggesting that pleasant perception of the place of business surroundings results in looking enjoyment. any analysis planned that customers react showing emotion to aesthetic characteristics of the service surroundings, like color, materials, décor and elegance, perceiving these attributes as “the extras that contribute to a customer’s sense of enjoyment in experiencing a service” (Baker, 1987, p. 81). in addition, variety of studies confirmed that numerous close cues in commission surroundings, like scent (Spangenberg, Crowley & Henderson; 1996) or music (Dube & Morin, 2001) have a sway on the intensity of client enjoyment. Such results counsel that surrloundings al cues are essential for the emotional outcomes within the service environment. moreover, a pleasant surrounding will doubtless attract folks and build them willing to pay more cash and time (Donovan & Rossiter, 1982). Considering that the aviation business assures passengers that it’s the quickest means that of transport, passengers could typically be aggravated once experiencing drawn-out waits at terminal departure lounges (Han et.
al, 2012; Rowley & Slack, 1999). Therefore, creating apleasant surroundings wherever travelers fancy disbursement time is especially relevant for the airport setting. WORD-OF-MOUTH Word-of-mouth (WOM) will be explained as an oral report that converses consumers’ level of fulfilment or discontent among their associates (Arndt, 1967; Blodgett et al., 1993; Söderlund, 1998). Additionally, Richins (1983) recognized word-of-mouth as a rational post-purchase conduct that happens when service or product consumption. For example, a client who perceived service extremely positively is more willing to exchange a pleasing expertise to prospect customers (Westbrook, 1987).
Within the modern world of net media and communication, word-of-mouth has reached its improvement as a style of online endorsement, better referred to as electronic word-of-mouth(eWOM) (Cheung & Thadani, 2012). Hennig-Thurau et al. (2004, p. 39) outlined eWOM as a “statement created by potential, actual, or former customers a few product or company, that is created out there to a large number of individuals and establishments via the web.” Contrary to oral WOM, eWOM overcomes boundaries of social familiarity and geographical proximity, providing a virtual setting wherever the message will be sent not solely to friends and family, however to any interested client (Cheung & Thadani, 2012).
Previous analysis on WOM within the tourism and hospitality context showed that traveler expectation will increase when reviewing positive recommendations (Diaz, Martin, Iglesias, Vazquez & Ruiz, 2000). On the opposite hand, traveler destinations and service suppliers could expertise difficulties to fulfill such expectations. Similarly, negative WOM tends to severely harm a destination’s image. however, few studies have promoted the influence of design attributes on client behavior within the servicescape (e.g., Bellizzi & Hite, 1992; Bitner, 1992; Crowley, 1993; Iyer, 1989; Smith & Burns, 1996).
Therefore, it’s expected that WOM could be a noteworthy client behavior within the airport servicescape. REFERENCES • Airport Council International (2013, February). World Report February 2013. Retrieved from• https://www.google.
com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDYQFjAA&ur=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aci.aero%2Fmedia%2Fbfe6e703-1eb4-4422ba795a262375e7d9%2FNews%2FWorld%2520Report%2FWorldReport_February_2013_pf• &ei=Awx3Ub6jKs-70AHYxYH4Aw&usg=AFQjCNFYUbQIMLPYsMaNynSBSfc46HItlg&sig2=fOLhCdx• jlozIefehH1H3Ag&bvm=bv.45580626,d.dmQ • Airport Council International-North America (2012).
Airport Traffic Reports: Top 5 busiest• North American Airports-2012 Traffic count. Retrieved from http://www.acina.
org/content/airport-traffic-reports • Baker, J. (1987). The role of the environment in marketing services: The consumer perspective.• In Czepiel, J.
, Congram, C.A. & Shanahan, J. (Eds.), The services challenge: Integrating for competitive advantage (79-84). Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association. • Baker, J., Grewal, D.
, & Parasuraman, A. (1994). The influence of store environment on quality• inferences and store image.
Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(4), 328- 339. • Baker, J., Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D., & Voss, G. B. (2002). The influence of multiple store• environment cues on perceived merchandise value and patronage intentions.
Journal of Marketing, 66(2), 120-141. • Bitner, M. J. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: The effects of physical surroundings and• employee responses. Journal of Marketing, 54(2), 69-82.
• Bitner, M. J. (1992).
Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and• employees. Journal of Marketing, 56(2), 57-71. • Brady, M. K., & Cronin Jr, J. J.
(2001). Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service• quality: a hierarchical approach. Journal of Marketing, 65(3), 34-49. • Chambers, R. D. (2007). Tackling uncertainty in airport design: A real options approach (M.S.
• Thesis), MIT Technology and Policy Program, Cambridge, MA. • Chaudhuri, A. (2012). Emotion and reason in consumer behavior.
Burlington, MA: Elsevier. • Chen, F. Y., & Chang, Y. H. (2005). Examining airline service quality from a process perspective.
Journal of Air Transport Management, 11(2), 79-87. • Dowling, G. R., & Staelin, R. (1994). A model of perceived risk and intended risk-handling activity. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 119-134.
• Fodness, D., & Murray, B. (2007).
Passengers’ expectations of airport service quality. Journal of• Services Marketing, 21(7), 492-506. • Gee, R. (2013, October 2013). How new technology is influencing the design of the future• airport. Future Travel Experience.
Retrieved from• http://www.futuretravelexperience.com/2013/10/new-technology-influencing-designfuture-• airport/ • Graham, A. (2005). Airport benchmarking: a review of the current situation. Benchmarking: An• International Journal, 12(2), 99-111.
• Hullett, C. R., & Witte, K. (2001). Predicting intercultural adaptation and isolation: Using the• extended parallel process model to test anxiety/uncertainty management theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(2), 125-139.
• McIntosh, I. B., Swanson, V., Power, K.
G., Raeside, F., & Dempster, C. (1998). Anxiety and• health problems related to air travel.
Journal of Travel Medicine, 5(4), 198-204. • McIntyre, N., & Roggenbuck, J. W.
(1998). Nature/person transactions during an outdoor• adventure experience: A multiphasic analysis. Journal of Leisure Research, 30(4), 401-• 422. • Shuchi, S., Drogemuller, R., & Kleinschmidt, T. (2012).
Flexible airport terminal design:• towards a framework. In Proceedings from the IIE Asian Conference 2012 (348-356).• Singapore, Singapore: Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, NUS. • van Oel, C. J., & Van den Berkhof, F.
W. (2013). Consumer preferences in the design of airport• passenger areas. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 280-290.1