Introduction then be used to convert the carbon

Introduction The first isolation of glucose was conducted by Andreas Marggraf in 1747 when he experimented on raisins. The name glucose was first used in 1838 by a man named Jean Dumas, from the Greek word, glycos(to be sugary or sweet), and this structure was discovered by a man named Emil Fischer around the beginning of the century. There are, in fact, 2 forms of glucose, formally known as Alpha and Beta. In fact, the full name for common glucose is D-(+)-glucose, and its correct name (using the IUPAC naming system for organic molecules) is (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanal. The chemical structure of glucose can vary between two types, Alpha(Figure 1) and Beta(Figure 2). As for the chemical and physical properties of glucose, there are many. Glucose can posses the form of a  solid or liquid. Glucose has a melting point of 294.8?F or 146?C. The density of glucose is 1.54 g/cm³ and it can weigh up to 180.16 g/mol. Glucose is also soluble in water and acetic acid.Figure 1, Glucose Alpha(Celinejsp, February 2013)                             Figure 2, Glucose Beta(Anna Seager, May 2010)SynthesisGlucose can be synthesised through what is known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a method that plants use in which they take energy from sunlight and it can then be used to convert the carbon dioxide and water in the air into molecules needed to feed the plants and allow them to grow. This can only happen at anytime under most conditions (besides rain and snow). These molecules include many different sugars, enzymes and of course chlorophyll. Light energy is taken in and absorbed by a  green chemical known as chlorophyll which allows the production of glucose by water and carbon dioxide reacting together. Oxygen is also produced as a waste product and that is what we breath. Some glucose can also be converted to lactic acid by astrocytes, which is then utilized as an energy source by brain cells.(Figure 3)Figure 3, Overall equation for the type of photosynthesis that occurs in plants (Wikipedia, January 2018)ActionChemical reactions of glucose have been around for a while. For many years now, analysis of glucose contained in the blood and urine were completed by a procedure involving the use of an alkaline copper compound. Since this  reaction has features that would not attract the eye of the common scientist—extensive destruction and breaking down of the carbohydrate structure begins, and the reaction can vary (i.e., sugars other than glucose give results that are similar) and does not result in the formation of products immediately identifiable. Blood and urinary glucose can know be analyzed by using a enzyme glucose oxidase, which can cause the oxidation of glucose to products that, of course, include the hydrogen peroxide molecule. The hydrogen peroxide then is used to oxidize a sort of dye present in the reaction mixture. the intensity of the colour is based on the amount of glucose was added to the formula. The enzyme, glucose oxidase, is highly specific for ?-d-glucose. However inside the body, the reaction is different. Glucose is a type of carbohydrate, obtained through digestion of food that one may eat. Digestion breaks food down into small molecules. These molecules can be absorbed across the wall of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Glucose carried around the body is later dissolved into blood plasma, the pale yellow liquid part of our blood the carries many different nutrients. The dissolved glucose can then break off into the cells of the body from the capillaries. Once in the cell glucose can be used in respiration. (Figure 4)                Figure 4, Digestion of Glucose (Dr. Dennis, March 2014)Society Impacts Glucose is a biomolecule very important for the cells in our body to survive. Body cells rely on glucose to fill many of their energy needs, and brain cells are almost completely depend on glucose to give them the energy they need. Glucose can have positive effects on one’s body, for example helping someone with diabetes by bringing their blood sugar level up. However with those positive effects negative ones can also occur. Levels of glucose rising at an alarming rate in the blood can lead to negative effects. For example, if someone eats a meal that contains a high concentration of sugar or starch and low in fiber, protein or fat, the glucose levels in their blood will increase quickly and dramatically. This can lead to what is known as rapid hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, and a “sugar crash,” which most people find will be followed up by feelings of nausea and fatigue. Ways to reduce the negative effects of overdosing on glucose i include:ExerciseIngesting the right amount of fiberEat a healthy breakfast each morningAnd getting enough Alpha Lipoic Acid and ChromiumRelated CareersOne career option someone with a passion more microbiology would be able to get into would be a doctor who specializes in diabetic care, also known as diabetic management. It involves restoring carbohydrate metabolism to its normal and healthy state. To achieve such a goal, individuals who absolutely lack all of the insulin they need, may require insulin replacement therapy, which is given through injections or an insulin pump. Insulin resistance, in contrast, can be corrected by modifications to one’s diet and exercise. Other goals to manage one’s diabetes could be to prevent or treat the complications that can result from the diabetic disease and from the treatment from said disease. Those interested in the use and treatment of glucose in plants may want to follow the path of microbiology and join schools such as Duke University Medical School to further their path in microbiology.


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