INTRODUCTION to the cathode material using lithium nickel


New energy vehicles have
been developed in recent years. With the development of society, the progress
of science and technology, the car already is a must for every family in the
daily life. But the growth of cars has resulted in the reduction of oil resources
in the world and the destruction of the environment. Therefore, the search for
pollution-free or low pollution green vehicles has become a basic national
policy of all countries. The development of new energy vehicles is an effective
way to solve the problems of energy and environmental protection in the world
and is the inevitable choice for the sustainable development of world’s
automobile industry. In today’s world, there are two new energy
vehicles are the most popular, one is China’s BYD, the other is the United
States’ Tesla.


The batteries of new energy vehicles are the most important part of new energy vehicles. BYD and Tesla batteries are not the same. Tesla: The battery cathode material as a naming way, ternary lithium battery called “ternary polymer lithium battery,” refers to the cathode material using lithium nickel cobalt acid lithium ternary polymer. ernary polymer lithium battery refers to the cathode material using lithium nickel cobalt lithium manganese (Li (NiCoMn) O2) ternary cathode material, ternary composite cathode material precursor products, nickel salts, cobalt salts, manganese salts As raw materials, the proportion of nickel, cobalt and manganese inside can be adjusted according to actual needs, ternary material as the positive battery lithium cobalt oxide batteries with high safety, but the voltage is too low.(Ternary polymer lithium battery and other electronic products used in laptops, after being used in the field of electric vehicles.)BYD: BYD new energy vehicles that is the technology of mature lithium iron phosphate battery. Lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium iron phosphate is used as the cathode material of lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion battery cathode materials are mainly lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, lithium nickel oxide, ternary materials, such as lithium iron phosphate. Among them, lithium cobalt oxide is the most cathode material used by most lithium-ion batteries. Developed iron-powered batteries, a driving force for electric vehicles. Lithium iron phosphate battery in the safety performance and dynamic performance have great protection and promotion, 0 to 100km / h acceleration time of about 8 seconds, a charge of driving range of 300Km to 400Km above. The lithium iron phosphate crystals P-O bond solid, difficult to break down, even at high temperatures or overcharge will not be the same as lithium cobalt oxide structure collapse heat or the formation of strong oxidizing substances, so have good safety. Some reports pointed out that in practice, acupuncture or short-circuit test found that a small part of the sample combustion phenomenon, but did not appear an example of an explosion, and overcharge test using its own discharge voltage is much higher than several times the high-voltage charge found that there are still Explosion phenomenon. Nevertheless, its overcharge safety compared to ordinary liquid electrolyte lithium cobalt oxide battery, has greatly improved. Long-life lead-acid battery cycle life of about 300 times, the highest will be 500 times, and lithium iron phosphate battery life cycle up to 2000 times the standard charge (5 hours) use, up to 2000 times. The same quality of lead-acid batteries is “a new six months, the first half of six months, maintenance and six months,” up to 1 to 1.5 years, and lithium iron phosphate batteries in the same conditions, the theoretical life expectancy will reach 7 to 8 years. Lithium iron phosphate peak heat up to 350 ? -500 ? and lithium manganese oxide and lithium cobalt oxide only around 200 ? wide operating temperature range. (-20 ? – +75 ?), high temperature characteristics of lithium iron phosphate peak heat up to 350 ? -500 ? and lithium manganese oxide and lithium cobalt oxide only around 200 ?. It has a larger capacity than ordinary batteries (lead-acid, etc.). Lithium iron phosphate battery rechargeable battery is often in full condition, the capacity will quickly lower than the rated capacity value, a phenomenon called memory effect. Like nickel-metal hydride, nickel-cadmium batteries exist memory, and lithium iron phosphate batteries without this phenomenon, no matter what the state of the battery can be used with the charge without having to put the first recharge. The capacity of the same size lithium iron phosphate battery size is 2/3 of the volume of lead-acid batteries, the weight of lead-acid batteries 1/3. Lithium iron phosphate batteries are generally considered to contain no heavy metals and rare metals (nickel-metal hydride batteries need rare metals), non-toxic (SGS certification passed), pollution-free, in line with European RoHS regulations for the absolute green battery certificate. Lithium iron phosphate batteries also have shortcomings: for example, low-temperature performance is poor, the cathode material tap density is small, the capacity of lithium iron phosphate batteries larger than lithium-ion batteries such as lithium-ion batteries, and so the micro-batteries do not have the advantage. When used in power batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, like other batteries, need to face the battery consistency issues. FEATURES

There are some new things in the new energy vehicle:

1. The car body is made of high strength composite material. The
composite material is made by aluminum, carbon fiber (kind of polymers), and
ceramic material. These materials are able to make car’s weight light, and the
structure of car is strong.

      2. AI driving. If you feel too tired to drive,
you can rest assured of using AI driving. There are more than 100
microcomputers in the car, 360 degrees around the car. These microcomputers
like radar, they are able to sense the changes around the car.

      3. Integrated
Full Electric Propulsion. This car is using electric power. It’s more
environmental, and save money. We’ll send a charging device to you, it is made
by C60 (a superconducting material). Charging the car only a few seconds.



 Usually, there
are two types of batteries are used in car. The primary battery cells have a
limited life time cycle. However the secondary batteries used in the electric
vehicles are reusable, which makes them more profitable when compare to other
ones. This kind of batteries are found in the center of the car, which helps to
balance the overall weight of the vehicle. The secondary rechargeable batteries
are also known as “T-shaped batteries” due to the place where it is situated.

Normally the batteries for the electric cars are made
using the combination of various metals such as nickel – zinc, nickel –iron,
lead-acid and zinc- chloride. The 40% overall weight of the vehicle contains
the electric propulsion system and the secondary battery. There are two power
plants in the hybrid automobile, which perform according to the conditions. In
this hybrid automobile, it contains a combination of internal combustion and
electric engine.


The manufacturing process of electric cars is a
combination of various raw materials to produce the result. The main material
used to build car’s skeleton named ‘Space Frame’ is Aluminum. One of the
advantage of Aluminum metal is light weight. An impact resistant plastic is
used to make the main body of the vehicle, which can be recycled in the future.
Moreover, the heart of the steering wheel and seat frames are made using
magnesium, also a lightweight metal.

The traction or motor system is made using a
combination of plastic and metal. The tires used in the electric cars are
differ from the gasoline cars. They are designed to avoid higher pressure,
which helps to conserve the energy and decrease the resistance. In order to
prevent from overheating, the windshield is made up of solar glass.


of electric cars


cars are well- known for the advantages, when compare to the normal ones. They
are usually known as ‘Green Cars’, due to the zero emission of carbon dioxide
(CO2) gas. Carbon diode gas is considered as one of the main reason
behind air pollution.


electric cars are more efficient than gasoline cars, from various studies, it
is clear that electric cars are 80% efficient in the performance. On the other
hand, gasoline cars release major percentage
as useless heat energy, it resulted in reducing the efficiency in normal cars.
instance, ‘Tesla’, one of the top brand in electric car market claims that it
cost around only 1000 $ for thirty thousand running. But for the same distance,
it costs five times the normal cost for the gasoline cars.


 Moreover, maintenance is one of the major
problems fixed in the car manufacturing sector. The customer has to spend a lot
of money in the day to day maintenance for the car. Electric cars are operated
by using electrically generated a result, customer don’t need to
lubricate the engines.

noise pollution

they create less noise pollution because the carbic used on electric cars are
quitter than the gasoline gas. This helps them to be a better option for a long
distance with high acceleration.

Disadvantages of electric

recharge time

for gasoline cars, it takes just few minutes to fill the fuel. But for electric
cars it takes 4-6hrs to complete the charging process.


is one of the prime component the electric should be replaced
periodically of 3-10 hours, which might be an extra burden for the customer.

driving distance

of the limitation is the range of driving distance. Basically, a customer can
drive an electric car around 100miles with full charging. therefore, they need
to charge the car for future might be difficult for long distance


order to manufacture the electric car team members, require some specific skills.
They must know how to use computer aided design packages. Also, they should
have the ability to solve the engineering problem involving mechanical, electrical,
hydraulic, thermodynamic or pragmatic principle. Moreover, members will be
preparing the expenses. Various kinds of materials, reports and estimated time
to produce the parts. furthermore, they need to find the mechanical failures
and unexpected damages happen in the manufacturing process. The effective time
management and organization help to produce the part more accurately, it is
really a fast-pashed work environment. Therefore, team member may work on
traditional assembly line, which is called lee manufacturing system. From all this,
it is clear that members various multitasking skills.


we talking about cars, we would say gasoline cars at the beginning. As time
goes by, new energy vehicles are becoming reality, especially electric cars.
Chevrolet Volt, Tesla Model S, 3 and X and many other electric cars, some of
them are hybrid, too. However, will electric cars last long and becoming a
cheaper and better kind of vehicle rather than gasoline cars?

The first factor of
electric vehicle is their batteries. Prices are the important part of the whole
things. From what specialists said, prices of batteries are becoming cheaper
and cheaper, “battery prices are headed below the magic $150 per kilowatt-hour in
the next decade” (Hwang, 2016). Due to rapidly fall of the prices of electric
vehicles’ batteries, factories are investing more and more kinds of electric
vehicles to make sure when electric vehicles enter the market wide like normal
gasoline cars, they can earn more and win this price match. When the price of
batteries been decreased, the next problem of electric vehicles is the range.
Differ from gasoline vehicles, electric vehicles need more time to charge and
more times to charge than gasoline vehicles if they both travel the same
distance. Nowadays, electric vehicles can travel more than 200 miles (Tesla
Model S) and the standard 75D costs $96650, which is far more money than buying
a Honda Accord hybrid. Even for the new Tesla Model 3, it costs almost the same
as Honda Accord. Thus it cannot use free Tesla supercharger, the price is still
a little bit high at a standard vehicle level.

The next thing is the
charging. According to Tesla, they provide charging stations in plazas and in
underground parking lots, or costumers could purchase adapters for charging.
Both of them need to pay extra money, which is cheaper than gasoline, exactly.
Use charging station would provide electric in high voltage and half price of
the same distance which gasoline can drive.

To enlarge the mileage
the electric vehicles could drive, solving batteries is the most important
part. Changing materials to make sure the battery can store more electricity
for long range drive. “Range
is an important issue because so-called “range anxiety” is a major
factor limiting public acceptance of electric vehicles. People are afraid they won’t be able to travel very far or
that they’ll get stuck on the side of the road” (Shipman, 2016). As a result,
Matt Shipman, who posted researches of developing electric vehicles’ battery by
researchers at North Carolina State University. It is a new, smaller, lighter
and more efficient type of battery. If this kind of battery would been sell on
market, the efficiency of electric and hybrid vehicles will increase, which
means more mileage (and cheaper). And researches are using silicon carbide
(SiC) to develop the components of battery. “Our
silicon carbide prototype inverter can transfer 99 percent of energy to the
motor, which is about two percent higher than the best silicon-based inverters
under normal conditions” (Shipman, 2016), said Iqbal Husain, he also comments,
“Equally important, the silicon carbide inverters can be smaller and lighter
than their silicon counterparts, further improving the range of electric
vehicles” (Shipman, 2016). For energy saving, scientists and autoworkers can
create a flow, which can not only save electricity from moving wheels, but also
restore the electricity flowed in the engine or other machines used
electricity, back into the battery, when engine stops. “‘Instead of refining
petroleum, the refiners would reprocess spend electrolytes and instead of
dispensing gas, the fueling stations would dispense a water and ethanol or
methanol solution as fluid electrolytes to power vehicles,’ Cushman said.
‘Users would be able to drop off the spend electrolytes at gas stations, which
would then be sent in bulk to solar farms, wind turbine installations or
hydroelectric plants for reconstitution or re-charging into the viable
electrolyte and reused many times. It is believed that our technology could be
nearly ‘drop-in’ ready for most of the underground piping system, rail and
truck delivery system, gas station and refineries” (Purdue University 2017).
This kind of fluid will be reused in a solar farm or hydroelectric plant for
re-charging. This is convenient and saved more energy on charging and
recharging energy into the fluid. And to say more, with this kind of fluid, battery
would be protected and maintained to last longer. 




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