IntroductionBio-fertilizerBio-fertilizer is a substance which contains live orlatent cells of micro-organisms which are applied to seeds or plants or soilsto fix different nutrients and make available to the plant.
There are differenttypes of bio fertilizers used like Azatobactor, Acetobactor, Azospirrilum, PSb,KSB etc. RhizobiumRhizobiums are symbiotic bacteria that fixatmospheric N gas in plant root nodules and have a mutually helpfulrelationship with their host plants. The plant roots supply essential mineralsand newly synthesized substances to the bacteria. Azotobacters It is freeliving and non-symbiotic nitrogen fixing organism that also produces certainsubstances good for the growth of plants and antibodies that suppress many rootpathogens.
Azotobacter can also produce antifungal compounds to fight againstmany plant pathogens. AzospirillumThis is also a nitrogen-fixing micro organismbeneficial for non-leguminous plants. Azospirillum transcend nitrogenenrichment through production of growth promoting substances. Phosphate-solubilizingbacteria (PSB) Under acidic or calcareous soil conditions, largeamounts of phosphorus are fixed in the soil but are unavailable to the plants.
Phosphobacterins can make insoluble phosphorus available to the plant. Vesiculararbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) VAM fungi infect and spread inside the root. Theypossess special structures known as vesicles and arbuscules. The plant rootstransmit substances to the fungi, and the fungi aid in transmittin gnutrientsand water to the plant roots. Bio-Fertilizer in India Major Companies In Bio-Fertilizer Business1. Coromandel Fertilizers2. Hindustan Biotech3.
Ajay Biotech4. Tata Rallies5. Saraswati Agro6. International Biotech7.
Amar Biotech8. Biostadt9. KVK’s Profileof Baramati Taluka – The total geographicalarea (TGA) of Baramati tahsil is 1382 sq. km., which is about 8.80 percent ofTGA of the Pune district.
The population ofBaramati as per the census of 2011 is 54,415. among them about 28 thousand(51%) are male and about 27 thousand (49%) are female. Thepopulation of baramati is mostly depend on the agriculture for the major incomesource.
The land of the baramati region is well irrigated because of the Niraleft canal, Nira river and karhamai river. Themajor crops grown in the area are Sugarcane. Jowar, Wheat, Maize, Grapes andPomegranate. Among this Sugarcane is the major crop because there are threesugar factories namely Chatrapati sugar factory in Bhavani-Nagar, MalegaonCo-op sugar factory Malegaon and Someshwar sugar Factory someshwarNagar.
Alongwith that due to the presence of KVK near baramati is helping a farmer throughvarious new technologies and solutions which is the great contributor in theagricultural development of Baramati .Major Crops Name of Crop Percent area Jowar 20 Sugarcane 21.25 Bajara 19.2 Wheat 15.
76 Fodder crops 12.71 Oilseeds 2.85 Pulses 3.08 Fruits 4 Vegetables 2 List of Villages in Baramati Tehsil Review of LiteratureNaidu et al. (2002) recorded the influence oforganic manures, chemical and biofertilizers on growth, yield and economics ofbrinjal. They observed that organic manure when applied in conjunction withAzospirillum yielded greater number of fruits with higher girth over nitrogenwith organic manure. It is due tobetter mobilization of plant nutrients particularly N and P during later stageof plant growth.
It was also noticed that application of organic manure incombination with Azospirillum yielded at par with N from organic manure. Sharma (2002) studied the effect of Azospirillum anddifferent doses of nitrogen on yield of cabbage. The treatments included 3levels of biofertilizers and 4 levels of nitrogen. Azospirillum applicationsignificantly increased the number and weight of non-wrapper leaves per plant,head length and width, gross and net weight of head per plant and yield/ha.
Atreatment combination of Azospirillum application with 60 kg N/ha resulted inmaximum yields/ha with benefit : cost ratio 2.9. In a study conducted by Devi et al. (2003) oncabbage, it was revealed among the various treatments including application ofpoultry manure and biofertilizers with Azospirillum brassilense could save 25per cent nitrogen where cost benefit ratio was 1:4.30. Gupta and Samnotra (2004) reported 25 per centreduction in nitrogen application when Azotobacter and Azospirillum were usedas the organic source of nitrogen in cabbage.
Research Problem1. Due to excess use of chemicalfertilizers the lands are degrading day by day.2.
Environment is getting affected due touse of chemical fertilizers3. So there is need of find out thechallenges and opportunities for use of Bio-fertilizers.Objectives1. To find out how many farmers are usingthe Bio-fertilizers2. To study farmers awareness aboutBio-fertilizers3.
To find out the challenges for use ofBio-fertilizers in Baramati Region4. What are the opportunities forBiofertilizer in the study area Backgroundof the StudyAfterGreen Revolution in India the agricultural production booms at a very high ratedue to the use of chemical fertilizers and new varieties. From that time thewhole India diverted to the use of chemicals in agriculture and it benefitted alot, but it showing the negative impact of that in current situation onproductivity of land, Degradation of land, Quality of produce etc.But the dependence ofagriculture on chemical uses will harm the agriculture to a greater extent andloss the soil quality.For that the Governmentof India promoting the use of Bio-fertilizers in agriculture.
TheseBio-fertilizers have multiple benefits on the soil and it is also easy to useand cheaper in price.These Bio-fertilizersare naturally occurring in nature and used 100 years ago as a naturallyoccurring manure, In ancient times farmers were using but they don’t know thecomposition but they use to apply in field and they known its benefits.But in recent years theagriculture is went towards chemicals which are synthetic and prepared in thechemical laboratories, it increased a yield but in recent 10 years it isshowing negative impact on different factors like soil, environment, humanhealth, animal health and on futuregrowth also.Due to that the farmersare again interested in Bio-fertilizers as a option for synthetic chemicalfertilizers. Research Methodology The study includes thefarmers survey against the Awareness, use, problems in Bio-fertilizers use wascarried out in Month of December 2017.The topic was selectedwith the discussion with mentor with the some objectives. Objectives of surveyare to find the awareness and use of Bio-fertilizers in the Baramati region. Sources of DataPrimary and Secondarydata is collected to meet the specified objectives of the research Primary DataPrimary data werecollected from the farmers of different villages with the help of Questionnaire.
The questions like Land holding, Crops grown, Bio-fertilizers using or not,reasons for not using ofBio-fertilizers, which Bio-fertilizers used, Reasons, Benefits ofBio-fertilizer using, Awareness of Bio-fertilizers etc. And also asked for their suggestions onBio-fertilizers and what needs to be done to improve the use ofBio-fertilizers.Secondary DataSecondary data aboutBio-fertilizers were collected from different websites, government websites,pages and research papers to know the sector very well and to see the what happened in the recent years. Sampling MethodFor the researchBaramati region has been selected and from Baramati taluka 10 villages has beenselected and from each village 15 farmers were selected randomly for the study. Sample sizeFrom the Baramatiregion randomly 10 villages has been selected and from each village 15 farmersselected on random basis.So total sample size is150 farmers for the study as a representative sample.
Research MethodA structuredquestionnaire were prepared with the help of faculty mentor to record theinformation given by the farmers . Questionnaire was filled by myself as perinformation given by the farmers. Tools used for Analysis1. Microsoft Excelfor entry of Data2. Use of differentcharts and bars to show the results. Data AnalysisIn baramati region nearabout 80% land under the use of chemical fertilizers and remaining 20% is underthe use of Bio-fertilizers.Land Holding of Farmers Name Land Holding Marginal <1 Ha Small 1-2 Ha Medium 2-5 Ha Large >5 Ha The graph shows that themaximum farmers having land holding of small (less than 1 Ha) i.
e. 55%45% farmers havingmedium land holding i.e.2-5 Ha.The land holding ismore per farmer in the baramati region due to the very well irrigationfacilities, market availability, due to this farmers having more land holding.
These large farmers are come under the innovators in rogers model so thesefarmers can use Bio-fertilizers in the future.Users and Non-users of Biofertilizers It shows that there areonly 23% farmers are using Bio-fertilizers which are medium and large farmers.And 77% farmers are notusing Bio-fertilizers because of many reasons like non awareness, Availabilityetc.But there are goodopportunities for fertilizer companies to cater to this segment. Which Companies Bio-fertilizers Using In baramati regionmaximum farmers using the Bio-fertilizers of KVK Baramati because the maximumawareness made by them and every farmer is connected with KVK.
The other companieshaving very little share in Bio-fertilizers.Baramati KVK isproviding guidance along with Bio-fertilizers that’s why the farmers are moreusing the KVK given products . Reasons for Using Biofertilizers