ISS Exam 3
Living under the British rule
The modern history of Singapore began in 1819 when Englishman, Sir Thomas Raffles established a British port on the island. Under British colonial ule, it grew in importance as a centre for both the India-China trade and the entrepôt trade in Southeast Asia, rapidly becoming a major port city.

 

Person credited for founding the country
Sir Thomas Raffles
Percentage of women have trouble finding husbands
40%
Abortion is legal, but only in the first two trimesters (six months) of pregnancy (exact time frames vary) 
Reasons for abortion
•Life to save the life of the mothe•Health to preserve the physical health of the mother•Mental to preserve the mental health of the mother•Rape in cases of rape and incest•Defect when the unborn child has medical problems or birth defects Social for social and/or economic reasons, e.g. if the mother cannot afford to support a child•Demand available on demand, no reason need be given

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0pt; font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family: "Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US;”>Family make-up

Today, about 78% of families in Singapore are made up of parents and children only; Traditionally, people in Southeast Asia lived in extended families; two children is enough however 3 or more, if you can afford it; Family means one man and one woman with children.
Private property 
home ownership is extremely rare.

Most people live in high rise apartments leased through the government.  Because Singapore is surrounded by water there is no where to go but up

Housing policies 
British Settlers claimed the best lands and the best houses in Singapore 
Religion that is banned
Jehovah’s Witness
Education system
Programs to control the growth of uneducated population
 I think it is 1979 education reform(school emphasizing testing and tracking)
Programs to encourage marriage between educated couples
Social Development Unit; Graduate Mother’s Scheme(higher edu=better mothers)
The richest natural starch to exist (found in Micronesia)
arrow root
Impact of the nuclear age
Nuclear families slept in separate thatched or plywood sleeping houses.
Abortion regulations
The government has no official position on the issue
Who is considered family in the Marshall Islands
grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins and far-flung relatives
Hierarchy of parenting
1.

Help Reach Potential2. Build Self Esteem3. Provide Social Belonging4. Train for future survival5. Provide for basic needs6. Protect members from danger 

Importance of certain foods in Micronesia
– Sharing food is one of the most salient aspects of life in Micronesia, Certain foods assume a special status during feasts and are considered essential, Pigs, yams, and sakau (a psychoactive beverage made from a local root)
Gift the perspective groom gives his future father-in-law
a whales tooth
Many laps to sit on
Children were cared for, disciplined, and emotionally supported by a large group of caregivers
Tattooing
tattoos were common among men and women before the missionaries arrived
The battle between the U.S. military and the Japanese that resulted in the capture of the Marshall Island
Japanese occupied the Marshall Islands, The Marshall archipelago was added to the U.

S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, along with several other island groups in the South Sea.

Marriage rules
Marriage between couples of different cultures is often complicated and difficult to sort out. Interfaith marriages will not be recognized by the government unless on the partners converts to the others religion. Interfaith marriages will not be recognized by the government unless on the partners converts to the others religion 
Community settings and patterns of living
Rumah gadang (big house); live with extended family; The uncle on the mother’s side, however, is the head of the household
Importance of family
Like many Eastern cultures, Indonesian follows a tradition in which the extended family is as important if not more important, than the nuclear family
Religious courts
courts for Muslims paid by gov.
Parenting styles
The mother is the dominate authority figure in the family; Authoritarian; Do not encourage independence in the child; Older Indonesian children are being defiant of their parents strict parenting style.

Term for commingling of cultural traditions and religion in family life
Idul Fitri
First Chinese to immigrate
Hokkienese
The Prebumi
The indigenous people of Indonesia. When the Chinese migrated to Indonesia and were basically merchants, the Prebumi looked down on them
Civil courts
Non-muslims go here (pengadilan negeri) 
Marga
If a couple has the same surname (marga) they cannot marry
Same sex marriages
Indonesian same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are not eligible for the same legal protections available to opposite-sex married couples. Illegal in most places.
Endorses the matrilineal system of Islam
The Minangkabau, who are called the Minang or Padang
Birth control policies
In 1958 the IPPA mission was to maintain the health of the women and and teach about birth control.

The new National Family Planning Program is limited to married couples because religious norms restrict unmarried people from such services.   It began sex ed classes in the schools.  

Prevalent parenting style
Authoritarian
Amnesty International reaction to new by law endorsing stoning and canning
demanded that a new Indonesian bylaw that endorses stoning to death for adultery and caning of up to 100 lashes for homosexuality should be repealed immediately
Education in Japan
Compulsory, free nine year school followed by private upper school, intense parent involvement, Many students attend a special tutorial program after the regular school day and on weekends.

Recent divorce laws
a wife will receive half of the assets of the husband.
Term for responsibility for caring for parents
Filial Piety
Parenting style
When the children are young the parents seem to indulge them; They felt children should do whatever they wanted to do while they are young
Term for gift when visiting a home
omiyage
After school tutoring
juku
Type of marriage system during the aristocracy
Muko
Outcomes of the one child policy
spoiled children4 Grandparents 2 Parents1 Child (no aunts, uncles, cousins) 
First leader of the Nationalist Government 
Sun Yatsen
Method used by the U.S.

to move supplies to the Chinese

Burma Road, Airstrips were built in China by the Chinese for U.S. bombers to land and take off in bombing raids against the Japanese
Rules imposed during the Cultural Revolution
Launched in 1966; Goal was to remove all signs of the past “liberal bourgeoisie”; Reasons for Mao’s Cultural Revolution: 1) Return the country to basic principles of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), 2) Feared capitalism was “creeping” into the common way of life; Appealed to the many students in China; Orders to remove and destroy and signs of art and object from Dynasties; All signs and products representing Western culture were forbidden and destroyed; If you criticized Moa in any way; they would humiliated you in public
Number of families living with 3 generations living in the same space
1/3
First western powers to arrive in the country
Portuguese established a foothold in Macao (Opium)
Significance of color after the birth of a child
A lucky color in China is RED; China the color red is used in marriage celebrations, New Year’s decorations and money envelopes and when a child is born eggs are dyed red and given to the guests?  Next time you see a red egg smile and appreciate the new life that is being celebrated
The battle of the Xiang River
During the Long March of the 3rd Army, it was a major defeat for the Red Army
The Great Leap Forward
Change China from an Agrarian society to a manufacturing economy; Government would buy crops at a low price and resell them to the population at a higher price; Millions of Chinese starved to death
Mosuo culture
       Matrilineal family systems- Mother in charge; if mom dies another mother will come in and run the family; live with extended family and adopt other children; father does not need to be involved in child’s life.       Walking marriage- men walk to the house of their ‘partner’ at night, but return to their own home in the morning; Traditionally, a Mosuo woman who is interested in a particular man will invite him to come and spend the night with her in her room. Such pairings are generally conducted secretly
Know the Caste systems and roles of each
1.     Brahmins: The learned and the educated elite; the guardians of the Vedas 2.     Kshatriyas: The noble warriors, defenders of the realm3.

     Vaishyas: The traders, businessmen, farmers, and money lenders4.     Sudras: Their main function is to serve the needs of the upper three.

Role of the Indian National Congress
was independence from British rule
Marriages rituals
On the wedding morning the couples’ bodies are anointed with spices ( turmeric, sandalwood paste, and oils to cleanse the body, soften the skin and make it aromatic.The day before the wedding the palm and feet of the bride are decorated at the “Mendhi”.
Role of dowry
is the payment in cash or/and kind by the bride’s family to the bridegroom’ s family along with the giving away of the bride; often results in abuse or burning of women if family runs out of money; it is illegal since 1961 but still highly practiced; The bride’s family is also giving away the bride (called Kanyadaan) in Indian marriage; The groom often demands a dowry consisting of a large sum of money, farm animals, furniture and electronics; When the woman brings less than the negotiated amount, she has to endure constant torture from her in-laws after marriage; When the husband or in-laws are not satisfied with the dowry brought by the bride, they may even go so far as to kill the woman after marriage; The most severe among all the dowry abuse is “bride burning.” The parties engaged in the murder usually report the case as an accident or suicide.  
Implications of Karma
1.

The Law of Karma is not concerned with consequences in general, but with consequences that affect the individual 2. The Law of Karma applies specifically to the moral sphere 3. The Law of Karma is supreme moral quality is the assertion that the person not only deserves the consequences of his or her actions, but is unable to avoid experiencing them. 4. Moral quality is the assertion that the person not only 

Only textual source for understanding religious life
Vedic means “sacred knowledge” or “learning” in Sanskrit.

Hinduism and concepts of deities (God/gods)
Hinduism has neither a single prophet nor one god to worship; Hindus believe in a supreme being who has unlimited forms
Conditions under which a bride is accepted as the wife
The bride takes care to enter the house with her right foot first, to complete a ritual of gently kicking over a paddy as a symbol of plenty for her new family
Skanskrit word that reflects the ultimate spiritual goal
Moksha, a Sanskrit word, reflects the ultimate spiritual goal– the individual soul’s release from the individual soul’s release from the bonds of transmigration (they don’t keep going)
HIV/AIDS history and rate
20 years ago the first AIDS case was diagnosed in India; Infections rates are far below those of of sub-Saharan Africa; At the beginning 1986, India had no reported cases of HIV or AIDS; Later in 1986, the first cases of HIV were diagnosed amoung sex workers By the end of the 1980s’ a rapid spread of HIV was observed among injecting drug users in three north-eastern states of India, bordering Myanmar (Burma) in Chennai, Tamil Nadu; Most of the cases occurred through heterosexual sex; In 1992 the government set up NACO ( the National AIDS Control Organization) to oversee the formulation of policies, prevention work and control programs relating to HIV and AIDS; Globally, India is second only to South Africa in terms of overall numbers of people living with HIV and AIDS; Of the 5.1 million Indians living with HIV 38% are women
Term for marriage altar
The Mandapam
Widows in India
Widows in India If the husband dies at a distant place, the widow is nonetheless to be burned alive on a pyre by herself; If she is young widow, she is considered a major threat; By outliving her husband, the widow is left unprotected and uncontrolled by a male counterpart; In some areas of India, the widow has her head shaved, stripped of her bangles, and must wear white to identify her as a widow; The are shunned by the general public.  It is considered bad future if she were to even glance on other women       Sati-means “a good virtuous woman”; a women who burns herself; she does so to go to heaven and be with husband, ect.; is when a wife will suicide upon her husband’s death, most often burning herself, so she is not a burden to the society; This practice is now outlawed, but was once popular general not practiced       Consequences If the widow does not have a son or if the family of the deceased husband does not want to support her, her option is an ashram or prostitution; Holy cities for widows: Numerous widows are turned out from their homes or treated/beaten so badly they fled to the holy cities of Vrindavan, Mathura, and Varanasi to await death
Strategy for natives to gain status with the British
India supported the British army in their fight against the Japanese after the attack on Pearl Harbor; Some Indians from the Nationalist Party took this opportunity to fight with Germany and Japan in an attempt to gain independence from Britain.

 

Women and the power they are thought to have
mother-in-law rules the house; oldest sister and oldest son marry=high power for women; women do not posses an identity of her own; Women are seen to have a special place in families as a repository of family honor– from their own home as a daughter, of their husband’s family as a wife and mother; The implication is that if a woman behaves in a in a dishonorable fashion she will ruin the family forever; Hindus believe that women have more psychic energy and stronger sex drives than men because of their ability to give birth; These powers are called “shakti”; Not only did the woman have powers to preserve the honor of the family, she had the power to save her husband from death; Women must be outwardly controlled even if considered inwardly powerful
Agni
After the seven steps the bride and groom hold hands and walk three times around the ritual fire
British occupation and land possession
British occupied all of India in mid-19th century; 1757            Battle of Plassey-Beginning of the British Occupation of India; The British Raj in India lived a luxurious lifestyle; When the war ended in 1945 the road to Independence from Britain accelerated rapidly; “The reality is that the British government simply lost control of India; Indian Independence occurred on August 15th, 1947
Women and the power they are thought to have
mother-in-law rules the house; oldest sister and oldest son marry=high power for women; women do not posses an identity of her own 
Be able to apply Bronfenbrenner’s family systems (Chapt. 2)
Microsystem (most intimate; individual)Mesosystem (work, friends, school systems, extended family; elements in immediateExosystem (–Focused on the interaction of previous systems & influence of macrosystem elements onto the individual (culture))Macrosystem (government; global systems)  
Country with the largest Muslim population
Indonesia (87%)
Endogamy
marriage to someone who is defined as being socially similar (Indonesia)