ITUThis body stands for theinternational Telecommunications Union. It was founded in 1865. The ITU setsand publishes the regulations and the standard technologies. The organizationconducts working parties, study groups and meetings to address current and future issues and to resolve disputes. TheITU consists of 3 sectors which include the following: The ITU consists of the 1) Radio Communication(ITU-R):- The ITU Radio communicationSector (ITU-R) plays a vital role in the global management of theradio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits – limited natural resources whichare increasingly in demand from a large and growing number of services such asfixed, mobile, broadcasting, amateur, space research, emergencytelecommunications, meteorology, global positioning systems, environmentalmonitoring and communication services – that ensure safety of life on land, atsea and in the skies.
2) TelecommunicationStandardization (ITU-T) — formulates recommendations for standardizingtelecommunication operations worldwide ?3) ‘TelecommunicationDevelopment (ITU-D) — assists countries in developing and maintaininginternal communication operations ?The ITU-R Recommendations constitute a set of international technicalstandards developed by the Radio Communication Sector (formerly CCIR) of theITU. They are the result of studies undertaken by Radio Communication StudyGroups on:· The use of a vast range of wireless services,including popular new mobile communication technologies:· The management of the radio-frequency spectrumand satellite orbits.· The complete use of the radio-frequency spectrumby all radio communication services.· Terrestrial and satellite radio communicationbroadcasting.· Radio wave propagation;· Systems and networks for the fixed-satelliteservice, for the fixed service and the mobile service;· Space operation, Earth exploration-satellite,meteorological-satellite and radio astronomy services. 3GPP· This stands for the Third Generation PartnershipProject. The seven 3GPP Organizational Partners are from Asia, Europe and NorthAmerica. The aim would be to generalize and occupy the tasks as mentionedbelow:· The approval and maintenance of the 3GPP scope.
· The maintenance of the Partnership ProjectDescription;· Take the decision to create or cease a TechnicalSpecification Groups, and approve their scope and terms of reference;· The approval of Organizational Partner fundingrequirements;· The allocation of human and financial resourcesprovided by the Organizational Partners to the Project Co-ordination Group.· Act as a body of appeal on procedural mattersreferred to them IETF· The IETF develops and promotes voluntaryinternet standards. The IETF is organized into a large number of workinggroups. The working groups have a chairperson who would be responsible fortaking care of the group activities. The working groups are organized intoareas based on the subject matter. The current areas are Applications, General,Internet, Operations and Management, Real-time Applications and Infrastructure,Routing, Security, and Transport.
Each area is seen by a Director which has theauthority to manipulate and take decisions for the area. The details of theIETF have changed considerably as the organization has grown. The IETF hascertain set of principles which are as explained below.
· Open process any required person canparticipate in the work, know what is being decided, and make his or her voiceheard on the issue. Part of this principle is our commitment to making ourdocuments, our WG mailing lists, our attendance lists, and our meeting minutespublicly available on the Internet. · Technical Competence is when IETF requires thedocuments which it reviews to give the competence required to speak to therequired personnel. It furnishes the required documents.
· Volunteer Core is when the participants come tothe IETF community voluntarily. IEEE 802IEEE 802 is restricted to the LAN and metropolitan area networks. Itis restricted to the networks carrying variable size packets. The services andthe protocols are limited to the 2 layers. The IEEE 802 splits the OSI into 2sub layers which include the LLC and Media Access Control (MAC) of the datalink layer.
The Standards for the IEEE 802 are the Ethernet and the VLANs whichhave a major contribution towards the organization’s standpoint. The IEEE 802committee develops and maintains the networking standards and the practiceswhich have the local, metropolitan, and other area networks which have the IEEEcommittee present. Reference: 1)http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/International-Telecommunication-Union-ITU2) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H.264/MPEG-4_AVC?3) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802?4) http://www.3gpp.org/about-3gpp/about-3gpp5) https://www.ietf.org/about/standards-process.html