2.3.1. In-house and Freelancer Translator
In-house transcribers are different from free-lance transcribers. An in-house transcriber is a monthly paid transcriber, works for interlingual rendition companies or other company or establishment who marks a contract which might be a full-time or portion clip work with a regular wage ( Samuelsson-Brown, 2004 ; Abdallah, 2012 ) . Harmonizing to Mckay ( 2006 ) , a free-lance is an independent transcriber who works non merely for the interlingual rendition company, but besides for the direct client, and enjoys a comfy income ( Samuelsson-Brown, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Boucau ( 2006 ) , economic competition, normally on cyberspace, between some independent transcribers and interlingual rendition companies, threatens the quality and income of some companies.
This will impact the free-lance income who works for the interlingual rendition companies as good. Samuelsson-Brown ( 2004 ) claims that a free-lance transcriber may specialised in one or two linguistic communication brace. Furthermore, Baucau ( 2006 ) maintains that the free-lance market portion will drop from 75 % to 60 % .
Therefore, Prys at EL. ( 2009 ) say that some clients cover with interlingual rendition companies instead than free-lances when a undertaking is required assortment linguistic communications.Fraser and Gold ( 2001 ) find that the transcribers who decided to travel from in-house to freelancer transcribers are non regret and tend non to travel back, because they have more flexible clip, salary and less force per unit area on work. However, the figure of free-lances who work in Europe covers one of tierce of free-lance in the universe, which is estimated to be about 100,000 free-lance transcribers in 2006 which represent 80 % of the market ( Boucau, 2006 ) .
Similarly, Katan ( 2008 ) finds that the per centums of people who work as transcribers stand foring 74.6 % of the market are free-lance transcribers. The per centums are similar to each other and it could depend on this per centum for understanding the per centum of free-lance in Europe.
Translation Technology is used by many transcribers and interlingual rendition companies to salvage clip and money. Harmonizing to Esselink ( 2000 ) , the interlingual rendition engineering tools have positive consequence on interlingual rendition such as salvaging the cost up to 15 % and increasing the end product between 30 % and 50 % . The engineerings created for a peculiar intent of interlingual rendition and they might be different in monetary value and maps.
‘Translation engineering is translation AIDSs used within an electronic, computing machine or web-based environment’ ( Prys at el. , 2009: 15 ) . Furthermore, Rogers ( 2010 ) believes that the engineering plays a important function and has an impact on developing interlingual rendition. Therefore, Alcina ( 2008 ) claims that the transcribers attempts to increase the interlingual rendition velocity by using computer-based tools in their undertakings. On the other manus, Prys at EL. ( 2009 ) finds that a figure of companies in Wales do non hold proficient capableness to get the better of the jobs during having complex formats from the clients, the outsource companies will take the occupation and this affects the income of local companies in Wales.
There are different types of interlingual rendition engineering that appropriate for utilizing them in interlingual rendition industry and a figure of them work with computing machines. Harmonizing to Bowker ( 2002 ) and Bowker and Fisher ( 2010 ) , computer-aided engineering involves a figure of computerised tools that help the transcribers in interlingual rendition procedure to interpret their work. The most known tools are word counter, lexicons, proofing tools ( spelling and grammar checker ) , desktop-publishing package, CAT ( computer-aided interlingual rendition ) tools and machine interlingual rendition ( MT ) ( see Bowker, 2002 ; Goudec, 2007 ; Fisher, 2008 ; Fatani, 2009, and Yunker, 2010 ) . In add-on, there are different ways to have the interlingual rendition that would even be paper-based paperss or digital formats such as PDF, DOC, XLS, PPT and TXT.Bowker and Fisher ( 2010 ) maintain that CAT tools involve TM tools and nomenclature tools. The CAT tools are the chief issues to be discussed in interlingual rendition industry, because many free-lances and interlingual rendition companies attempts to increase the interlingual rendition velocity throughout utilizing TM package in the interlingual rendition procedure ( Robinson, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Gouadec ( 2007 ) , the most utile TM package are SDL Trados, memoQ, Wordfast and Deja Vu.
These are used by many known interlingual rendition companies in the universe such as Eriksen, AST, Accuphrase, Lingo24 and kwintessential ( see Yunker, 2010 ) .
2.5. Servicess Offered by the Industry
Translation Industry offer different services such as reading, interlingual rendition and localization of function. Almost all of the interlingual rendition companies have their ain web sites particularly in the USA and Europe. This gives an chance to the clients to happen an appropriate company to understand the services and trade. However, most of the companies offer proofreading, revising and redacting, but the most of import thing is to understand the interlingual rendition types that offered by the industry. Samuelsson-Brown ( 2006 ) states that the interlingual rendition services in general are divided into two parts: general interlingual rendition and specialized interlingual renditions.
General interlingual rendition involves paperss that does non associate to any particular interlingual rendition and does non necessitate a high grade of specializer or transcribers ( Gouadec, 2007 ) . This means that the addressee would be a lay-people and written in a simple manner, as a consequence the transcriber can easy interpret the paperss without disbursement clip to happen the significance of any particular footings.On the other manus, Bowker and Pearson ( 2002 ) province that the context of specialized interlingual rendition is frequently understood by person who has a professionalknowledge in the sphere. This type of interlingual rendition seems to be more complex in manner than the general interlingual rendition. Harmonizing to Glaser ( 1995 ) , the specialized interlingual renditions convey the facts and of import information which makes to be different from a general interlingual rendition. Therefore, the transcriber has to utilize a particular nomenclature and it is of import to maintain the same significance while interlingual rendition procedure. Hence, Bowker and Pearson ( 2002 ) maintain that specialized interlingual rendition involves some collocations, nomenclatures, antediluvian words and address Acts of the Apostless that are used for a peculiar ground in the peculiar sphere. The industry is offered different spheres of specialized interlingual rendition which are popular in the market.
Harmonizing to Swales ( 1990 ) , the most known types of specialized interlingual rendition are medical, fiscal, legal and concern. Therefore, the transcriber should be cognizant about the spheres and produce an accurate interlingual rendition in order to keep the same map of the text and non to confront any jobs.On the other manus, localization of function, abbreviated as ( L10n ) , is another type of interlingual rendition that found after the 1990s ( Yunker, 2010 ) . Crowbar at EL. ( 2009 ) province that there is a high demand for the package interlingual rendition in the industry, because progressively the papers productions requested by the clients for the web.
The term is used in interlingual rendition industry when the transcriber attempts to interpret package or web-based pages. Gouadec ( 2007 ) defines localization of function as an version of a merchandise or procedure or service to a peculiar local linguistic and civilization such as videogames and web sites. In this instance the transcriber should be cognizant of some cultural elements of the mark linguistic communication such as day of the month, currency and clip format. Similarly, Samuelsson-Brown ( 2006 ) maintains that the localization of function is a culturally adapted interlingual rendition service for a different part and a particular market.
This type of interlingual rendition seems to be more sophisticated than the general or specialized interlingual rendition, because it depends on the competencies of transcribers and accomplishments of engineer. Gouadec ( 2007 ) insists that there should be a close cooperation between transcribers and experts, IT specializer, in order to bring forth a precise interlingual rendition. Therefore, the transcriber prepares the interlingual rendition and the IT engineer employs formats to finalize the procedure of localization of function.
Arora and Gambardella ( 2004 ) find that although most of the localization of function undertakings began in the USA and Europe, the high cost leads to the package interlingual rendition in these states to be fulfilled by the development states. The chief ground for this will be lower cost companies and transcribers in the development states.The interlingual rendition industry involves another type of industry which is reading.
Interpretation trades with spoken statements instead than any written linguistic communication in interlingual rendition industry. The translators have to listen to the beginning linguistic communication talker in order to understand the context so speak in order to render the message into the mark linguistic communication ( Mckay, 2006 ) . Similarly, Samuelsson-Brown ( 2004 ) states that the function of an translator undertaking is harder than a transcriber because in reading the clip is limited and there is no any 2nd opportunity for proofreading or revising the reading. However, there are different types of reading, but the most known manners are coincident and back-to-back reading ( Gouadec, 2007 ) . The coincident interpreter’s undertaking is harder than back-to-back one, because in coincident translator has to hold a good concentration, memory and linguistic communication accomplishment. Harmonizing to Mckay ( 2006 ) , the coincident translator conveys the message every bit fast as possible to listener, while the talker continuously speaks to the audience such as in conference. However, in back-to-back construing the talker finishes or pauses talking so the translator conveys the message into mark hearer ( Gouadec, 2007 ) . Fatani ( 2009 ) finds that the demand for specialized interlingual rendition and reading is turning, because some public establishments hire translators in order to pass on with the clients such as infirmary, bank and tribunal.
2.5. The Project Managemen T in Translation Industry
In the recent old ages, the undertaking direction adapted to the industry which involve some techniques refering on teamwork, command the undertaking and planning ( Gouadec, 2007 ) . The industry should be operated by a director who takes duty for the interlingual rendition undertaking from having the interlingual rendition occupation to present it. Gouadec ( 2007 ) the director is regarded as a foreman and whoever works in the company should adhere to the instructions that are given by the director to carry through the interlingual rendition undertaking.
Therefore, the undertaking director co-operates with other directors or members in the company, and makes certain determinations to command the undertaking and subject it on clip. Perez’s theoretical account is really utile to understand the undertaking direction in Translation industry. Perez ( 2002 ) categorises the interlingual rendition undertaking into five stages: commissioning, planning, basis, interlingual rendition and wind-up.CommissioningTranslation undertaking direction depends on the client’s petition for quotation mark and commissioning ( Perez, 2002 ) . The client has to supply some instructions ( interlingual rendition brief ) , normally by cyberspace, about the demand in order to have the quotation mark.
Burke ( 1999 ) claims that the clip for bringing, the budget of the client, quality and utilizing translation memory affect the rating of the undertaking. The most of import inside informations will be the beginning informations, map of the beginning context, intended audience and mark linguistic communication. After having equal information from the client, the undertaking director starts to measure the undertaking. Harmonizing Esselink, ( 2000 ) , the companies necessarily employ different package or CAT tools that to measure the size of the undertaking. Perez ( 2002 ) finds that different CAT tools have different maps and supply different word counts. Therefore, the undertaking director has to depend on a figure of tools in order to accomplish a precise word count. Yunker ( 2010 ) states that the transcribers normally charge their clients per word for the interlingual rendition without numbering the charts and symbols that are untranslatable. Similarly, Mckay ( 2006 ) argues that in the USA normally is per a word, whereas in the UK is per 1000 words.
However, the numeration system is non fixed among the spheres, therefore it would be changed from a company to another company and a state to another state every bit good. The director quickly will fix the quotation mark and direct it to the client, when a precise rating is done about the undertaking.The PlanningThe 2nd phase is started when the client accepted the quotation mark. The undertaking director prepares a sensible program for all activities that include in the undertaking from having the start to coating. Harmonizing to Perez ( 2002 ) , different package is employed to pull the program, for illustration, Microsoft Project for a big undertaking and Microsoft Office Access for medium or little undertakings. Therefore, the director organises the program in order to keep the advancement and detect the undertaking.
Perez ( 2002 ) claims that a well organised and structured program will take the undertaking successfully to be completed or easy amend a job whenever occurs in the undertaking. In add-on, the purpose of the program is to find the intent of the undertaking and do determination about the duty of each subdivision in the undertaking. Burke ( 1999 ) argues that it is of import, in planning, to cognize how to salvage all files that are sent and received non merely from the client but besides from the company staff. Undertaking director plans the undertaking harmonizing to clients’ purposes and it should be prepared for any future alteration in the purpose ( Perez, 2002 ) .
On the other manus, the undertaking director has to delegate the functions and duties for each member in this phase of the undertaking. Burke ( 1999 ) maintains that it is of import to understand the duties in order to carry through the undertaking and command the undertaking.BasisThe 3rd stage involves text readying and analyze the beginning text. Before get downing the existent interlingual rendition procedure, the desktop publication package will be used to analyze the beginning text.
Harmonizing to Esselink ( 2000 ) , it is of import to reassign the file into a format which could be clear by TM in order to fix the text to compare with the informations that are saved in the TM. However, there are different TMs in the market, but they all created for the same intent and map. The beginning text becomes alignment and the purpose is to fit with related mark text section ( Pellet, 2001 ) .
The undertaking director depends on this phase to finish the undertaking with a high public presentation. When a job occurs in the procedure, if there is no any alternate manner, the undertaking director has to re-start the procedure from the beginning ( Perez, 2002 ) . Therefore, it is of import to salvage the file in another booklet to forestall any accident which might be happened during text readying.
TranslationOne of the chief stages of the undertaking is interlingual rendition. The undertaking director provides all important instructions to the transcriber which received from the client such as deadline, intent of interlingual rendition and the addressee. The transcribers, besides, rely on the nomenclatures in order to fix the exact footings or particular footings for the undertaking. Pellet ( 2001 ) argues that the choice of TM type depends on the demand and the type of the undertaking. The transcriber carefully has to take the matched sections and non to use them as the concluding version, because the TM lucifers whatever related to the beginning text.
Therefore, Perez ( 2002 ) maintains that the transcribers have to depend on their cognition and memory to understand which term is more sufficient to the context. The undertaking director cooperate with the squad members toWind-upThe last stage in the undertaking is wind-up. Harmonizing to the program there should be adequate clip for some undertakings before subjecting the interlingual rendition. In this phase, the proofreaders, redacts and editors play their function in the undertaking in order to look into for any misprint, grammatical errors, any missing words or mistranslated words ( Perez, 2002 ) . These undertakings could be done after finishing the first version of interlingual rendition procedure and before entry. The quality confidence is another of import issue in this stage.
In this instance, there are a figure of enfranchisements that are dependable to utilize in the undertaking for quality confidence such as ISO 9002 ( Perez, 2002 and Esselink, 2000 ) . After guaranting that everything is done the concluding format will be prepared in order to subject and direct it to the client. The undertaking director prepares the bill and sends it to the client while making the desktop publication by depending on CAT tools ( Gouadec, 2007 ) . The Feedback will be requested by the undertaking director when the client received the undertaking in order to be certain that the client is satisfied with the interlingual rendition.