John and his brother Paul have been charged


John and his brother Paul have been charged with slaying the druggist, grade, at the pharmaceutics where they worked. It is alleged that they were both stealing the twenty-four hours ‘s returns when grade disturbed them. John hit him on the caput with a cock and so Paul joined in hitting him on the caput with a little blackjack. Dave, who besides works at the pharmaceutics, was ab initio arrested and questioned but subsequently released without charged. The fusss have admitted stealing the money but deny that they intended to kill Mark. To be guilty of slaying a individual must intent to kill or do serious bodily injury to a individual. John says that he had hoped that the first blow would strike hard grade unconscious for a short clip while he stole the returns. Paul says he thought that hitting Mark would merely ‘daze ‘ him and no more. John does non intent to state that he has a defense mechanism of insanity or of lessened duty because he does non endure from any medical abnormalcy.

However, John wanted to name a head-shrinker to give grounds at his test.

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The head-shrinker will state that she does non believe John of all time thought of physically wounding Mark and that John ‘ found it hard to divide world from phantasy ‘ Paul has highly low IQ ( 55 ) and is described as being ‘mentally faulty ‘ . He besides wants to name head-shrinker, Franz, to give grounds that it is improbable that Paul would appreciate the significance of what he was making. Franz wants to trust on some academic diary articles to back up his determination.


( a ) Explain how the load of cogent evidence will use to this scenario

As this is a condemnable test there is a higher load of cogent evidence, i.e. beyond a sensible uncertainty because this is a condemnable test as set in the instance ofWoolmington V DPP[ 1 ] . This is indispensable to the impression of a just test and right to liberty under the ECHR and later the HRA. This is portion of a just hearing ; as if there was non a higher load of cogent evidence the suspect could lose autonomy on the mere balance of chances ; besides it is upon the shoulders of the prosecution to turn out that the suspect is guilty beyond a sensible uncertainty, because of the given of artlessness. Therefore because the possible loss of autonomy and condemnable record is at interest there is a higher load of duty upon Article 6 ( 1 ) in regard to condemnable instances. This was supported inDelcourt V Belgium[ 2 ] where it was decided that“in a democratic society… the right to a just disposal of justness holds such a outstanding topographic point that the restrictive reading would non match to the purpose and intent of that provision” .This has been supported byKraska V Switzerland[ 3 ] which decided that all countries of Article 6 have to be fulfilled in order to guarantee a just hearing ; for illustration if there is nonequality of weaponries, i.e. an equal defense mechanism to prosecution, so it is non a just hearing. [ 4 ] The English Legal System has gone to the European Court of Human Rights ( ECtHR ) on legion occasions in relation to all facets of Article 6 that apply to a just hearing in a condemnable tribunal, which has included ; how the regulations of grounds affect the equity of the test. For illustration, although the regulations of grounds are normally left to the domestic tribunal, the ECtHR decided there must be the regulation of pre-disclosure of grounds by the prosecution to the defense mechanism in order to guarantee a just test [ 5 ] . In the instance ofRowe and Davis v UK[ 6 ] there was a determination of an unjust test when the prosecution failed to give the presiding justice of import paperss in order to make up one’s mind if there should be pre-disclosure to the defense mechanism. This is non a difficult and fast regulation, particularly when it is a instance of protecting the public involvement and unsusceptibility is granted from pre-disclosure [ 7 ] ; nevertheless as this is such as of import regulation to the right to a just test there must be palliating fortunes that gives the prosecution unsusceptibility from pre-disclosure. However it has been argued by Wadham and Mountfield that the instances ofFittandJaspermay be reargued is been domestic tribunals in line withRowe and Davis. [ 8 ]

( B ) Would it do any difference as to who has the load of cogent evidence if John changes his head when his instance came to test and decides to plead lessened duty or instead, insanity?

There are exclusions to who shoulders the load of cogent evidence under certain defense mechanisms, i.e. the supplication of insanity and diminished duty under theHomicide Act 1957, s. 2. This is where the facts of the slaying has been shown or the person has confessed to the slaying ; nevertheless there has been loss of mental control or diminished mental control at the clip of the slaying that the sentence would be commuted to manslaughter. At this point is the defendant’s occupation to turn out that they are insane under the M’Naughten regulations or turn out lessened duty under theHomicide Act 1957. [ 9 ] There are jobs with this alteration in loads because does it fall in line with the given of artlessness, can it merely be used if the guilt of the suspect is obvious. How about instances where the person may be guiltless but besides enduring from a mental status could the defense mechanism of lessened duty or insanity non be used to transpose the sentence to manslaughter or would this assume the suspect guilty? Under Article 6 the given of artlessness is imperative to the whole pre-trial procedure and a system of just and merely tests, because if one had to turn out they were non guilty beyond a sensible uncertainty so the effects are excessively high. This is a cardinal right which is common to all democratic systems and a anchor of justness. The English Legal System is a broad democracy, hence this is a construct entrenched in the workings of the system and the attitudes of the bench. Besides if this basic right was non present so there would non be any just condemnable hearing. However does this alteration in the load of cogent evidence non make the same jobs in the English System as has occurred in regard to the right of silence, because under English Law silence can be equated to guilt or self-incrimination. The taking instance on this point isMurray ( John ) V UK[ 10 ] where the arrested single argued that he should hold an built-in right to hush.


( a ) Can the suspects call their adept head-shrinker informants to give grounds for them?

The UK has traditionally protected the right to cross-examination and the usage of adept informants as they collaborate the status of John. Therefore in the UK’s adversarial system it is indispensable that these adept informants be called every bit long as their certificates are satisfied and they are non fishy. Therefore as the the accused person must hold the right to oppugn the informants, i.e. , through the accused’s legal representation, the accused has the right to utilize their ain informants as this is themost effectual mode to face and battle the prosecutions informants. In most instances the accused has the right to confront the informant ; nevertheless the justice has the discretion toscreeninformants. This will go on in instances where there is fright of reprisals to the informant or if the informant is a kid. The types of tests where the individuality of all or some informants may be screened and their individuality protected are ; serious assault ; blackmail ; and terrorist offenses [ 11 ] :

In rule, all grounds must be adduced in the presence of the accused at a public hearing with a position to adversarial statement, but this does non intend that a statement of a informant must ever be made in tribunal and in public if it is to be admitted in evidence.”[ 12 ]

The English Criminal Justice System employs an adversarial signifier of test, where the informants give grounds in tribunal with the accused nowadays. This signifier of test is particularly of import to the rule of the equality of weaponries ; nevertheless as the protection of the informants life and security is paramount the tribunal will supply a secure sphere for this adversarial procedure if necessary. However the most of import facet of right to cross-examine is overriding, hence at that place has to be a all right balance between the protection of the informants and the right, of the accused, to a just test ; this Criminal Justice System in England and Wales has efficaciously balanced these two facets. The right to name adept informants for the defense mechanism is besides indispensable to the equality of weaponries and equity of the condemnable test and therefore the jurisprudence of the ECHR has to be followed in this country.

This portion of Article 6 is indispensable to guaranting the equality of weaponries, as cardinal to Article 6 ( 1 ) – the right to a just hearing. Therefore this country includes the undermentioned elements ; the right to legal representation ; revelation of grounds ; and revelation of pertinent information from the prosecution to the defense mechanism in order to supply a just defense mechanism. The cardinal instance to finding the general rule can be found inJespers v Belgium[ 13 ],where the ECtHR held that:

“The right of the accused to hold at his disposal, for the intent of acquiting himself or to obtain a decrease in his sentence, all relevant elements that have been or could be collected by the competent authorities.”

Therefore this subdivision further cements the demands of Article 6 ( 1 ) ; but besides ensures farther elucidation, such as supplying free legal assistance. There are three rules that this subdivision progresss, which are:

“ ( a ) The right to support oneself, ( B ) the right to legal aid of one’s choosing, and ( degree Celsius ) the right to free legal aid if one is destitute and the involvements of justness so require. These rules apply to the pre-trial phases every bit good as the test itself. InBenham V UK[ 14 ]the Court considered whether the inaccessibility of full legal assistance for a committal hearing in a canvass revenue enhancement instance constituted a misdemeanor of Article 6. In replying the stated respect must be had to the badness of the punishment at interest and the complexness of the instance. In general the tribunal held thatwhere want of autonomy is at interest, the involvements of justness in rule call for legal representation.”[ 15 ]

The English Legal System under PACE subdivision 58 provide the person the right to legal advice whilst in detainment, this is another cardinal anchor of a democratic, just and merely legal system. Besides the person has the right to seek legal advice in order to secure a valid and sufficient defense mechanism. In regard to legal assistance, when financially necessary, and the right to seek legal advice the English Legal System complies with Article 6, as these facets are cardinal and entrenched in the legal system. However, as already touched upon, inSection Athe importance of revelation of grounds is of import to a just test, because this revelation is cardinal to the right to supply a sufficient defense mechanism. There is another factor that is of import is that the person is attendant at the test, nevertheless it is non necessary depending on the individual’s testimony of defense mechanism. Therefore if an person was non present to supply a defense mechanism either through limitation or improper deliberation, so this would be a breach of Article 6. On the other manus, if the individual’s presence is non imperative to the defense mechanism so this is non needfully a breach of Article 6. [ 16 ] However the English Legal System, traditionally, has the accused single nowadays at the test, because there is an unwritten right to be present whilst being accused of a offense ; hence the English Criminal Justice System, on the whole normally, fulfils this component. In short the Criminal Justice System within England and Wales does follow with this country, but there are jobs in regard to the revelation of grounds, because there have been a legion sum of instances that illustrate the withholding of grounds. The ECtHR, on one manus, provided the unsusceptibility for public involvement ; nevertheless on the other manus the ECtHR ruled that the revelation of grounds is necessary to the equality of weaponries – where one can reason that the development of the ECtHR’s law indicates that this will be the hereafter of revelation of grounds. Therefore all elements of a just test demand to be fulfilled, even in the public involvement or tainting of the grounds it needs to properly and sufficiently justified, as illustrated by the tribunal inMurray ( John ) V UK[ 17 ],where the person did acquire entree to a attorney but non for 48 hours:

“It is of paramount importance for the rights of the defense mechanism that an accused has entree to a attorney at the initial phases of constabulary question[ there may be factors that override this right ]including the nature, continuance and consequence of any limitation, to find whether, in the context of the proceedings as a whole, an accused has been deprived of a just hearing” .[ 18 ]

Therefore the ECtHR re-emphasizes and reinforces the importance of the cardinal rule –the equality of weaponries.

( B ) Some of what happened was caught on a security picture in the pharmaceutics. However, the quality of the recording was non really good and the prosecution wants to name a constabulary officer, who has watched the recordings over a long period, to give grounds as to their contents. Can the prosecution name the constabulary officer as an expert informant?

As the UK is an adversarial system the constabulary can name on a police officer as an expert informant if this is the forte of the officer or the officer has undergone particular preparation in this country. It would be like leting a individual who says they deal with mental conditions but has no makings in the country as an expert informant. However the constabulary officer may be allowed as a affair of class as they are trained in surveillance techniques ; nevertheless it would hold to be regarded as sentiment grounds

( degree Celsius ) John and Paul are found ‘not guilty ‘ at their test and want to guarantee that the finger print grounds and confidant samples ( blood ) for Deoxyribonucleic acid analysis that the constabulary took from them on apprehension are destroyed. Discuss whether these must be destroyed.

Under the ECHR and the HRA 1 may reason they should be destroyed as they are private belongings and indispensable to the unity of the person, i.e. privateness ; nevertheless this is non the world because DNA and Finger Print samples are loaded on a database in instance similar offenses are committed and these can be run against the most likely suspects. Unfortunately this is a instance where bar of offense under a national legal system outweighs the right to privacy hence there is no positive responsibility to destruct the grounds that was legitimately collected. This is the same statement used for surveillance and bugging by the constabulary, which has been allowed under the ECHR.Klass V Germanyis the cardinal instance on statute law leting individuals to be capable to surveillance through bugging telephones, places, gap of station and private correspondence, every bit good as following individuals and taking exposure and picture surveillance of their mundane lives under the mere intuition of terrorist/criminal activity. This right should non be a general right of constabularies and security officers and as the instance ofKlassconcluded, but should be sufficiently limited to fortunes that are in the involvement of a democratic society and the security and safety of the province:

Democratic societies nowadays find themselves threatened by extremely sophisticated signifiers of espionage and by terrorist act, with the consequence that the State must be able, in order efficaciously to counter such menaces, to set about the secret surveillance of insurgent elements runing within its legal power. The Court has hence to accept that the being of some statute law allowing powers of secret surveillance over the mail, station and telecommunications is, under exceeding conditions, necessary in a democratic society in the involvements of national security and/or for the bar of upset or offense.[ 19 ]

Therefore every bit long as these purposes are decently represented in the purposes of the security forces and the statute law and all appropriate demands of the legislative act is followed so there would be no breach of Article 8 ; nevertheless if the statute law was used disproportionately so there would be a breach.


Gane C H W & A ; Stoddart C N,Casebook on Scottish Criminal Law, ( 3rd edition W Green 2000 )

Jefferson,Condemnable Law( Fifth Edition, Longman, 2001 )

Jones T H & A ; Christie M A,Condemnable Law, ( 2nd edition W Green 1996 )

McCall Smith R AA & A ; Sheldon D,Scots Criminal Law, ( 2nd edition Butterworths 1997 )


Allen, 2004,Practical Guide to Attest 2nd editionCavendish

Slapper & A ; Kelly, 2003,The English Legal ; System 6th editionCavendish



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