Kasturi Sarjerao PatilDept. of Electronics and Telecommunication EngineeringGoa College of EngineeringPonda-Goa, IndiaE mail: [email protected] Sawardekar.Assistant Professor Dept. of Electronics and Telecommunication EngineeringGoa College of EngineeringPonda -Goa, India Abstract— Watermarking is used widely to secure and authenticate the digital data.
Different watermarking techniques are used to protect the data from unauthorized attackers. Some are discussed about the audio watermarking and some about video watermarking, But meanwhile, these method only protect the data for some geometric attacks only. To reduce piracy and these attacks we apply watermark to data. Most recently hybrid techniques are more robust to attacks. These hybrid techniques are DCT-DWT, DWT-SVD.
In most recent techniques DWT- SVD is more robust technique so far.Keywords—watermarking; hybrid; robustness I. Introduction This paper discuss about the different techniques used for the watermarking. Watermarking plays important part in digital data security. Watermarking gives authenticity and privacy to appropriate owner. As digital data can be easily downloaded and uploaded again with some changes with different owner.
To provide security for the ownership watermarking is widely used. II. literature surveyThe different audio and video hybrid watermarking techniques are studied for checking the robustness. These techniques are very impressive against the several geometric and external attacks. Watermarking is mostly calculate by the robustness, more the robust technique provide strong copyright protection.
Here, discussing about both video and audio watermark which separately watermark to each signal and then combine to get most robust signal. This technique is more robust than any other techniques. Let’s discuss about the watermarking for video and audio techniques. A. Watermarking techniques · Least Significant Bit The most straight-forward method of watermark embedding would be to embed the watermark into the least-significant-bits of the cover object.
Given the extraordinarily high channel capacity of using the entire cover for transmission in this method, a smaller object may be embedded multiple times, but low robust. · Discrete Cosine Transform The DCT allows an image to be broken up into different frequency bands, making it much easier to embed watermarking information into the middle frequency bands of an image. The middle frequency bands are chosen such that they have minimized. It avoids the most visual important parts of the image (low frequencies) without over-exposing themselves to removal through compression and noise attacks (high frequencies). · Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT separates an image into a lower resolution approximation image (LL) as well as horizontal (HL), vertical (LH) and diagonal (HH) detail components. The process can then be repeated to computes multiple scale wavelet decomposition. · Singular Value Decomposition It is important to note that each singular value specifies the luminance of an image layer while the corresponding pair of singular vectors specifies the geometry of the image.
In SVD-based watermarking, several approaches are possible. A common approach is to apply SVD to the whole cover image, and modify all the singular values to embed the watermark data. An important property of SVD based watermarking is that the largest of the modified singular values change very little for most types of attacks. B. Types of attacks on Watermarking· Removal attack Removal attacks aim at the complete removal of the watermark information without cracking the security.This category includes de-noising, quantization re-modulation, and collusion attacks. Not all of these methods does complete watermark removal, but they may possibly damage the watermark.
· Geometric attack Geometric attacks do not actually remove the embedded watermark itself, also distort the watermark information. Pixels are locally shifted, scaled, and rotated without significant visual distortion. · Cryptography attack Cryptographic attacks aim at cracking the security in watermarking schemes and using key or other method to remove the embedded watermark information or to embed different watermarks. These attacks are most complex one. · Protocol attack These attacks also term as a inversion attacks. The idea behind inversion is that the attacker changes or deleted the watermark from the original data and claims to be the owner of the watermarked data with some changes in original data. C. Techniques and robustness These are some techniques to avoid such attacks and the robustness for that technique after watermarking.
TABLE I Sr. No. Techniques Robustness Security 1 LSB LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT Least Robust Against Geometry Low 2 DCT DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM High Robust Against Filters Medium 3 DWT DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM High Robust Against Geometric Disturbance Medium 4 SVD SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION High Robust Against Geometric Disturbance High D. Comparison Of different Methodologies in Watermarking TABLE II Name of paper Method Author Parameter for robustness Hardware Implementation of a Digital Watermarking System for Video Authentication DCT Sonjoy Deb Roy, Xin Li, Yonatan Shoshan, Alexander Fish(2013) low power consumption, low cost implementation, high Speed, and reliability A Digital Video Watermarking Technique Based on Identical Frame Extraction in 3-Level DWT 3-Level (DWT) Tamanna Tabassum, S.M.Mohidul Islam (2012) Strong robustness against cropping Gaussian noise, Salt & pepper noise adding, frame dropping and adding Implementation and performance analysis of DCT-DWT-SVD based Watermarking algorithms for color images DCT-DWT-SVD Nidhi Divecha, Dr. N. N.
Jani Check effectiveness of both techniques for Imperceptibility and robustness PSNR and NCC A Robust Scheme for Digital Video Watermarking based on Scrambling of Watermark (2D) DWT Mahesh R. Sanghavi, Dr Archana M.RajurkarProf.
Dr. Rajeev Kotecha watermarking scheme to make scheme robust against various attacks video attacks Frame dropping. Comparison of different watermarking techniques TABLE III Name of paper Method Author Parameter for robustness A Novel Audio Watermarking Algorithm for Copyright Protection Based on DCT Domain.
DCT Yang, Yan More Robust Audio Watermarking by Hybridization of DWT DCT DCT-DWT Ghulam Ali Muhammad Tahir azir Ahmad Zunaira Saleem Sohail good results against different external attacks Audio watermarking using combination of multilevel wavelet decomposition, DCT and SVD. DCT- SVD Singhal, Achintya, Anurag Narayan Chaubey, Prakash. robustness and inaudibility Results are not up to mark Improved Audio Watermarking Using DWT-SVD. DWT-SVD N.V. Lalitha, Suresh, Dr. Sailiaja. DWT-SVD algorithm proves to be more robust than DCT-SVD CONCLUSIONAudio and video watermarking techniques are discussed.
These different techniques have different robustness. For video and audio the best possible technique is chosen and among them best hybrid technique set for audio and video watermarking. This can make a data more secure and robust to attacks to more extent. Video watermark is mostly targeted data over the digital network. FUTURE SCOPEThe overall conclusion shows that hybrid techniques of audio and video watermarking can be combining to make more robust watermark.
This watermark could give more security and authenticity to the video and audio data. For furthermore robustness each frame could be differently watermarked. REFERENCES1 Sonjoy Deb Roy, Xin Li, Yonatan Shoshan, Alexander Fish and Orly Yadid-Pecht “Hardware Implementation of a Digital Watermarking System for Video Authentication”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS FOR VIDEO TECHNOLOGY, VOL.
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