Learning and Teacher: Chapter 7
Combining pairs 
a group work strategy that begins with pairs and combines these into larger groups of four; it retains the simplicity of a single pair yet promotes the social skill development of larger groups.
Cooperative learning 
a general term that describes a set of instructional strategies, all of which have specific structures and are designed to teach content and develop interpersonal skills
What is Differentiating   
teachers frequently rotate students into small groups based on demonstrated knowledge, interest, and/or learning style preferences.  Instruction is targeted to the needs of each group with the aim of moving all students toward higher levels of achievement          Teaching “differently”          Using more interactive collaboration that is data informed and student driven          Many experts group differentiating into larger groups of: content, process, product, assessment, and environment          The goal is for all students to be successful–      Incompatible with a “one-size-fits-all” approach
Discussions
Interactive instructional strategies that teach higher-level thinking and affective skills, and interpersonal communication skills.

Teacher role in Discussions
          Focus discussion          Maintain momentum          Summarize questions at the end: Closure          (there are many more)
3-2-1 Strategy
           Students can be paired or grouped to fill out a 3-2-1 chart with something like this: 3 Things You Found Out2 Interesting Things1 Question You Still Have
Carousel Brainstorming
           Students are in groups of 3-4 (heterogeneous)           Each group is given a paper with a subtopic          Students are given a specific amount of time to brainstorm their topic and write their ideas on a piece of paper          Each group has a different color marker          Students pass the paper to the next group to add to the subtopic sheet          When the sheet is returned to the first group, the information is shared as a class addressing each subtopic to finally define the topic
RAFT Strategy
Writing assignments strategy where students put their “heads” together to write about a chosen topic –          R is for Role; understand their role as a writer–     A is for Audience; the audienc they will address–     F is for Format; varied formats for writing–     T is for Topic; the expected content 
Probable Passage Groups
          Pre-reading strategy          small groups work together to categorize words and phrases from a story in order to make predictions about the passage, improve comprehension, develop an awareness of story structure, and increase vocabulary development
Literature Circles
          Small heterogeneous groups discuss a piece of literature in depth          Based on reading; discuss events, characters, author’s craft, personal experiences
Problem Solving Groups
          Reflective and Creative Groups          Focuses on knowing the issues          Considers all possible factors that affect the issues           Finding a solution          All ideas are accepted initially; problem solving allows for finding the best possible solution as opposed to the easiest solution or the first solution proposed           How would you apply this to the real world?
Peer Partner Learning
          Students work together as partners, one functioning as the “does” and the other as the “helper”           The doer performs a task or answers questions; the helper observes and provides feedback and helping information          The doer is the student and the helper takes on the role of teacher–     Later, the partners reverse roles
Pairs Check
1. Pairs of students are provided with handouts containing problems with specific right and wrong answers (i.e. math problems, punctuation, etc.

)2. One member of the pair solves and the second member checks3. Check with another group to see if their answers are correct4. Whole class discusses confusion or different answers

High level of student interaction, improves communication skills
Enhance cognitive goals- share different backgrounds and points of viewEnhances effective goals- listening and respect; promotes values and moral development
Variables for Peer Tutoring Model
          Age       –          Delivery   –          Ability
Advantages of Peer Tutoring Model 
organized; trained and organized methodology; computer program to monitor success
Scaffolding 
 the instructional support teachers provide as students master new content (e.g. models, cues, prompts, hints, partial solutions, think-aloud modeling and direct instruction)
Elaboration 
makes information meaningful by forming additional links to existing knowledge
Essay item 
  requires students to make extended written responses to questions or problems
Group goals 
refer to incentives that create a team spirit and encourage students to help one another (a component of group interactions)
Group investigation 
a cooperative learning strategy that promotes group planning and inquiry
Group work 
students working together in a group small enough so that everyone can participate effective strategy for promoting and maintaining high levels of student involvementpromotote higher-order thinking skills
Individual accountability 
each individual in the group is held responsible for learning essential content as measured by quizzes, tests, or individual assignments ( a component of group interactions)
Jigsaw
 a cooperative learning strategy that uses task specialization to make individual students “experts” on a particular area of topic
Moral dilemma
  presents students with an everyday problem, the solution to which involves the resolution of the value conflict
Pairs check
  pairs of students are provided with handouts containing problems (a strategy to promote working in groups)
Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)
  most well-known type of cooperative learning which uses four-or five- members, multi-ability teams to master basic skills.
Think-pair-share 
students thinking about content, compare their thoughts with those of their partner,share their answer with the whole group (simplest form of group work)
Components of Effective Small-Group Activities  (hint: S.S.,G.G.,I.A.,C.S., G.P.)
          Student-student interaction          Group goals          Individual accountability          Collaborative skills          Group processing
Benefits of Small Groups  (hint: S.I.,M,O.R.,F.F.,I.D.,M)
          Students interact more socially          Promotes motivation for many learners          Students have more opportunities to respond          Students receive more frequent and immediate feedback          Students benefit from interactive discourse          It gives students who need more physical activity an opportunity for movement (without Chaos!)
Benefits of students who interact more socially
          Encourages students to re-evaluate their own views of the world          Facilitates learning by encouraging people to listen to the views and perspectives of the world (Vygotsky)          Elaboration is enhanced by making information more meaningful by forming additional links to existing knowledge          Promotes motivation for many learners
Why teachers don’t use differentiating with small groups
  Differentiating with small groups creates management opportunities….– Differentiating with small groups sometimes involves changing adult belief behavior and system– Lack of training– It sometimes feels uncomfortable because it challenges traditional practiceTeachers’ primary concern          What do the others do while I am working in small groups?           How will I get everything done?            How to manage the noise level and movement