Literature survey is astudy involving a collection of literature is the selected area of research inwhich the researcher has limited experience, therefore critical examination andcomparison of literature to have a better understanding of research area isnecessary. During the process of literature survey for this research, thefollowing important literature was collected.This Chapter presents atheoretical background of the effectiveness of integrated marketingcommunication. Various literatures focusing on Effectiveness of advertisements,Personal selling, Publicity, sales promotion, direct marketing and digitalmarketing are critically analysed and presented. Literatures on effectivenessof integrated marketing communication are also analysed. This chapter will alsoaddress the first objective of the study to analyze the influencing factors informulating the integrated marketing communication strategies for housingprojects in Bangalore urban district.
2.1 MARKETING COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS Marketing communicationis a crucial t strategic marketing efforts, and may include the use ofadvertising, public relations and publicity, personalselling, sales promotion, and direct and interactive marketing, or acombination thereof (Kotler, 2003). The objectives of a marketing communicationstrategy they generally involve informing, persuading and reminding a targetaudience about the organisation’s market offerings (Ferr awareness of and demand for that organisation’s (Schiffman,Kanuk & Wisenblit, 2010). Solcansky and Simberova(2010)researched on the importance of marketing measurement with a specialfocus on describing the most important marketing methods that can besuccessfully used in practice. They studied the method of ABC (Activity BasedCosting), index ROI (Return on Investment) and ROMI (Return on MarketingInvestment). The study also explored the dependence of revenue development onmarketing spending, and on how the marketing department can quantify the effectivenessof its activities. The improvement of the company’s effectiveness is possibleonly if the activities are numerically evaluated to show the progress and the growth.Therefore, the study proposed that the current marketing effort to come up witha method which can comprehensively evaluate the company activities.
Jerman and Zavrsnik(2012) discussed the managerial implications of marketing communications in aB2B market, with a focus on its effectiveness and impact on organizationalperformance. They argued that while any company can develop a marketingcommunication program regardless of size or budget, the key to implementing asuccessful program is to incorporate measurement and analysis right from thebeginning. The increasing call for accountability of significant marketing communicationspending leads to the context of marketing communications effectiveness in abusiness-to-business context. Amaly (2012) measuredthe marketing communication performance and effectiveness based on Attention,Interest, Search, Action, and Share (AISAS)and Attract, Relate, Compare, Actionand Sustain (ARCAS) model framework in order toimprove the promotion, product aspects that affecting the promotion, strengthenor rebuild product image. The result conveys that current marketingcommunications is not effective.
According to Roderick(2007), if the clients brand positioning/key messages are changed, it isimportant to see whether the new marketing campaign has been effective byconducting a pre and post campaign effectiveness study. The reasons formeasuring prompted awareness and recall is due to the low engagement ofrespondents with advertising, as a result of the mass of media individuals areexposed to every day in their personal and business lives. The author concludesthat while for the campaign research it is best to focus in on the areas withthe most activity to really understand the effectiveness of the brand messagesand the communication channels used. Zenkin (2007) arguedthat measuring the effectiveness of the company’s marketing communications isadvertising and event management. Ho provide with practical methods for solvingthe problem.
The author suggests a new model – Index 3K – thatis suitable for rating the effectiveness of PR communications and has rathergood prospects to be expanded on advertising and event management. Pradiptarini (2011)highlighted the use of social media sites as partof a company’s marketing strate past couple years. Regardless its popularity,there is still very limited information to answer some of the keyissues concerning the effectiveness of social media marketing, ways to measureits return on investment, and its target market. Twitter activities and salesperformances of five companies fromthe Fortune 500 companies and its competitors were analysed to identify thecorrelation between the company involvement on the social media sites and itsfinancial outcomes (ROI).
The study finds that social media marketingeffectiveness is highly influenced by its messages/contents quality, thecompany’s involvement,ththeother marketing platforms. In addition, a complexand detailed analysis of the strategy is needed in order to accurately measurethe return on investment of the social media marketing. 2.2 EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENTS The most effective toolunder IMC that gains most response process of consumers is advertising.Kotler& Keller (2011) define advertisingas any paid form ofnonpersonalpresentation and promotion of ideas,goods, or services by anidentifiedsponsor.
They highlighted that measuring advertising effectivenessand the return on advertising investment has become a hot issue for mostcompanies, especially in the tight economic environment. They proposed thatadvertisers should regularly evaluate two types of advertising results: thecommunication effects and the sales and profit effects. Measuring thecommunication effectsof an ad or ad campaign tells whether the ads and mediaare communicating the ad message well. The effectiveness of advertisement ismeasured by understanding how audiences like it, and measure message recall orattitude changes resulting from it. After an ad is run, the advertiser canmeasure how the ad affected consumer recall or product awareness, knowledge,and preference. Tellis (2009) define “Advertisingfectiveness”efin markets as the market response to a defines “market response” as the firm share in realmarket contexts. Advertising Effectiveness is examined by the effects of advertising on consumerawareness, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions.
The research of advertisingeffectiveness can be classified into two broad paradigms of research:behavioural research and field research. Behavioural research typically usestheatre or lab experiments to address the effects of advertising on mentalresponses of individuals such as awareness, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions.Field research, on the other hand, uses field experiments or econometric modelsto assess the effects of advertising on such market responses as brand choice,sales, or market share.
Much of the theorizing regarding advertising effectsdeals with consumers’ processing of advertising Further advertisingeffectiveness researches can be classified as those focus on immediate effectand those that focus on long term effect. The immediate responses areconsidered through persuasive communication theories like cognitive responsemodel of persuasion (Greenwald 1968; Wright 1980), relevance accessibilitymodel (Baker and Lutz 1988, 2000) and the elaboration likelihood model (Petty,Cacioppo and Schumann, 1983). These models have been extensively reviewed byMacInnis and Jaworski (1989), Meyers-Levy and Malaviy (1999), and Vakratsas andAmbler (1999). Theories such asresponse hierarchy model (Strong 1925; Lavidge and Steiner 1961; McGuire 1978;Vaughn, 1980) and hierarchy-of-effects (HOE) models (Weilbacher, 2001) look ateffects of advertising over time.