Literay 1 FINAL
Alphabetic Principle
Principle suggesting that letters in the alphabet map to phonemes, the minimal sound units represented in written language. 
a word used by literary theorists to describe connection that exist within and between texts
Whole language
a theoretical perspective that focuses on the integration of all the lanugage arts- reading speaking and listening- to create child-responsive environments for learning that are supported by literature-based instruction 
Phonics Instruction
focus on letter-sound connection
Learning theory associated with Jean Piaget that describes meaning-making as cognitively construction knowledge by using prior knowledge and experience in interaction with the environment
Schema theory
using prior knowledge, experiences, conceptual understanding, attitudes, values, skilla, and procedures to understand what is being read
Awareness of ones own cognitive processes, including task knowledge and self monitoring of activity
Explicit reading strategies
instruction that makes clear the what, why, when, and how of the skill and stratey use
Sociolinguistic view of reading
Understanding the uses of language is curcial for language comprehension and learning
Basal reading Approach
a major approach to reading that occupies the central and broadest position on the instruction continuum. Built on scope abnd sequence foundations and traditionally associated with bottom-up theory, basal programs have been modified in recent years with inclusion of language experience and literature activities. 
Instructional scaffolding
providing enough instructional guidance and support for students so that they will be successful in their use of reading strategies
Language-experince approach
A major approach to reading, located on the holisstic side of the instructional continuum, tied closely to interactive or top-down theory. Often considered a beginning reading approach, connections between reading and writing are becoming more prevalent in the classroom.
Literature-based approach
A major approach to reading that encourages students to select their own trade books, with the sessions followed by teacher-student conferences at which students may be asked to read aloud from their selections, used by teachers who want to provide for individual student differences in reading abilities while focusing on meaning, interest and enjoyment
Environmental Print
Print that surrounds children int heir everyday lives such as traffic signs, resaurant signs, charts and labels
Invented spelling
Spellings children use early in their reading and writing development as they begin to acssociate letters to sound
Big Books
Enlarged versions of children’s storybooks, distinguished by large print and illustrations, designed to offer numerous opportunities for interaction
Emergent Literacy
Children’s literacy learning conceptualized as developmental, with no clear beginning or end, rather than as proceeding in distinct sequence.

thus children begin to develop literacy through everyday experiences with print long before they enter school.

Literacy club
The group of written language users with whom a  child interacts
Phonemic awareness
an understanding that speech is composed of a series of written sounds; a powerfull predictor of children;s later reading acheivments
Reading readiness
the level of physical, metal and emotional maturity that children need to reach to benefit from reading iunstruction
High frequency word
words that appear often in printed material
the part of the letter pattern in a word that includeds the vowel and any consonants that follow, also called a phonogram or word family
Word walls
words compiled on sheets of shelf paper hung on the wall of a classroom. word walls are used by teahcers to engage students in word study for a variety of instructional purposes
the initial part of a word (a consonant, consonant blend, or digraph) that precedes the vowel
Embedded phonics instruction
often called holistic, meaning-centered instruction, embedded phonics teachers phonics within the context of stories that make sense to children
Exceptional children
Children who differ from the norm and who generally require an indicidualized program to meet their needs
Limited English Proficient
refers to students who are nonproficient in English usage at home or at school
reading workshops
method, introduced by nancie atwell, for integrating the langauge arts around literature through an organizational framework that allows reader to demonstrate reading strategies by responding to books and sharing meaning with their peers
Story telling
the act of telling a story orally without the use of text