It is my purpose to supply two illustrations of Empirical research that has assisted and supported me in my pattern, understanding why I work in a peculiar manner, and in endeavoring to accomplish the liberty required of a qualified worker.
My first illustration, involves a household, with a 6 twelvemonth old male child who has been identified as demoing behaviors consistent with Aspergers Syndrome, although this has non yet been diagnosed. The parents are happening it progressively hard to get by with their boy ‘s behavior, which is going more utmost and frequently sees him puting himself at hazard of injury. The state of affairs does non run into threshold for Children ‘s Services to go involved, and so I initiated a Common Assessment Framework ( CAF ) appraisal, in order to sketch concerns and to place the support necessary for the kid and household. This was the first such appraisal that I have completed and it lead me to see what was the research behind its execution.
In 1998, Victoria Climbie, so aged 6 old ages old was taken, from her place in Bonoua, The Ivory Coast, by her aunt, who had promised that Victoria would hold entree to a better criterion of instruction in Europe. Following a twelvemonth spent in Paris, Victoria was so brought to England where she lived with her aunt and her aunts ‘ spouse. Throughout this clip, Victoria was subjected to shocking maltreatment, by her aunt and her spouse, which despite 12 chances, went unnoticed. Sadly, Victoria died, as a consequence of her hurts, on 25 February 2000.
An Independent Statutory Review was carried out, headed by Lord Laming, ‘To reach decisions as to the fortunes taking to Victoria Climbie ‘s decease and to do recommendations to the Secretary of State for Health and to the Secretary of
State for the Home Department as to how such an event may, every bit far as possible, be avoided in the hereafter. ‘ ( HMSO, 2003 )
Research was undertaken, to see what happened to Victoria and why it happened. This research analysed the pattern and procedures of all the bureaus involved in the instance and ‘identified systemic jobs which had militated against successful intercession. These included: Low criterions of professional pattern ; an absence of a individual or individuals with answerability ; hapless managerial support for front line workers ; and failure to portion information within and between bureaus ‘ . ( Department of Education and Skills, 2007 )
In an effort to turn to the jobs built-in in inter-agency working and to endeavor for equality for all kids, Crippling made one 100 recommendations, from which the ‘Five Outcomes for Children ‘ were identified. These are to, Be healthy, Stay safe, Enjoy and Achieve, Make a positive part and Achieve economic well-being. ( Department of Education and Skills, 2007 ) These results breakdown the countries that should be addressed to accomplish this, doing it clearer to the worker what needs to be achieved and therefore how it can be achieved. Every Child Matters constituted the Government ‘s policy response to the findings and recommendations of Lord Laming ‘s Inquiry.
In order to carry through these results, determinations had to be made as to how they were to be achieved. This was done in audience with both the authorities and the many stakeholders involved, including the NSPCC, Local Authorities and, in peculiar, kids and immature people, and in line with The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, proposing that attempts were being made to guarantee that there was more engagement in an attempt to ‘broaden and intensify the policy ‘ ( Davies, 2000 ) . In add-on, consideration was besides given to the experiences
of other states, including Norway and Canada and the German pattern of Social Pedagogy.
‘The pedagogical attack remainders on an image of a kid as a complex societal being with rich and extraordinary potency, instead than as an adult-in-waiting who needs to be given the right ingredients for optimum development. [ aˆ¦ ] For educators there is no cosmopolitan solution, each state of affairs requires a response based on a combination of information, emotions, self-knowledge and theory. ‘A ( Social Pedagogy UK, 2008 ) It sees the kid as the expert in their ain state of affairs and values their input into their ain state of affairs. It besides encourages a holistic and authorising attack and considers multi-agency collaborative working, and communicating as cardinal.
For the service user, this coaction between bureaus works towards guaranting a more holistic bundle of attention and, peculiarly with the debut of the Common Assessment Framework ( CAF ) , created as a agency to presenting services that are targeted to the kid ‘s demands.
The CAF will ‘provide a simple procedure for a holistic appraisal of the kid ‘s demands and strengths taking into history the function of the parents, carers and environmental factors, to supply a coordinated service proviso in partnership with the parents ‘ . ( Department for Education and Skills, 2007 ) This negates the demand for legion appraisals by different bureaus, by and large ensuing in the inquiry, ‘do you lot non speak to each other? ! ‘ Equally good to both practician and service user are the clearer lines of answerability, which were antecedently ill-defined.
The usage of the CAF can be seen as a proactive measure in making equality for all kids, by trying to guarantee that a state of affairs does non intensify to run into threshold for kid protection, before the household are given aid. However, troubles arise
between administrations such as Social services, who work in line with the Social Model, and Health who work to the medical theoretical account. Equally, where societal workers are more used to working in a collaborative mode with other professionals, wellness are used to working in a hierarchal mode. The determination of who will set about the lead function may do clash, peculiarly in footings of supplying resources which have unluckily non been increased to run into the demand of the kids who will be capable to CAF programs. However, that such an accent is placed upon coaction between bureaus is positive and can merely function to better upon the service provided and the results for the kid. Although, cynically it could besides be seen as another method of gatekeeping for Social Services.
My 2nd illustration concerns Sue ( non her existent name ) , who has late come to the UK, from Thailand, with her one twelvemonth old boy, holding married a British National. The kid is now capable of a Child Protection Plan as a consequence of concerns sing his female parents behaviour.
On going angry Sue will go aggressive towards her hubby, physically assailing him, and has trouble in prolonging relationships. She has been seen to sit in the corner and shriek whilst slaming her caput against the wall and drawing her hair. She has attempted to leap from the roof of the household place and from the auto on the expressway. She besides describes experiencing fearful much of the clip, even seeing her ain contemplation as non her ain.
Sue describes a hard childhood. Her parents died when she was 12 and her Aunt so tried to sell her into the sex trade. She besides describes an incident when her male parent tied her up and beat her.
Although she loves her boy, who was conceived as the consequence of a colza, she shows him small stimulation or emotional attending. He spent the first two months of his life in a Thai orphanhood, and is developmentally delayed.
Initially, it was suspected that Sue had mental wellness troubles. However, upon bespeaking a Mental Health Assessment, it was identified that there was no mental unwellness. Her troubles are thought to be behavioral, which has led me to see assorted theories in an effort to understand her behavior, and therefore supply appropriate intercession.
There are a figure of different theoretical attacks that could be utilised in an effort to understand Sue ‘s behavior. I felt that the most appropriate attack, given my cognition of her societal history, to use a theoretical account based upon development. Again there are a figure of theoretical accounts to take from such as Piaget ‘s phases of cognitive development or Otis skinners Behaviourism. However from a psychosocial attack which is ‘created by the interplay between the person ‘s psychological status and the societal environment ‘ ( Howe, 1998 ) the most appropriate theoretical account is Erikson ‘s theoretical account of Life Stage Development, which was formulated through broad runing experience in psychotherapeutics. Whilst Piaget ‘s theoretical account considers the mental development of the kid, Erikson ‘s theoretical account covers life from babyhood to old age.
Erikson ‘s theoretical account consists of eight phases with each phase regarded as a ‘ ” psychosocial crisis, ” which arises and demands declaration before the following phase can be satisfactorily negotiated.A These phases are conceived in an about architectural sense: satisfactory acquisition and declaration of each crisis is necessary if the kid is to pull off the following and subsequent 1s satisfactorily. ( Child Development Institute, 2007 )
Phase 6, reached in immature maturity ‘Learning Intimacy Versus Isolation ( Love ) ‘ provinces that, ‘The successful immature grownup, for the first clip, can see true familiarity – the kind of familiarity that makes possible good matrimony or a echt and digesting friendly relationship. ‘ ( Child Development Institute, 2007 ) It is known that Sue has troubles in forming and prolonging relationships and so it would look that she has been unable to make this phase.
Working backwards through the phases, it would look that Sue was unable to come on through Phase 3A ‘Learning Initiative Versus Guilt ( Purpose ) ‘ where the healthily developing school age kid would larn imaginativeness and cooperation, where the Guilty kid is, fearful, unduly dependent on grownups and, restricted both in the development of drama accomplishments and in imaginativeness. A If Sue was unable to accomplish this phase so the theory goes that she will be unable to accomplish the other phases of a higher order.
Whilst this attack gives a mention for apprehension, there are restrictions to using it to Sue ‘s state of affairs. The theory holding been developed by a western ( Sue is Asiatic ) male, does non let for difference and diverseness. It is based on socially constructed ideals and outlooks reflecting the western society and civilization which may non be relevant to Asiatic society and civilization. Furthermore, it portrays a stiff position of life, which in world can non be separated into fixed phases.
It is interesting to observe that, holding been trained in a western societal work plan, my perceptual experience of Sue ‘s behavior based on my socially constructed thought of what is deemed to be ‘normal behavior ‘ in our society, led me to believe there may hold been mental wellness issues. Upon reflecting on this issue, I considered that there are many behaviors, such as Muslim adult females lamenting and hitting their thoraxs in heartache, that are different to those of my civilization, but it does n’t do them incorrect. Consequently,
I feel that my instant reaction in bespeaking a mental wellness appraisal was oppressive.
However, holding carried out some bad research of my ain, based on speech production to other Thai subjects, and via an on-line Thai forum, I have been able to set up that Sue ‘s behavior would non be recognised as ‘normal ‘ in her ain society. In the hereafter, I would take more clip to research cultural behavior before presuming mental wellness issues, but if necessary would still mention.
Furthermore, Sue comes from a ‘collectivist society ‘ where persons conceive of themselves as, ‘in far less isolation from others within the same community – they may see themselves as basically connected with others. ‘ ( Al-Krenawi and Graham, 2003 ) . Western societal work, ‘steeped in individuality, has fewer theoretical or practical penetrations into how to work with people who are strongly Collectivist. ‘ ( Al-Krenawi and Graham, 2003 )
As a consequence of this cognition, I attempted to research into household civilization and Social Work Practice in Thailand. However, I have been unable to happen anything of usage. Given the multi-cultural society that we now live in, and the demand for anti-oppressive pattern, I feel that this is an country of research that is important in this age.
Eugene sues state of affairs highlights the demand for the societal worker to ‘understand their ain life class development and the significance that this has on the values and beliefs they have developed themselves… … . to enable consciousness of taking a non-judgemental attack to pattern… . pattern should take history of single, societal and cultural differences, otherwise it risks being prejudiced. ‘ ( Crawford and Walker, 2005 )
In decision, the debut of Every Child Matters, and the CAF has been a positive move by the Government, ensuing in an overall positive impact for both the practician and the service user. It non merely integrates good with the paradigm of critical pattern but besides with the societal work values laid down by the GSCC such as being ‘accountable for the quality of their work and take duty for keeping and bettering their cognition and accomplishments ‘ and ‘Supporting service users ‘ rights to command their lives and do informed picks about the services they receive ‘ ( GSCC, 2002 )
In Sue ‘s instance, I have learned how important an consciousness of civilization and diverseness, and my ain western values, are in developing appropriate and authorising intercessions to work with persons from other civilizations. Furthermore, ‘social workers need to hold a broad scope of cognition from a span of theoretical subjects to guarantee that all facets of an person ‘s do up are considered and appreciated when working with them. ‘ ( Crawford and Walker, 2005 )