Many the states, a Governor is elected every

Many similarities
and differences exists between our state and federal governments, The Federal
Government’s foreword states all Federal Government will have total control of
justice, safety, and freedom of the entire United States, rather than each
state individually.

 

As the history
books states, America was founded on a specific type of government termed
federalism, defined as its power is divided between the state (local)
governments, and the federal government. Every state has its own Constitution,
that is derived from the US Constitution. The State Government oversees the
duties described within its Constitution, but shall not disagree with any
amendment within the United States Constitution.

 

The Federal
Government Segway into three different branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.
The States are all split into those same three branches. Within the states, a
Governor is elected every four years. His responsibility is to keep record of and
implementing states budget, while also approving new laws. There other
officials in the executive branch, are as follows: Lieutenant Governor,
Secretary of State, State Treasurer, and Attorney General. The Executive branch
consumes several jobs, including making sure that law enforcement and other
positions of authority functions within the laws correctly, electing the state’s
board members, commissioners, sustaining and establishing all the maps, bonds,
laws, books, records deposited within the State, and serving as legal counsel
to all other departments, branches, boards, divisions, bureaus, and agencies of
the State.

The Legislative
Branch is nicknamed the General Assembly, and is compiled of a Senate, and
House of Representatives. The Senate and the House consists of 100 members, 35 and
65 respectively. Legislative Branches main job is to deliberate proposals
brought to their attention by the Governor, or the Legislative members. The
Legislative Branch will approve or deny the proposals, then create and pass
laws. They will also approve the state budget and write articles of impeachment
should the need arise. The Legislature also initiates all the tax legislation
needed for the state taxes. The members of the Senate members are normally in tenure
for four years, while the members of the House serve shorter terms, approximately
two years. Together the two chambers form the Legislative Branch which create
state laws and take care of all sorts of Legislative duties.

The Judicial
Branch maintains as the only branch whose members remain not elected by the
people of each only chosen by the President.  These members chosen by the President are named
Justices.  Justices terms are for life,
meaning they are a Justice until either 1. Death. 2. Retirement. or 3.
Impeachment by the House of Representatives and Conviction by the Senate. Usually,
the Judicial Branch is led by the highest court of the state (Supreme Court). The
Supreme Courts focus is correcting errors that are made in courts below the
Supreme Court, and in cases that must do with the consistency of court rulings in
regard to the Constitution. Exactly how the judicial branch is set up varies
from state to state, and is determined by the states constitution or the
Legislative Branch, depending on the State. Congress is given the power through
the Constitution to decide how many justices there are in the Supreme Court,
and to create courts below the Supreme Court, to take the easier cases. In
almost every state their Congress has established what we call the ‘district
courts’, which try many of the federal cases, and Congress has established 13
‘courts of appeals’, which review the district court cases that are appealed.

 

The National
Government has some powers that are not granted to the states. These include
but are not limited to:

·        
Printing Currency (bills and coins, in US)

·        
Declaring War

·        
Establishing Armed Forces (Army and Navy, in US)

·        
Entering Treaties with Other Governments

·        
Regulating commerce between the States and
International Trade

·        
Establishing postal services, offices, and
issuing postage

·        
Writing and Enforcing Immigration Policies

·        
Making laws necessary to enforce the
Constitution

The State
Governments have some powers that are not granted to the Federal Government.
These include but are not limited to:

·        
Establishing Local Governments

·        
Issuing Licenses (Driver, Hunting, Marriage,
Divorce, etc.)

·        
Regulating Intrastate Commerce (meaning within
the state)

·        
Conducting elections

·        
Ratifying amendments to the U.S. Constitution

·        
Providing for public health and safety

·        
Exercising powers neither delegated to the
national government or prohibited from the states by the U.S.

·        
Writing their States Constitution (legal
drinking and smoking ages within their state, etc.)

 

There are some
powers that are split between the State and National Governments. These include
but are not limited to:

·        
Setting up courts

·        
Creating and collecting taxes

·        
Building highways

·        
Borrowing money

·        
Making and Enforcing laws

·        
Chartering banks and corporations

·        
Spending money for the betterment of the general
welfare

·        
Taking (condemning) private property with just
compensation

Another part of
local governments that gets overlooked far too often, is the Municipalities.
Municipalities tend to take the responsibility for their parks and recreation
services, fire and police departments, emergency medical services, housing
services, municipal courts, public and private transportation service, and
public works (sewers, snow removal, signage, streets, etc.). The Federal and
State Governments share power in numerous ways (some of which are listed
above), but the Local government must be granted power by their state. The City
councils, mayors, and other members of government in the municipalities, are
directly elected by the people.

Homeland
Security is an arranged national effort for preventing terrorist attacks on
American soil, reduce our nation’s vulnerability for terrorist attacks, and
minimize damages and help communities recover from successful terror plots. The
multi-functional department has many different responsibilities ranging from
different components. Some of their responsibilities involve immigration
enforcements, border security, citizenship and immigration services, emergency
response and recovery, disaster assistance, protecting civil rights and
liberties, combating cybercrime and protection of federal networks, protecting
critical infrastructure, transportation security, and resilience. Some of the
agencies held liable for these includes the Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA), Immigration Customs and Enforcements (ICE), Customs and Border
Protection (CBP), United States Customs and Immigration Services (USCIS), and
the United States Coast Guard. These agencies ensure that the department
accomplishes its five core missions. Here are the five missions of the
Department of Homeland Security: Prevent Terrorism and Enhancing Security,
Secure and Manage our Borders, Enforce and Administer Immigration Laws,
Safeguard and Secure Cyberspace, and Strengthen National Preparedness and
Resilience (page 14, QHSR, 2014). The following context will briefly explain
each mission.

When
our armed forces conduct Homeland Defense operations, service members will
remain under control of a chain of command. The context of this paragraph will
highlight some of the most important command groups tasked with our nations
defenses (Chapter 2, Joint Publication 3-27). The Secretary of Defense (SecDef),
who exercises direction, control, and authority, is the President’s senior
assistant at all matters related to the Department of Defense. As directed by
the President of the SecDef, the Commander, United States North Command
(CDRUSNORTHCOM), is responsible for conducting military offensive operations
within the USNORTHCOM Area of Responsibility by using forces to detect, deter,
or defeat enemy intrusion into United States territories. The USNORTHCOM
Commander has Combat Command (COCOM) over the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force
component commands with a support from the United States Navy component.
Deployment and Executive Orders usually establish command relations when active
duty forces are attached to the command for Homeland Defense operations. In addition,
the National Guard forces may also conduct Homeland Defense operations as state
active duty personnel when approved by the SecDef. While USNORTHCOM is
primarily responsible for the protection of US sovereign territory, the
Commander, United States Pacific Command (CDRPACOM), is responsible for the
local population and critical infrastructure of US territories. These
territories include the Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and
Republic of Palao. Other territories under the Compact of Free Association
includes American Samoa, Mariana Islands, Guam, and Jarvis Islands.

Homeland
Security and Homeland Defense share overlapping responsibilities is protecting
our nation from adversaries at the borders and as far overseas, but also keep
in mind that efforts are also made to protect vital infrastructures and key
assets.

 

 

 

Most, if not all the information
given in this report are from the following websites:

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

http://www.netstate.com/states/government/co_government.htm

http://www.whitehouse.gov/our-government/state-and-local-government

http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/rightsandfreedoms/a/federalism.htm

http://www.whitehouse.gov/