Many similaritiesand differences exists between our state and federal governments, The FederalGovernment’s foreword states all Federal Government will have total control ofjustice, safety, and freedom of the entire United States, rather than eachstate individually. As the historybooks states, America was founded on a specific type of government termedfederalism, defined as its power is divided between the state (local)governments, and the federal government.
Every state has its own Constitution,that is derived from the US Constitution. The State Government oversees theduties described within its Constitution, but shall not disagree with anyamendment within the United States Constitution. The FederalGovernment Segway into three different branches: Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.The States are all split into those same three branches. Within the states, aGovernor is elected every four years.
His responsibility is to keep record of andimplementing states budget, while also approving new laws. There otherofficials in the executive branch, are as follows: Lieutenant Governor,Secretary of State, State Treasurer, and Attorney General. The Executive branchconsumes several jobs, including making sure that law enforcement and otherpositions of authority functions within the laws correctly, electing the state’sboard members, commissioners, sustaining and establishing all the maps, bonds,laws, books, records deposited within the State, and serving as legal counselto all other departments, branches, boards, divisions, bureaus, and agencies ofthe State.The LegislativeBranch is nicknamed the General Assembly, and is compiled of a Senate, andHouse of Representatives. The Senate and the House consists of 100 members, 35 and65 respectively. Legislative Branches main job is to deliberate proposalsbrought to their attention by the Governor, or the Legislative members.
TheLegislative Branch will approve or deny the proposals, then create and passlaws. They will also approve the state budget and write articles of impeachmentshould the need arise. The Legislature also initiates all the tax legislationneeded for the state taxes. The members of the Senate members are normally in tenurefor four years, while the members of the House serve shorter terms, approximatelytwo years.
Together the two chambers form the Legislative Branch which createstate laws and take care of all sorts of Legislative duties.The JudicialBranch maintains as the only branch whose members remain not elected by thepeople of each only chosen by the President. These members chosen by the President are namedJustices. Justices terms are for life,meaning they are a Justice until either 1. Death.
2. Retirement. or 3.Impeachment by the House of Representatives and Conviction by the Senate. Usually,the Judicial Branch is led by the highest court of the state (Supreme Court). TheSupreme Courts focus is correcting errors that are made in courts below theSupreme Court, and in cases that must do with the consistency of court rulings inregard to the Constitution.
Exactly how the judicial branch is set up variesfrom state to state, and is determined by the states constitution or theLegislative Branch, depending on the State. Congress is given the power throughthe Constitution to decide how many justices there are in the Supreme Court,and to create courts below the Supreme Court, to take the easier cases. Inalmost every state their Congress has established what we call the ‘districtcourts’, which try many of the federal cases, and Congress has established 13’courts of appeals’, which review the district court cases that are appealed.
The NationalGovernment has some powers that are not granted to the states. These includebut are not limited to:· Printing Currency (bills and coins, in US)· Declaring War· Establishing Armed Forces (Army and Navy, in US)· Entering Treaties with Other Governments· Regulating commerce between the States andInternational Trade· Establishing postal services, offices, andissuing postage· Writing and Enforcing Immigration Policies· Making laws necessary to enforce theConstitutionThe StateGovernments have some powers that are not granted to the Federal Government.These include but are not limited to:· Establishing Local Governments· Issuing Licenses (Driver, Hunting, Marriage,Divorce, etc.)· Regulating Intrastate Commerce (meaning withinthe state)· Conducting elections· Ratifying amendments to the U.S. Constitution· Providing for public health and safety· Exercising powers neither delegated to thenational government or prohibited from the states by the U.
S.· Writing their States Constitution (legaldrinking and smoking ages within their state, etc.) There are somepowers that are split between the State and National Governments. These includebut are not limited to:· Setting up courts· Creating and collecting taxes· Building highways· Borrowing money· Making and Enforcing laws· Chartering banks and corporations· Spending money for the betterment of the generalwelfare· Taking (condemning) private property with justcompensationAnother part oflocal governments that gets overlooked far too often, is the Municipalities.Municipalities tend to take the responsibility for their parks and recreationservices, fire and police departments, emergency medical services, housingservices, municipal courts, public and private transportation service, andpublic works (sewers, snow removal, signage, streets, etc.
). The Federal andState Governments share power in numerous ways (some of which are listedabove), but the Local government must be granted power by their state. The Citycouncils, mayors, and other members of government in the municipalities, aredirectly elected by the people. HomelandSecurity is an arranged national effort for preventing terrorist attacks onAmerican soil, reduce our nation’s vulnerability for terrorist attacks, andminimize damages and help communities recover from successful terror plots.
Themulti-functional department has many different responsibilities ranging fromdifferent components. Some of their responsibilities involve immigrationenforcements, border security, citizenship and immigration services, emergencyresponse and recovery, disaster assistance, protecting civil rights andliberties, combating cybercrime and protection of federal networks, protectingcritical infrastructure, transportation security, and resilience. Some of theagencies held liable for these includes the Federal Emergency Management Agency(FEMA), Immigration Customs and Enforcements (ICE), Customs and BorderProtection (CBP), United States Customs and Immigration Services (USCIS), andthe United States Coast Guard. These agencies ensure that the departmentaccomplishes its five core missions. Here are the five missions of theDepartment of Homeland Security: Prevent Terrorism and Enhancing Security,Secure and Manage our Borders, Enforce and Administer Immigration Laws,Safeguard and Secure Cyberspace, and Strengthen National Preparedness andResilience (page 14, QHSR, 2014).
The following context will briefly explaineach mission.Whenour armed forces conduct Homeland Defense operations, service members willremain under control of a chain of command. The context of this paragraph willhighlight some of the most important command groups tasked with our nationsdefenses (Chapter 2, Joint Publication 3-27). The Secretary of Defense (SecDef),who exercises direction, control, and authority, is the President’s seniorassistant at all matters related to the Department of Defense. As directed bythe President of the SecDef, the Commander, United States North Command(CDRUSNORTHCOM), is responsible for conducting military offensive operationswithin the USNORTHCOM Area of Responsibility by using forces to detect, deter,or defeat enemy intrusion into United States territories.
The USNORTHCOMCommander has Combat Command (COCOM) over the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Forcecomponent commands with a support from the United States Navy component.Deployment and Executive Orders usually establish command relations when activeduty forces are attached to the command for Homeland Defense operations. In addition,the National Guard forces may also conduct Homeland Defense operations as stateactive duty personnel when approved by the SecDef. While USNORTHCOM isprimarily responsible for the protection of US sovereign territory, theCommander, United States Pacific Command (CDRPACOM), is responsible for thelocal population and critical infrastructure of US territories.
Theseterritories include the Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, andRepublic of Palao. Other territories under the Compact of Free Associationincludes American Samoa, Mariana Islands, Guam, and Jarvis Islands.HomelandSecurity and Homeland Defense share overlapping responsibilities is protectingour nation from adversaries at the borders and as far overseas, but also keepin mind that efforts are also made to protect vital infrastructures and keyassets. Most, if not all the informationgiven in this report are from the following websites: Works Cited http://www.netstate.com/states/government/co_government.htmhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/our-government/state-and-local-governmenthttp://usgovinfo.about.com/od/rightsandfreedoms/a/federalism.htmhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/