Midterm 1
 What are the four learning styles?
Identity diffusion
where adolescents see too many choices and have not really thought about their own individual ideas.
Primary reinforcers
food, water, etc
secondary reinforcers
becomes reinforcing over time, paired with other conditioners, ie praise, good grades, etc
intrinsic reinforcer
built into behaviour, leads person to perform activity for its own sake-to encourage students to seek a job well done, pride, an inner reward
to incorporate new objects into a scheme
when a new object does not fit a scheme
bandura’s social learning theory
a change in behaviour because one observes people and the consequences they have received in life.
cognitive process
how we think
preconventional level
kohlbergs model concerned with getting caught and punished
howard gardners 8 areas of intelligence
what is the average iq range? what are the extremes?
average range = 85-115x;70 = mentally deficientx;130 = gifted
what did erikson say about social skills?
we advance our social skills through dealing with conflict and questions in life-high expectations, positive feed back-socialization.

.. learning the norms

the zone of proximal development-performing with assistance
premack principle
aka grandma’s rule -less desirable tasks done well often lead to more desirable tasks
person’s learning style
unique ways that individuals input, process, and output info in critical thinking situations
vygotsky-fostering cognitive growth through observation of a master.emphasis on problem solving and other cognitive techniques
four major theories in human development, and by whom?;
piaget = cognitivevygotsky = language and learningerikson = personal and socialkohlberg = moral
adolescent development characteristics (3)
physical : rapid changes, growth, hunger, sleep;cognitive : abstract thinking, reasoning, complex problem solving;socio-emotional : emphasis on peer relationships, focus on dating and sex, judgement is clouded by emotional issues, emotional problems such as bullying, dropping out, alcohol and drug abuse
convergent thinking
pulling several pieces of info together to draw a conclusion
divergent thinking
taking a single concept and applying it in other ways
people’s experience with their environment
classical conditioning
pavlovs dogs neutral stimuli, unconditioned response
operant conditioning
deliberately pairing a response with a reinforcer so the behavior will be repeated
correlational study
study conducted between two factors where only one variable changes, to see if there is a correlation to different results.
action research
gathered from day to day life, general observations
experimental research
compares two groups in a controlled environment over a period of time
who chronolizes development?
piaget and erikson
piaget’s four developmental stages
example of zpd
child following parents religious beliefs, then choosing own
self concept
the image one holds of oneself
self esteem
how someone sees oneself
sternbergs triachic theory of intelligence (3)
one’s prior experiencesone’s environment and surroundingsones own innate abilities and cognitive processes;
reflective, introspective
what does each lobe of the brain deal with?
frontal = emotional expressiontemporal = memoryoptical = visual processingparietal = perception
describe the three types of memories
episodict = stores imagessemantic = stores factsprocedural = how to do things
interpreting memories and information