Mobilephones are everywhere. Everyone you see has their thumbs tapping on a smallscreen and their heads down on their phone. There are too many P2P StreamingApplications for Mobile Phones. P2P Streaming is live broadcasting andstreaming that one person streams and millions of users can watch at the sametime.
The research shows that by the end of 2020, there will be 6.1 billionsmartphone users in the world, so it’s time to take advantage of this matterthrough live video streaming using iPhone or Android phone. Smartphones havebecome mini-TVs and people are watching their TV shows while standing in trainand they follow live stream on their smartphones.WithStreaming on Smartphones, users can broadcast and share their moment withmillions of people around the world. Security can be one of the problems in P2PStreaming applications on mobile phones, because not all the applicationsprovide username and password for the users. CPU usage can also be anotherissue because the CPU usage on Streaming applications is quite high and not allsmartphones can handle this usage.
Streaming video takes up about 2 Mbps perviewer, means that second viewer would eat up 4 Mbps of bandwidth. Chapter 1 – introduction ProblemStatement P2PStreaming applications on Mobile Phones problems are mostly about:- Memory- Storage- Bandwidth- internetMobilephones having less power compared to PCs, because of this, problems that usercan face in streaming is more than streaming in PCs. P2P Streaming usage of CPUis high and mostly mobile phones cannot handle this issue, So for P2P Streaminguser need to have the latest phone to avoid any issue about CPU usage. Also thestorage can be the problem for mobile phones, because of limitation in storage.P2Pvideo streaming takes about 2 to 4 Mbps per user, so the bandwidth play animportant role in P2P streaming. The limitation of bandwidth can limit the P2Pstreaming for users.
P2P streaming needs stable internet, sometimes mobilephones doesn’t have stable internet, because of the signal of their operator,the cellular data can face lagging, delay or even disconnection over thestreaming. But this issue can be fixed when a user connects to Wi-Fi and streamthrow Wi-Fi. ResearchQuestions Inorder to create the best experience for content owners and users, there aremany things to consider when comparing P2P solutions. As solutions vary ineffectiveness and capability, the following questions will help user assess ifa given solution is right for user: 1- How does the client manage the sharedresources of the end-user machine and network?2- What is the size and performance of theclient application?3- What different use cases does it support?4- Has the technology been validated in thefield? Project scope& limitation Inthis paper, we talked about P2P Streaming Applications on Mobile Phones andalso the problem that users may face and the solution of the problems to solvethe issue easier and make this technology easy to use for users.
Although I didresearch about P2P streaming before and now.P2Pnetworking and streaming is a very promising model to construct variousdistributed applications. Compare to conventional approaches, the main benefitof P2P streaming is that each peer contributes its own resources to the streamingsession. Security has significant impact on P2P based streaming applications.Media streaming is inherently more prone to attacks as it is very difficult tomonitor the participating peers in the overlay. The network consists ofthousands of nodes, not all can be trusted. Security forms one of the mostcritical issues in a streaming system.
Research Goals& Objectives Ausable client application must be well combined into the comprehensive end-userexperience. This means the application is polite to other running applications,is polite to other users on the shared network, and doesn’t delay with thecontent owners branded experience. A useable client does not present a heavyinterface that disrupts the brand of the content owner.
As a CDN typicallyoperates invisibly in the background, content owners should assume peer-basedsystems to behave the same way. The key metric for any answer is clientdistribution, which is the number of clients already installed and in use.Large client distributions are a good measure of the underlying technology, butin addition to the absolute number, it’s important to consider the geographicdistribution of those clients as well.The open and anonymous nature of P2P network makes it anideal medium for attackers to spread malicious content. As a result, widespreadand unrestricted deployment of P2P systems exposed a number of securityvulnerabilities. In a P2P environment the collaboration of all peers is veryimportant for the correct functioning of the system.
Every peer is soaking upnetwork bandwidth. If too many users access the same network resource, thenetwork bandwidth may be used up, resulting in a denial of service. A maliciousnode would continuously issue queries with high TimeTo-Live (TTL) values on thenetwork, thus generating huge amount of network traffic rendering the networkunusable by other honest peers. The peer who offers a resource may go offlinewhile other fellow peers are downloading from it. A malicious peer may justsimply route a query to a non-existent peer or an unreliable peer with longlatency.
Motivation When wecan give users a new experience to use website that can transform into a mobileapplication, why don’t we do that?Using amobile first design web applications is a new thing now in the word of design,and with this method, you can have responsive web application which can be useon Desktop Computers, Tablets, and smartphones and the design will remain thesame with the same functionality. Project plan & schedule Thetraffic of mobile video and streaming is growing quickly with the growth oftechnology. Back in 2012 the Streaming applications were only for PCs and wiredconnections, but now Mobile Phones took their place and attacked all theattentions to itself. Users, also called peersare connected with each other in network and they share resources and each peercan be at the same time client and server. P2P Streaming applications got a lotof attention in recent years, and also there is a lot of studying and researchprojects around this technology for making it better and easier for users.Theproblems in P2P Streaming on mobile phones is that P2P Streaming need to havestable internet connection for downlink and uplink directions. Usually theconnections are unstable and this will cause lagging and delay in streaming andalso it maybe face disconnection in middle of streaming.
So these problems arecommon for cellular users and 3G or 4G internets, because the stability ofcellular internet having connection with the signal of sim-card. As I mentionedbefore, streaming has high usage and not all the devices can handle this usagefrom its CPU. So the other problem can be that there are multiple systemscompeting for the limited resource like different client software are runningat the same time in memory and disk and the limited storage on mobile phonescan cause the problem for streaming. Instreaming, Bandwidth or data transfer rate is one of the most important issue.Data transfer rate, is the amount of data that can be carried from the onepoint to another in a given time. Usually the time that we use is second.
Usually a text message might take less than 1,000 bits per second (bps), avoice conversation required 56 Kbps. The standard definition video (480p) worksat 1 Mbps, but the HD video (720p) takes about 4 Mbps and HDX (1080p) more than7 Mbps. So with this information, users will understand that limitation of thebandwidth can limit the streaming on mobile phones. Chapter 2 – literature review Comparison solution Thereis no doubt that with the growth of entertainment online from movies, TV shows,music, games and software, the surge of rich content of the internet willcontinue. In order to ensure a reliable user experience and cost-effectivecontent delivery method for content publishers, it is critical to ascertainwhich content delivery approach is best suited to user’s needs.
And whenconsidering P2P and the wide range of solutions available and they are notcreated equal, it is important to evaluate which solution is right for user’sapplications and how best to integrate this solution with the traditionalcontent delivery architectures.Peer-to-peer(P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture thatpartitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotentparticipants in the application.
They are said to form a peer-to-peer networkof nodes.Peersmake a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage ornetwork bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, withoutthe need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts. Peers are bothsuppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditionalclient-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources isdivided. Emerging collaborative P2P systems are going beyond the era of peersdoing similar things while sharing resources, and are looking for diverse peersthat can bring in unique resources and capabilities to a virtual communitythereby empowering it to engage in greater tasks beyond those that can beaccomplished by individual peers, yet that are beneficial to all the peers.WhileP2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, thearchitecture was popularized by the file sharing system Napster, originallyreleased in 1999. The concept has inspired new structures and philosophies inmany areas of human interaction.
In such social contexts, peer-to-peer as ameme refers to the egalitarian social networking that has emerged throughoutsociety, enabled by Internet technologies in general. Leterature review discussion A peer-to-peernetwork is designed around the notion of equal peer nodes simultaneouslyfunctioning as both “clients” and “servers” to the othernodes on the network. This model of network arrangement differs from theclient–server model where communication is usually to and from a centralserver. A typical example of a file transfer that uses the client-server modelis the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) service in which the client and serverprograms are distinct: the clients initiate the transfer, and the serverssatisfy these requests. Routing and resource discoveryPeer-to-peernetworks generally implement some form of virtual overlay network on top of thephysical network topology, where the nodes in the overlay form a subset of thenodes in the physical network. Data is still exchanged directly over theunderlying TCP/IP network, but at the application layer peers are able tocommunicate with each other directly, via the logical overlay links (each ofwhich corresponds to a path through the underlying physical network).
Overlaysare used for indexing and peer discovery, and make the P2P system independentfrom the physical network topology. Based on how the nodes are linked to eachother within the overlay network, and how resources are indexed and located, wecan classify networks as unstructured or structured (or as a hybrid between thetwo). Unstructured networksUnstructuredpeer-to-peer networks do not impose a particular structure on the overlay networkby design, but rather are formed by nodes that randomly form connections toeach other.(Gnutella, Gossip, and Kazaa are examples of unstructured P2Pprotocols).Because there isno structure globally imposed upon them, unstructured networks are easy tobuild and allow for localized optimizations to different regions of theoverlay.
Also, because the role of all peers in the network is the same,unstructured networks are highly robust in the face of high rates of”churn”-that is, when large numbers of peers are frequently joiningand leaving the network.However theprimary limitations of unstructured networks also arise from this lack ofstructure. In particular, when a peer wants to find a desired piece of data inthe network, the search query must be flooded through the network to find asmany peers as possible that share the data. Flooding causes a very high amountof signaling traffic in the network, uses more CPU/memory (by requiring everypeer to process all search queries), and does not ensure that search querieswill always be resolved. Furthermore, since there is no correlation between apeer and the content managed by it, there is no guarantee that flooding willfind a peer that has the desired data. Popular content is likely to be availableat several peers and any peer searching for it is likely to find the samething. But if a peer is looking for rare data shared by only a few other peers,then it is highly unlikely that search will be successful.
Structured networksInstructured peer-to-peer networks the overlay is organized into a specifictopology, and the protocol ensures that any node can efficiently search thenetwork for a file/resource, even if the resource is extremely rare.Themost common type of structured P2P networks implement a distributed hash table(DHT), in which a variant of consistenthashing is used to assign ownership of each file to a particular peer. Thisenables peers to search for resources on the network using a hash table: thatis, (key, value) pairs are stored in the DHT, and any participating node canefficiently retrieve the value associated with a given key.
Propose system P2PStreaming Applications on Mobile phones is not limited to video only. With thegrowth of technology, applications for this matter is also improved and thereare millions of applications created every year to just take the advantage ofstreaming community that is part of people’s life. Music streaming is also oneof the peer-to-peer technologies that people all over the world are using it.For example: Spotify. Spotify is the only on-demand music streaming servicethat’s not web-based. Instead, it uses a peer-to-peer network that can meet upthe demands of millions of users.Let’stalk about peer-to-peer streaming network and how it works. In a P2P system,each user while downloading a video stream or a music stream, is also uploadingthat particular stream to other users.
The streams are usually has a fewminutes time delayed compare to its original sources. If the user streams avideo, the quality of that video of the channel is getting better if there aremore users, it means the quality of a video is depends on how many users arewatching that stream. Asmain challenge in comparison to personal computers, mobile phones are limitedin processing power, memory, communication bandwidth, battery power and GUI(Graphic User Interface). The peer-to-peer (P2P) applications today can bedefine in three different categories: communication and collaboration, contentsharing and distributed computing.
The history of P2P protocol was NCP (networkcontrol protocol), the engine of the ancient Arpanet, used between processers.Later the introduction of protocols united to the HTTP (hypertext transferprotocol) caused shifting of the internet traffics to non-P2P traffic. Contentsharing P2P system improved very fast. Quality of nodes is measured in severaldimensions: Bandwidth, online frequency, etc. Ina P2P streaming, the end-to-end delay from the source to a receiver may beexcessive because the content may have to go through a number of intermediatereceivers. The behavior of receivers is changeable; they are free to join andleave the service at any time that the user wants, thus dumping their successorpeer. Receivers may have to store some local data structures and exchange stateinformation with each other to preserve the connectivity and to perk up theeffectiveness of the P2P network.
The control overhead at each receiver forsatisfying such purposes should be small to keep away from excessive use ofnetwork resources and overcome the resource limitation at each receiver. Thisis important to the scalability of a system with a large number of receivers.Existingstreaming techniques in the P2P approach can be categorized into schemessupporting P2P Live Video Streaming and those that support P2P on Demand VideoStreaming.
Some techniques can offer both services. Based on the overlaynetwork structure, P2P streaming systems are broadly classified into threecategories: Tree-based, Mesh-based and Hybrid schemes. The tree-basedapproaches use push based content delivery; however the mesh-based approachesuse swarming content delivery. Several P2P live streaming and video on demandapplications are built on these schemes. Tree Based Overlay: Similarto an IP multicast tree formed by routers at the network level, usersparticipating in a video streaming session can form a tree at the applicationslayer that is rooted at the video source server. Tree-based receives data froma parent node, which may be the source or a peer.
The tree-based systemstypically distribute video by actively pushing data from a peer to its childrenpeers.Acommon approach to P2P streaming is to organize participating peers into asingle tree-structured overlay over which the content is pushed from the sourcetowards all peers. This way organizing peers is called single-tree streaming.
In these systems, peers are hierarchically organized in a tree structure wherethe root is the stream source. The content is spread as a content is spread asa continuous flow of information from the source down to the tree. Each userjoins the tree at certain level. All the load is supported by the interiornodes of the tree while leafs are just receiving data.
Systems belonging tothis category mainly differ in the algorithms used to create, and maintain thetree structure, given a set of peers, there are many possible ways to constructa streaming tree to connect them up. The goal of tree construction algorithm isto maximize the bandwidth to the root of all nodes. Since these systems arevery close to IP multicast, trying to emulate its tree structure, they are ableto achieve data paths that do not differ too much from IP multicast paths.
Treeconstruction and maintenance can be done in either a centralized or adistributed fashion in single-tree streaming systems. In a centralizedsolution, a central server controls the tree constructions and recovery. When apeer joins the system, it contacts the central server. Based on the existingtopology and the characteristics of the newly joined peer, such as its locationand network access, the server decides the position of the new peer in the treeand notifies it which parent peer to connect to. The central server can detecta peer departure through either a graceful sign-off signal or some type oftime-out based inference.
In both cases, the server recalculates the treetopology for the remaining peers and instructs them to form the new topology.For a large streaming system, the central server might become the performancebottleneck and the single point of failure. chapter 3 – methodology requirement analysis Theneed to improve P2P networks performance taking into account not only thelogical but also the physical topology of the network is a subject alreadyaddressed by the community. We can divide the work on this area in twobranches: generic P2P and Video Streaming specific P2P with each onesub-divided in solutions for WMN or for general networks. In order to improvethe overall network performance on P2P video streaming our research work shouldtake into account:- Thecharacteristics of Mesh networks.- Nodemobility and network mobility.Thisresearch should lead to the creation and validation of new routing mechanismsthat allows optimizing the available resources and ultimately improving theoverall system performance. To meet the aforementioned objective, the problemshall be addressed in three phases: requirements evaluation through andextensive literature review; simulation using suitable software in order totest and validate the preliminary solutions; implementation of a valid solutionin real system in order to assess and confirm the results obtained through thesimulations.
Mediacompression: The large volume of raw multimedia data imposes a stringentbandwidth requirement on the network. Hence, for achieving better transmissionefficiency, compression is widely employed. While video needs superiorbandwidth requirements (56 Kbps-15 Mbps) than audio (8 Kbps-128 Kbps) and lossof audio is more infuriating to human than video, audio is given higherpriority for transmission in a multimedia streaming system. For this reason,only video will be used for alteration so as to meet the QoS requirements 6.In Figure 1, raw video and audio data are pre-compressed by video compressionand audio compression algorithms and then saved in storagedevices.Video compression is accomplished by utilizing the resemblances or redundanciesthat subsists in a normal video signal. Video compression reduces theirrelevancy in the video signal by only coding video features that are perceptuallyimportant 13. Video compression follows a standard for multimedia contentsthat encodes the content with a specific play rate.
There are two major groupswhich define the video encoders: ITU (International Telecommunications Union)and ISO (International Standards Organization). ITU-T group (Telecommunication StandardizationSector of the International Telecommunications Union) defines the H.26x videoformats whereas the ISO group defines the formats which have materialized fromcommittees of the Moving Pictures Experts Group:MPEG-x.The MPEG-4 standard is commonly designed for streaming media and CD distribution,video conversion and broadcast television.
MPEG-4 includes numerous features ofMPEG-1, MPEG-2 and other associated standards.H.264is also known as MPEG-4 part 10 or AVC (Advanced Video Coding).
Big Internetplayers like Google/ YouTube or Apple Tunes are founded on this standard.Protocolsfor streaming media: Streaming protocols provide means to the client and theserver for services negotiation, data transmission and network addressing.According to the functionalities, the protocols directly related to Internetstreaming video can be classified as network-layer protocol, transport protocoland session control protocol.
Planning Thereis no doubt that with the growth of entertainment online from movies, TV shows,music, games and software, the surge of rich content of the internet willcontinue. In order to ensure a reliable user experience and cost-effectivecontent delivery method for content publishers, it is critical to ascertainwhich content delivery approach is best suited to user’s needs. And whenconsidering P2P and the wide range of solutions available and they are notcreated equal, it is important to evaluate which solution is right for user’sapplications and how best to integrate this solution with the traditionalcontent delivery architectures.Forsolving most of the problems in the current P2P Streaming Applications, I cameup with the idea to create a website based P2P Application and design it asmobile first method. Withthis method, The Bandwidth problem, the Memory problem and also the Storageproblem will be solve automatically.