Most migration level was estimated at 6.5 ?g/g

Most researcher has concentrated on the plausible for BPA
publicity from dietary sources. In fact, the significant
total  of studies have been dedicated in determining BPA levels
in foods, specifically foods stored in cans with epoxy
resin linings. A few other possible sources of BPA exposure, to be
precise drinking water, air, and dust, have received far less considerations.
While several surveys have examined BPA percolating from
landfills, In addition Researchers are needed to examine these
other prospective sources and routes of exposure.

 (1) Polycarbonate containers (e.g., Tupperware) intended to be
used as refillable food containers, have high chances to seep BPA. Many
of these containers are marketed for use in
the microwave, although heating may increase BPA leaching levels. (Nerin
et al.) examined the composition of a microwavable polycarbonate plastic
container. BPA was found in the plastic at
a concentration of 30 ?g/g plastic and the potential
migration level was estimated at 6.5 ?g/g of food. However, this study only
made leaching estimates, and its authors acknowledged that assessments of
actual leakage from plastic products are still needed. In another study with
potential implications for food safety, BPA levels in the plastic stretch film
used in food packaging were examined. An examination of five polyvinyl chloride
stretch films indicated measurable BPA content in four samples that ranged from
43 to 483 mg/kg film. The migration of BPA from these products was tested into
the water, acetic acid, and olive oil. Three of five films showed leaching into
water and acetic acid, while four of five leached BPA into olive oil,
illustrating the potential for BPA contamination of consumer
food products. (1) Cigarette filters also contain relatively high levels
of BPA and therefore may be a significant source of exposures in a human
subpopulation. Cigarette components can be absorbed into the bloodstream via
inhalation as well as absorption via the mucosal membranes in the mouth and
respiratory tract; both of these routes would bypass the liver and thus the
first-pass metabolism that occurs after ingestion of BPA. Several direct contrasts
of smokers and non-smokers reveal higher levels of BPA metabolites in the
urine of smokers, suggesting that this source of exposure cannot be
discounted. More research is needed to regulate amount of BPA that
is consumed in the body during smoldering filtered cigarette, but at this
time, any assumptions about the rout of exposure from this source are not set
up experimental proof. (2)

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 Cans for food made of metal are
protected from rusting and corrosion by application of epoxy resins as inner
coatings. Many of these resins are synthesized by the condensation of BPA with
epichlorohydrin to create bisphenol a diglycidyl ether. When incomplete
polymerization occurs, residual BPA may leach from the epoxy resin
and has the potential to contaminate stored foods. Several
studies have documented conditions that support or enhance BPA transfer from
the coating of cans. These research took cans from manufacturers then implemented
a precise study regarding the  influence
of healing time, heating temperature, storage time, storage
temperature, and other factors on the level of BPA relocation. One of the
earliest studies quantified BPA leaching at a range of 4-23 ?g of BPA per can.
Kang et al. conducted a comprehensive study and found that heating temperature
had a significant effect on BPA migration, to a greater extent than heating
time. Vegetable oil and sodium chloride solutions were also found to
significantly increase BPA leaching. Takao et al. also found an influence of
temperature on the release of BPA from coated cans. While
low levels of BPA were detected in water stored in unheated
cans, when cans were heated to 100 Celsius, a normal temperature for the
preservation of canned foods, the BPA concentrations
in the water increased 1.7-55.4 times the unheated concentration. (1)
In studies of BPA migration from polycarbonate plastics
conducted with the use of food-simulating liquids, BPA
levels in ethanol and acetic acid differed with storage time and temperature
but were higher than that in water. (3) Most of the studies described below
conclude with a statement about the low level of BPA leaching from a sing
studied source. Very few studies have estimated total BPA exposure from
multiple sources. (1) Being one of the world’s highest manufacture
and consumption volume chemicals, widespread and continuous exposure
to food and drinking water, BPA has become a global health distress. Although
some regulatory supremacy around the world questioned part of the low-dose
animal studies, some evidence has shown the possible linkage between BPA
exposure and observed human health effects. (4)
Data analysis in all analyses,
urinary BPA levels were log-transformed to normalize
the distribution. Spearman correspondences were
calculated to relate the data on reported intakes of canned
food, canned beverages, restaurant meals and exposure scores on
the 24h food records. Spearman
correlations were also calculated to evaluate the
correspondence between hypothesized sources of
BPA exposure assessed by the
24h food records and observed urinary BPA levels.
Multivariable linear regression models were used to
evaluate the degree to which data collected
on the urinary BPA levels. Primary exposures were evaluated
as categorical variables and comprised of canned foods, microwave foods,
canned beverages and restaurant meals usage. Public score were generally evaluated as continuous
vacillating Age, sex, study, BMI, wages, profession, and
chronic health issues were evaluated as potential
covariates. No individual variables were found to be associated with both
urinary BPA levels and packaged food intake.
Consequently, only age and gender were included as covariates in
the models. (5) undefined.


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