n ourdaily life, academic achievement is commonly used to represent the results thata student has achieved in his or her studies, including cumulative Grade PointAverage (GPA), awarded educational degrees, and professional certification andso on. According to the definition summarized by the Psychology DictionaryOrganization (2013), academic achievement refers to educational accomplishmentsthrough learning and training in places like schools and higher educationalinstitutions. Also, it is usually measured and evaluated by examinations andassessments, such as standardized tests and performance assessments. While,Annie, Howard, and Mildred (2006) figured out that there isn’t any generalagreement concerning on how academic achievement should be best assessed. Infact, many factors could affect individual academic achievement, includingindividual differences in intelligence and personality, cognitive factors,motivation, self-control, and so on (Sophie, Benedikt, and Tomas, 2011). Inthis essay, however, it mainly focuses on using recent research evidence todiscuss the correlation between academic achievement and personality from variouspoints.
In terms of academicachievement or performance, both the theoretical and practical values ofacademic achievement should be considered as the importance of it. Except itstheoretical value, its practical value could not be neglected because of itshigh validity for both society and individual. Based on the statistic of OECDwhich is the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, educationalsetting contributes to the domestic products of the member countries of OECD ina certain extent. Normally, GPA is the most common use in measuring academicachievement despite of some doubts existed. The validity of measure of GPA isdoubtful in a reason of its temporal stability. Funder (2001), however, suggestedthat the reliability and stability of it is high across a long time. In terms of personality, thereare a variety of approaches to measure it, including the most two generaltaxonomies: HEXACO, the five-factor model.
Among them, the dimensionsof the five-factor model (FFM) involves in five basic units: extraversion,neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness. Besides, each ofthe five dimensions can be divided into more specific levels in which showsdifferent characteristics. (p3) For example, neuroticism refers to emotioncontrol and extraversion relate to the degree of sociability. Back to lastcentury, Norman (1963) indicated that the five-factor model showed the traitdimensions step by step which contributes to its high credibility, validity androbustness.
As a result, it is applied into a series of researches over theyears. History:In this paragraph, it pays much attention on exploring the correlation betweenacademic performance and personality through analysing recent research.According to Heaven, Ciarrochi and Vialle (2007), they noticed that the recentresearch related to academic performance and personality put more emphasizes onthe Big Five personality traits and Eysenck’s three dimensions. But, therestill has many resource and scientific research demonstrate that academicperformance is no longer only correlated with the five factors of personalitylike agreeableness , openness and extraversion, but it is also correlated withtraits such as self-esteem,or the level of personality organizations in activities, which is similar tothe conscientiousness of Big Five personality traits (Furnham,Chamorro-Premuzic, and McDougall, 2003). Also, Lesson, Ciarrochi and Heaven(2008) agreed that individual differences in personality relate to his or heracademic performance by… Besides,Seyedeh, Shima, Mohad (2012) organized 146 postgraduate international studentsthrough analysing their cumulative GPAto reveal that personality traits are largelycorrelated with academic performance.
At the same time, Iulia and Florentina(2012) agreed that self-esteem would help people to gain high academic performance.In turn, a low self-esteem would influence academic performance negatively.Besides, Joshi and Srivastava (2009) figured out that a low level of self-esteemgoes against academic results. There are several specific previous researchesshowed below to illustrate the link between them in a further analysis andexpansion. One reliablestudy focusing on big five factor conducted by Authur (2009) founded thatagreeableness, conscientiousness and openness related to academic performance,based on his meta-analysis by reviewing amount of recent literature anddatabase, and particularly conducting a sample pool of more than 70,000students which involved in secondary and tertiary academic levels and a smallpart of primary level.
In particular, he agreed that conscientiousness is avery important factor comparing to the others for the prediction of students’academic performance in the tertiary level, which means conscientiousness candetermine academic performance as vital as the status of intelligence.Meanwhile, he also suggested that the different levels of academic performancewere correlated differently with personality in varying degrees and aspects,based on the FFM.