Name et al. 2009, 23-41). The CEFR provides

 

 

 

Name

 

Institution

 

Professor

 

Course

Date

 

 

Introduction

            The “Common European Framework
of Reference for language (CEFR)” was mainly developed by the
“Council of Europe” to bring together educational and cultural
matters among all State members and individuals from other countries (foreign
language learning). The idea in connection to this was to promote coherence and
transparency in the education of modern language in European countries
(Verhelst, et al. 2009, 23-41). The CEFR provides a structure that clearly
explains the languages that learners are required to learn in order to enable
them to speak or use a foreign language effectively. The CEFR framework is
based on language use and learning. The framework tries not only to enable the
comparability between two or more nations but also to consider the traditions
of any given country across the globe as well as the manner in “language
proficiency standards”.

            The human capacity for language is
the basis for reading. Human demarcations for several elements of reading are
in line with components of language and their related terminologies. In regard,
several components have been identified in linguistic (pragmatics, morphology,
pronunciation, syntax, and others). There is increasing quantity across the
components for language acquisition progresses (sentence length, words, and
sound) and there is a different understanding among individuals on the use of
the subtler. For better understanding, readers are encouraged to get more understanding
in the field of language development. The time of giving out speech can be a
good way of determining whether an individual’s language skills are developing
and using support to individuals in question when support is required.

            Internationally, there are numerous
people who are interested in learning the English language as it is strongly
becoming fundamental for business, learning, trade, politics and other social
issues. This makes pronunciation to be essential as people with different seek
to be fluent and efficient English speakers. It is undeniable that English
learners experience pronunciation problems as they struggle to perfect their
language. Such students are likely to find problematic sounds when learning the
English language. It is therefore significant for the instructors to
acknowledge the difficulties faced by such students so that they can be in a
better position to guide them in improving their grammar skills.

The Members of the Class

            The General English course at Upper
Intermediate (CEFR B2) level will be a class that will comprise various adult
multi-lingual learners whose intent will be learning English as a foreign
language.  The B2 class will be attended
by sixteen students: Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, Bangladeshi.  It will also be important to consider the
fact that the Chinese, Arabs, and Bangladeshi learners may need more attention
since English may not be so familiar to them when compared to the Jamaicans who
could be speaking English with a unique accent.

The Concept of David LaChapelle’s
Text

            David’s text: “Can the king of
hyper-real photography help heal the world?” It is an important tool in
teaching the Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, and the Bangladeshi English as their
second language. However, it is worth noting that these students will each face
different linguistic challenges when analyzing the text. The consistent
emphasize on correct grammar, pronunciation, and pragmatics will reduce the
problems facing the students and increase their knowledge of the language using
David’s text.  Nevertheless, LaChapelle’s
text majorly elaborates on the unification of the people regardless of their
geographical backgrounds. The text criticizes Trump’s ideologies of the wall
that will separate America from Mexico. Instead, love and social cohesiveness
have been presented as better elements in solving the challenges that may be
facing America following the effects of the illegal immigrants from
Mexico.  LaChapelle believes that
photography can help in healing the world and maintaining the state of
tranquility among conflicting nations. His thoughts about the range subject of
the world’s controversial issues such as the fall of Rome, shooting in
universities and utilization of metaphysical theories gives him a wide range of
subjects to analyze. A critical analysis of the text confirms that most
celebrities such as Beyoncé are using art and photography to past various
information. LaChapelle holds that the people’s oddness and freedoms must be
tolerated by other if there is a need for peaceful co-existence. For example,
the gay people, those who are straight, the transgendered and people from
different races must be treated fairly regardless of their differences. In
summary, the B2 multilingual students must be helped to interpret and
understand the text even before getting into specific language aspects.

Common
Mistakes in the Text

            Technological advancements and
globalization have made most nations to advocate for second language skills
acquisition. This has been the main reason for the numerous international
students in a foreign nation whose main goal is to escalate their language skills
for purposes of social cohesiveness and development projects. It is for this
reason that teachers and lecturers are encouraged to teach students the correct
forms of grammar and language.

Unfortunately,
David’s text has numerous mistakes that can impinge on the success of teaching
grammar, pronunciation, pragmatics and other forms of language such as sentence
structure.

 

 

 

List
of the mistakes identified.

·       Grammar
mistakes:
Regardless of the fact that David’s text is a perfect source in teaching the
English language, the grammar mistakes in the text can never be taken for
granted should there be a need to analyze the text surpassingly.

·       Misuse
of articles: there are some occasions where there
were clear article use problems. Consider this sentence “Bonfire of the
Vanities idea of society”. It looks like the noun phrase society is missing a
determiner before it. Hence an article could really make the sentence better
for the leaners.

·       Plurality:
Plurality and singularity are important parts of grammar. If that is the case,
then David’s text exhibits some levels of wrongful plurality issues. In this
sentence “the crew that were resistant”, the plural verb “were” may not
correctly merge or agree with the collective noun crew. The author of the text
should have considered changing it to “was” in order to convert it to the
singular form.

·       Punctuation:
There are numerous sections in the text where punctuation marks were ignored or
used wrongly. In this sentence “I ask him about it: apparently Beyoncé’s”, it
is clear that there needs to be a comma between the word apparently and Beyoncé
in order for the sentence to be grammatically sound. A good teacher will let
the students note this mistake for purposes of good language skills acquisition
and make them evade grammar mistake in their future assignments, conversations,
and authorship. The other punctuation error can be seen in this sentence “In
fact, he is dressed head-to-toe”. Grammatically, the introductory phrase “in
fact” should be followed by a comma.

 

Reasons
for the mistakes

            There are many reasons why people
make grammar errors or mistakes in their writing or speech. One of the most
prevalent reason is sentence fragmentation. Secondly, the wringing speed can
easily make people ignore the grammar rules and punctuation marks hence making
mistakes. The usage of wrong words can also escalate the chances of making
language mistakes, especially for learners due to the influence of their first
language. For example, the Jamaican students are likely to be influenced by the
American English. For this reason, their words can often be miss-spelled. Such
students will consider some words in David’s article to be wrongfully spelt.
Such words include “colourful”, “centres”, “modelled”, “aeroplanes” and
“travelled” to be wrongly spelled. This may not be the case for British English
speaker. Therefore, the teacher or instructor is responsible for letting the B2
students understand that there is a great difference between American and The
United Kingdom (UK) English by noting such words. By doing so the students will
be able to advance their English skills and understand the variation of the
spelling when they encounter other articles.

Expected
correct language forms and functions.

            Despite the fact that the text had
minimal sentence structure issues, one could expect the text to be shorter and
less complex. It is clear that the text may be complex especially for the
Arabs, Chinese, and Bangladeshi considering the fact that some vocabulary could
be sophisticated to them. Secondly, the length of some sentences was expected
to be short in order to ease the understanding of the text. Eventually, grammar
errors such as punctuation, pronunciation and sentence structure could be
easily understood by the learners.

 

The
language aspects that I will be trying to teach

The
analysis of LaChapelle’s work motivates a teacher to focus on various language
aspects especially:

·       Pronunciation

·       Pragmatics
and

·       Grammar

Rationale

            Since the students have vast
origins, it is true that their language problems are also different. For this
reason, it will be prudent to understand each group of students needs in order
to help them accordingly. For instance, some voices may be problematic to the
Chinese and Arabs but not for the Chinese and the Bangladeshi students. others
could be have sentence structure issues and others could be suffering from
grammar problems.

Pronunciation

            Pronunciation can be defined as the
way in which a word is spoken, or the manner in which a word is uttered in a
specific language. For the General English course at Upper Intermediate (CEFR
B2) level class, it is vital to note that correct pronunciation is important
for better academic success and learning. Despite the fact that the
multilingual students may be struggling to perfect their pronunciation skills,
it is essential to note that their dialects can influence their learning
process.  This means that the diverse
students may pronounce a given word differently based on the influence of their
first languages. The duration taken for cultural exposure especially in
childhood stages can affect the pronunciation prowess as students continue to
learn English. Secondly, their present residence is a vital element in
determining the success in pronunciation. Other scholars hold that ethnicity,
social class, and educational level have a tremendous influence on both speech
and communication process. All this confirms that pronunciation is an important
aspect of the English language since it determines the success of
communication.

            The language used in verbal and
written communication often behaves as a holistic system where pronunciation
plays a vital role. A shift made in a given segment or area is likely to be
projected onto other areas. As a result, the meaning of words especially the
words that have different meaning and same spellings can be so challenging to
foreign English learners. This makes pronunciation to be very important when
learning. According to most English scholar, the people’s accent can affect
their intonation abilities and speech. Following this observation, the way in
which words are pronounced must not be taken for granted when learning. Pronunciation
is considered to be the act of producing the sounds of speech. This includes
articulation, stress, and intonation. Every language dictates how some words
should be pronounced. The correctness or acceptability of the sound yielded
when refereeing to a given work determines the effectiveness of communication.

Comparing
pronunciation problematic and difficulties.

            Research studies demonstrate that
the numerous errors made by English speakers especially the learners are often
systematic rather than random. For instance, Arabic students face challenges
when pronouncing the sounds they are not familiar with yet they are in the
English language.  An example is words
with sounds /v/, /p/, /?/ are more problematic to Arabic learners (Brown, 2014,
193).  According to Battle (2012), Arabs
do not have consonant /v/. Comparatively, the Jamaican may not be having this
challenge. On the other hand, the Chinese students have problems when
pronouncing words that have sounds /r/ and /l/ (Lee, 2003, 144). The Jamaicans
English language has been listed as one of the most complex since they use a
combination of standard British English and Jamaican English where some words
are eliminated at the end of the sentence. This makes their pronunciation and
rhythms unique (Mordecai & Mordecai, 2001, 72). The Bengali speakers and
learners lack labio-dental fricatives. This makes it hard for them to pronounce
sounds /f/ and /v/ correctly. Sounds /w/ and /j/ are also problematic to
Bengali learners since they are absent in their first language (Mishra, 2010,
3).

Vowels that
could be difficult to pronounce

Arabs

Chinese

Jamaicans

Bangladeshi

Arabic
speakers have problems when differentiating /v/ and /f/ sounds. 
Consonants
/p/ and /n/ are also challenging to Arabic speakers

The
Chinese speakers experience difficulties when pronouncing sounds /j/ ch/ /v/
and sh/
 The inability to stress on syllables can
make it difficult for Chinese speakers to pronounce words with given cluster
combination such as /sl/, /sn/, /sm/, /br/, /cr/, /fr/ and /sq/

Minimal
pronunciation issues

Sounds
/v/, /f/, /w/ and /j/ are difficult to pronounce for Bengali learners.

 

Words that could
be difficult for the students in David’s Text

Arabs

Chinese

Jamaicans

Bangladeshi

Interviewing
Video
Vienna
Fine
Fashion
Famous
After
From
Photography
Spot
stepped
 

Rejection
Subject
Project
Job
Shaped
Shiny
Shoot
Sheen
Love
covered

None

Moved
From
Lives
Serves
Carved
First
Powerful
Fashion
subject

 

 Reasons why students should recognize the
pronunciations

·       To
be cautious of pronunciation

·       To
improve their pronunciation especially on the challenging sounds.

·       The
students should accept their innate difficulties based on the influence of
their first language.

·       The
analysis of the pronunciation difficulties will enable all the students to
develop a positive attitude to the discipline considering the fact that each of
them may be having individual problems.

 

Pragmatics

    “Pragmatics” is the manner in
which members of a specific community express their desires using language. In
regard to this, it is important to understand, for instance, that the way we
speak to our friends is not the same way we relate to our parents.
Consequently, the language that is used in a formal speech may be a little bit
different from that one would hear during a lunch with four friends or more
(Leech, 2016, 7). On the other hand, it is clearly noted that the conversational
style that is used in day-to-day interaction is quite different from the
language that will be used when narrating a story to pupils in a classroom. The
essence of pragmatics, in this case, is understanding these differences and the
best time that one is required to use the different styles during different
cases of interaction.

    The most crucial part of social
interactions is a facility with language. The educational system is mainly
focused on the ability of individuals to communicate effectively with others
through written and spoken language, whoever, reading is the part that receives
greater emphasis. “For social and economic progress in any given community
or society, an individual’s ability to read is greatly valued hence making reading
very important for the success of the society”. Successful early reading
achievements can be attained by effective instructions from experienced
teachers. The teachers should consider providing instructions in a balanced way
to all children by ensuring that they master alphabetic, acquire word
understanding skills, get involved in and maintain an interest in reading just
to name a few. The educators are being cautioned on the use the word
“balance” suggesting that “integration” should be used
instead by the “National Research Council Committee”. The term
“balance” is considered not to mean a way of dividing time equally
for the parts of the reading program comprehensively.

    Considering the Singlish (Colloquial
Singaporean English) language, for example, most of the vocabularies are given
their meaning from English. Words from Malay and varieties of China are among
the language which gives the vocabularies in Singlish their meaning. The
language is being rallied against by the Singaporean government because they
want people to speak good English in order to stop some of the funny
grammatical structures that are associated with the language. Sometimes, like
in Mandarin, some sentences in Singlish will open with a topic and finally end
with a comment. Consider the following sentence for instance: “I go office
wait for you.” Grammatically, it is not the same thing with “I will
be waiting for you at the office,” whoever, it rotates in a place where
the sentence structure in question is the order at the particular time.

The
pragmatic problems that Jamaicans face

            The English language causes a lot of
resistance to the young people of Jamaica in a classroom hence one of the
greatest struggle. In connection, students are forced to get into
“Jamaican Creole” any time they want to express themselves (Page,
2014, 84-101). Whoever, it is important that proper English is imparted to the
youth considering the fact that it is the lingua franca of the world (I am).
For instance, for the creole language, there is no indication of number or
person for present tense verbs. The past is, whoever, indicated by inserting
the tense marker mi after the verb (“ai mi ron” – I ran). Therefore,
the pragmatic problems experienced by the Jamaicans are different from those
the Chinese people go through. An educator in class that consists of Jamaicans
and Chinese people will have to employ difference reading writing strategies to
individuals from the different nationalities. Considering David LaChapelle’s
article, it would be difficult for a Jamaica learner to clear read and
comprehend the sentence “none of us thought it was actually going to
happen”. In such situation, an educator is required to carefully read and
explain the sentence so that the Jamaicans are not left out.

The
pragmatic problems that Chinese learners face

            Chinese English lingua franca face a
problem of cross-cultural differences among English refusals and Chinese. Some
of the Chinese learners lack sufficient competence hence encountering a
communicative breakdown. In order to maintain their harmonious interpersonal
relationship, the Chinese mostly prefer to use indirect mode of expressing
themselves (Lin, 2014, 3). The following indirect and euphemistic speech are
commonly used in English when asking people to do something: “would you
mind bringing me water?” or “I was wondering if you could bring me
water?” Normally, this is not the case in China. Individual behaviors are
based on the social expectations of the Chinese. In respect, some individuals
are designated with the right to give command, suggestions, and warnings while
others have to accept. For example, elders are supposed to use directive
language to the young ones, nevertheless, it is impolite. Therefore, in regard
to the David LaChapelle’s article, it will be against the Chinese tradition to
have a statement like “I was repulsed by this guy” or “it’s
‘greed is good’ this Bonfire of the Vanities idea of a society where the bully
wins”. The statements will sound impolite hence out from the Chinese tradition.
In similar cases, the educators are supposed to be very cautious.

Grammar

            Grammar is one of the most complex
aspects of any language. It is the whole system and structure of a particular
language. It comprises the syntax, phonology, semantics, and morphology.
Grammar rules dictate the correctness of sentence structures and spellings. The
combination of words in a sentence to pass given information is dependent on
grammar. In the B2 class, the English grammar rules will be cherished as there
is need to teach the student the correct things that they need to know before
the end of the course.

            Some of the grammar consideration
issues will be the determiner usage, noun phrases, and the structure of
sentences. The Jamaican students will be an epitome of learning the sentence
structures. The English language is dynamic and prone to flux, where it is used
abroad or in native lands, it is true that English has developed to various
dialects depending on the people using the language. For this reason, it is
easier to differentiate whether a speaker is Jamaican, Indian, or Arabic and so
on.

Comparing
the student’s grammar using LaChapelle’s text

            The most vulnerable students to
grammar issues are the Jamaicans. Well, the other students could also be having
grammar difficulties but the uniqueness of Jamaican language sentence
structures increases their chances of having grammar problems. For example, a
Jamaican will be tempted to “I have been” as “me av been”. Assuming that this
was in oral form, it could be difficult for other students to understand. On
the other hand, sentence structures could be easier for the Arabs, Bangladeshi
and Chinese speakers once they master the language because their native
languages have minimal influence on their English sentence composition.
Additionally, LaChapelle’s has good sentence structure and the students will be
encouraged to follow it as a perfect example.

Conclusion

            Instructors may be having challenges
when helping international students to learn a second language. Therefore, it
is important for the teacher to know that challenges that can impinge the
student’s ability to learn better. First, it is essential if the students are
enabled to understand the contexts. LaChapelle’s work is a worth using when
teaching English to B2 students. The Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, Bangladeshi
students have different grammar challenges. It is the ability of the
facilitator to note factors such as pronunciation, pragmatics and grammar
issues that are likely to affect these students success in learning English. A
comparison of the challenges in a new language skills accusation will make
learning more successful.

 

Bibliographies

 

Battle, D. E. (2012). Communication disorders in
multicultural and international populations. St. Louis, Mo, Elsevier/Mosby

Brown, A. (2014). Pronunciation and phonetics: a
practical guide for English language teachers. St. Louis, Mo,
Elsevier/Mosby.

Lee, G. L. (2003). Teaching English to students from
China. Singapore, Singapore Univ. Press.

Leech,
G.N., 2016. Principles of pragmatics. Routledge.

Lin,
M.F., 2014. An Interlanguage Pragmatic Study on Chinese EFL Learners’ Refusal:
Perception       and Performance. Journal
of Language Teaching & Research, 5(3).

Mishra, J. K. (2010). Companion to communication
skills in English: a practical approach to improving pronunciation. Place
of publication not identified, Phi Learning.

Mordecai, M., & Mordecai, P. (2001). Culture and
customs of Jamaica. Westport, Conn. u.a., Greenwood Press.

Page,
N., 2014. English in a global voluntary work context: A case study of spoken
interaction and its implications for language pedagogy. The Asian
Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2), pp.84-101.

Verhelst,
N., Van Avermaet, P., Takala, S., Figueras, N. and North, B., 2009. Common
European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment.
Cambridge      University Press.

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