Name Institution Professor CourseDate Introduction The “Common European Frameworkof Reference for language (CEFR)” was mainly developed by the”Council of Europe” to bring together educational and culturalmatters among all State members and individuals from other countries (foreignlanguage learning). The idea in connection to this was to promote coherence andtransparency in the education of modern language in European countries(Verhelst, et al. 2009, 23-41). The CEFR provides a structure that clearlyexplains the languages that learners are required to learn in order to enablethem to speak or use a foreign language effectively. The CEFR framework isbased on language use and learning. The framework tries not only to enable thecomparability between two or more nations but also to consider the traditionsof any given country across the globe as well as the manner in “languageproficiency standards”. Internationally, there are numerous people who areinterested in learning the English language as it is strongly becomingfundamental for business, learning, trade, politics and other social issues.
This makes pronunciation to be essential as people with different seek to befluent and efficient English speakers. It is undeniable that English learnersexperience pronunciation problems as they struggle to perfect their language.Such students are likely to find problematic sounds when learning the Englishlanguage. It is therefore significant for the instructors to acknowledge thedifficulties faced by such students so that they can be in a better position toguide them in improving their grammar skills. There is a great connectednessbetween pronunciation, pragmatics and grammar in understanding a new languageespecially English.TheMembers of the Class The General English course at UpperIntermediate level will be a class that will comprise various adultmulti-lingual learners whose intent will be learning English as a foreignlanguage. The B2 class will be attendedby sixteen students: Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, Bangladeshi. It will also be important to consider thefact that the Chinese, Arabs, and Bangladeshi learners may need more attentionsince English may not be so familiar to them when compared to the Jamaicans whocould be speaking English with a unique accent.
Thelanguage aspects that I will be trying to teach Since the students have vastorigins, it is true that their language problems are also different. For thisreason, it will be prudent to understand each group of students needs in orderto help them accordingly. For instance, some voices may be problematic to theChinese and Arabs but not for the Chinese and the Bangladeshi students.
Otherscould be having sentence structure issues and others could be suffering fromgrammar problems. The analysis of LaChapelle’s work motivates a teacher to focuson various language aspects especially:· Pronunciation· Pragmaticsand· GrammarPronunciation Pronunciation can be defined as theway in which a word is spoken, or the manner in which a word is uttered in aspecific language. For the General English course at Upper Intermediate (CEFRB2) level class, it is vital to note that correct pronunciation is importantfor better academic success and learning. Despite the fact that themultilingual students may be struggling to perfect their pronunciation skills,it is essential to note that their dialects can influence their learningprocess. This means that the diversestudents may pronounce a given word differently based on the influence of theirfirst languages. The duration taken for cultural exposure especially inchildhood stages can affect the pronunciation prowess as students continue tolearn English. Secondly, their present residence is a vital element indetermining the success in pronunciation.
Other scholars hold that ethnicity,social class, and educational level have a tremendous influence on both speechand communication process. All this confirms that pronunciation is an importantaspect of the English language since it determines the success ofcommunication. The language used in verbal and writtencommunication often behaves as a holistic system where pronunciation plays avital role. A shift made in a given segment or area is likely to be projectedonto other areas. As a result, the meaning of words especially the words thathave different meaning and same spellings can be so challenging to foreignEnglish learners. This makes pronunciation to be very important when learning.According to most English scholar, the people’s accent can affect theirintonation abilities and speech.
Following this observation, the way in whichwords are pronounced must not be taken for granted when learning. Pronunciationis considered to be the act of producing the sounds of speech. This includesarticulation, stress, and intonation. Every language dictates how some wordsshould be pronounced.
The correctness or acceptability of the sound yieldedwhen refereeing to a given work determines the effectiveness of communication. Comparingpronunciation problematic and difficulties. Research studies demonstrate thatthe numerous errors made by English speakers especially the learners are oftensystematic rather than random. For instance, Arabic students face challengeswhen pronouncing the sounds they are not familiar with yet they are in theEnglish language.
An example is wordswith sounds /v/, /p/, /?/ are more problematic to Arabic learners (Brown, 2014,193). According to Battle (2012), Arabsdo not have consonant /v/. Comparatively, the Jamaican may not be having thischallenge. On the other hand, the Chinese students have problems whenpronouncing words that have sounds /r/ and /l/ (Lee, 2003, 144). The JamaicansEnglish language has been listed as one of the most complex since they use acombination of standard British English and Jamaican English where some wordsare eliminated at the end of the sentence. This makes their pronunciation andrhythms unique (Mordecai & Mordecai, 2001, 72). The Bengali speakers andlearners lack labio-dental fricatives. This makes it hard for them to pronouncesounds /f/ and /v/ correctly.
Sounds /w/ and /j/ are also problematic toBengali learners since they are absent in their first language (Mishra, 2010,3). Chinesepronunciation problems Chinese L1 students face numerous Englishpronunciation problems which affect their tone and intonation. Secondly, theconsonant clusters and the words that end with consonant affect the pronunciationof the Chinese people. Sounds /r/ and /v/ are also problematic to Chineselearners. Finally, the confusion between /l/ and /n/ may also course pronunciationproblems among the Chinese learners in a L1 class. A Chinese can easily pronouncethe word rabbit as “labbit”. For example, the Chinese often use logographicsystems where characters represent some words and phrases. Secondly, Chinese isa tonal language where pitch during pronunciation can affect the meaning of aword.
Comparatively, English utilizesalphabetic letter where consonants and vowels matter. Chineselearners often add vowel sounds when pronouncing English words. There are alsoprone to substituting consonant sounds to make easier for them to pronounce.The words that end with consonant become so had to find in the Chinese languageexpect for the words that end with “n” and “ng”. for this reason, Chineselearner are susceptible it making andsound as and-eu, kind to sound as kind-ah, card becomescar and change to sound as chain.Additionally, two consonant sounds rarely exist in Chinese language.
Thus really becomes wewe, very willsound wawy, rice will sound lice, love will sound dock.Arabic pronunciation problems Arabicstudents have problems with /b/ and /d/. They consider the two to be minorimages of each other. As a result, they can write “sudway” instead of “subway”.Words like bomb, mob, comb, and tomb can cause them trouble when learning the Englishlanguage. The combination of /p/ and /b/ also give them trouble. For thatreason, they are likely to replace these consonant when reading or speaking.
For example, the police will be pronounced as the “bolice”. For others, thereis confusion when reading words with /v/ and /f/. For example, very will bepronounced as “fery”. Vowels and consonants that could bedifficult to pronounce Arabs Chinese Jamaicans Bangladeshi Examples Arabic speakers have problems when differentiating /v/ and /f/ sounds.
Consonants /p/ and /n/ are also challenging to Arabic speakers Reasons for pronunciation difficulties 1. Arabic is a Semitic language and its grammar is greately differ from English hence the potential difficulties for Arab learn to pronounce English words. 2. The Arabic language has 28 consonants while the English language has 24.
It also has 8 diphongs while English has 22.all these increases the pronunciation challenges for Arabic learners of English. Examples The Chinese speakers experience difficulties when pronouncing sounds /j/ ch/ /v/ and sh/ The inability to stress on syllables can make it difficult for Chinese speakers to pronounce words with given cluster combination such as /sl/, /sn/, /sm/, /br/, /cr/, /fr/ and /sq Reasons for pronunciation difficulties 1.
Addition of vowels drape becomes dilape French become Filench 2. Chinese omission of sounds words becomes wors cluster becomes cusser Minimal pronunciation issues Sounds /v/, /f/, /w/ and /j/ are difficult to pronounce for Bengali learners. Words that could be difficult for thestudents in David’s Text Arabs Chinese Jamaicans Bangladeshi Interviewing Video Vienna Fine Fashion Famous After From Photography Spot stepped Rejection Subject Project Job Shaped Shiny Shoot Sheen Love Covered None Moved From Lives Serves Carved First Powerful Fashion subject Pragmatics “Pragmatics” is the manner inwhich members of a specific community express their desires using language. Inregard to this, it is important to understand, for instance, that the way wespeak to our friends is not the same way we relate to our parents.Consequently, the language that is used in a formal speech may be a little bitdifferent from that one would hear during a lunch with four friends or more(Leech, 2016, 7). On the other hand, it is clearly noted that theconversational style that is used in day-to-day interaction is quite differentfrom the language that will be used when narrating a story to pupils in aclassroom. The essence of pragmatics, in this case, is understanding thesedifferences and the best time that one is required to use the different stylesduring different cases of interaction. The most crucial part of socialinteractions is a facility with language.
The educational system is mainlyfocused on the ability of individuals to communicate effectively with othersthrough written and spoken language, whoever, reading is the part that receivesgreater emphasis. “For social and economic progress in any given communityor society, an individual’s ability to read is greatly valued hence makingreading very important for the success of the society”. Successful earlyreading achievements can be attained by effective instructions from experiencedteachers. The teachers should consider providing instructions in a balanced wayto all children by ensuring that they master alphabetic, acquire wordunderstanding skills, get involved in and maintain an interest in reading justto name a few. The educators are being cautioned on the use the word”balance” suggesting that “integration” should be usedinstead by the “National Research Council Committee”.
The term”balance” is considered not to mean a way of dividing time equallyfor the parts of the reading program comprehensively. Considering the Singlish (ColloquialSingaporean English) language, for example, most of the vocabularies are giventheir meaning from English. Words from Malay and varieties of China are amongthe language which gives the vocabularies in Singlish their meaning. Thelanguage is being rallied against by the Singaporean government because theywant people to speak good English in order to stop some of the funnygrammatical structures that are associated with the language. Sometimes, likein Mandarin, some sentences in Singlish will open with a topic and finally endwith a comment. Consider the following sentence for instance: “I go officewait for you.
” Grammatically, it is not the same thing with “I willbe waiting for you at the office,” whoever, it rotates in a place wherethe sentence structure in question is the order at the particular time.Thepragmatic problems that Jamaicans face The English language causes a lot ofresistance to the young people of Jamaica in a classroom hence one of thegreatest struggle. In connection, students are forced to get into”Jamaican Creole” any time they want to express themselves (Page,2014, 84-101). Whoever, it is important that proper English is imparted to theyouth considering the fact that it is the lingua franca of the world (I am).For instance, for the creole language, there is no indication of number orperson for present tense verbs. The past is, whoever, indicated by insertingthe tense marker mi after the verb (“ai mi ron” – I ran).
Therefore,the pragmatic problems experienced by the Jamaicans are different from thosethe Chinese people go through. An educator in class that consists of Jamaicansand Chinese people will have to employ difference reading writing strategies toindividuals from the different nationalities.Thepragmatic problems that Chinese learners face ChineseEnglish lingua franca face a problem of cross-cultural differences amongEnglish refusals and Chinese. Some of the Chinese learners lack sufficientcompetence hence encountering a communicative breakdown. In order to maintaintheir harmonious interpersonal relationship, the Chinese mostly prefer to useindirect mode of expressing themselves (Lin, 2014, 3). The following indirectand euphemistic speech are commonly used in English when asking people to dosomething: “would you mind bringing me water?” or “I waswondering if you could bring me water?” Normally, this is not the case inChina. Individual behaviors are based on the social expectations of theChinese.
In respect, some individuals are designated with the right to givecommand, suggestions, and warnings while others have to accept. For example,elders are supposed to use directive language to the young ones, nevertheless,it is impolite.Grammar Grammar is one of the most complexaspects of any language. It is the whole system and structure of a particularlanguage. It comprises the syntax, phonology, semantics, and morphology.Grammar rules dictate the correctness of sentence structures and spellings.
Thecombination of words in a sentence to pass given information is dependent ongrammar. In the B2 class, the English grammar rules will be cherished as thereis need to teach the student the correct things that they need to know beforethe end of the course. Thegrammar problems that Jamaicans face Some of the grammar considerationissues will be the determiner usage, noun phrases, and the structure ofsentences. The Jamaican students will be an epitome of learning the sentencestructures. The English language is dynamic and prone to flux, where it is usedabroad or in native lands, it is true that English has developed to variousdialects depending on the people using the language.
The Creole language mostlyused by the Jamaicans is expressive and vibrant. The same way this languagethis language is described is similar with the way one can feature the youth inJamaica. The biggest struggle, whoever, is finding the necessary way that anindividual can use in order to change the Jamaican youth to conform to Englishlanguage. In connection, a substantial care is necessary when trying to makesuch people understand English properly. For instance, the following are someof the common Jamaican grammatical errors: “mi run instead of I run”, “im runinstead of he runs” or “dem run instead of they run”. Most teachers in Jamaicawill choose to use the deductive approach to teach grammar. Whoever, thismethod is not very welcoming because it has some disadvantages hence theyshould adapt new methodology of teaching and use the deductive approach onlywhen it is necessary.Thegrammar problems that Chinese face The Chinese students are alsoaffected by the grammar issues considering that grammar is most difficultaspect of a foreign language that an individual can master.
For a student tomaster grammar, it is very crucial aspect that requires them to make a seriesof decisions. According to teachers who have been teaching Chinese students forquite a long period of time, it is clear that the students tend to make commonmistakes over and over again. Therefore, it is important for any educator to beaware of these mistakes in order to ensure that students avoid them completely.Example of such errors include: “I get up at 7:00am everyday instead there willsay, I everyday morning 7:00 get up” or “Next Thursday evening 9:00 see youinstead of See you at 9:00 pm next Thursday”. It is important that educatorswho are teaching Chinese students to ensure that they are using a properapproach to ensure that students understanding some of their grammaticalproblems and ensure that they avoid them completely.Conclusion Instructors may be having challengeswhen helping international students to learn a second language. Therefore, itis important for the teacher to know the challenges that can impinge thestudent’s ability to learn better. First, it is essential if the students areenabled to understand the contexts.
The Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, Bangladeshistudents have different grammar challenges. It is the ability of thefacilitator to note factors such as pronunciation, pragmatics and grammarissues that are likely to affect these students success in learning English. Acomparison of the challenges in a new language skills accusation will makelearning more successful. BibliographiesBattle, D. E. (2012). Communicationdisorders in multicultural and international populations.
St. Louis, Mo,Elsevier/MosbyBrown, A. (2014). Pronunciationand phonetics: a practical guide for English language teachers. St. Louis,Mo, Elsevier/Mosby.Lee, G. L.
(2003). TeachingEnglish to students from China. Singapore, Singapore Univ. Press.Leech, G.
N., 2016. Principles of pragmatics.
Routledge.Lin, M.F., 2014. An Interlanguage Pragmatic Study onChinese EFL Learners’ Refusal: Perception andPerformance. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 5(3).Mishra, J.
K. (2010). Companionto communication skills in English: a practical approach to improvingpronunciation. Place of publication not identified, Phi Learning.
Mordecai, M., & Mordecai, P.(2001). Culture and customs of Jamaica. Westport, Conn. u.a.,Greenwood Press.
Page, N., 2014. English in a global voluntary work context:A case study of spoken interaction and its implications for languagepedagogy. The Asian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(2),pp.84-101.
Verhelst, N., Van Avermaet, P., Takala, S.,Figueras, N.
and North, B., 2009. Common European Framework of Referencefor Languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.