Name Institution Professor CourseDate Introduction The “Common European Frameworkof Reference for language (CEFR)” was mainly developed by the”Council of Europe” to bring together educational and culturalmatters among all State members and individuals from other countries (foreignlanguage learning). The idea in connection to this was to promote coherence andtransparency in the education of modern language in European countries(Verhelst, et al. 2009, 23-41). The CEFR provides a structure that clearlyexplains the languages that learners are required to learn in order to enablethem to speak or use a foreign language effectively. The CEFR framework isbased on language use and learning.
The framework tries not only to enable thecomparability between two or more nations but also to consider the traditionsof any given country across the globe as well as the manner in “languageproficiency standards”. The human capacity for language isthe basis for reading. Human demarcations for several elements of reading arein line with components of language and their related terminologies. In regard,several components have been identified in linguistic (pragmatics, morphology,pronunciation, syntax, and others). There is increasing quantity across thecomponents for language acquisition progresses (sentence length, words, andsound) and there is a different understanding among individuals on the use ofthe subtler.
For better understanding, readers are encouraged to get more understandingin the field of language development. The time of giving out speech can be agood way of determining whether an individual’s language skills are developingand using support to individuals in question when support is required. Internationally, there are numerouspeople who are interested in learning the English language as it is stronglybecoming fundamental for business, learning, trade, politics and other socialissues. This makes pronunciation to be essential as people with different seekto be fluent and efficient English speakers.
It is undeniable that Englishlearners experience pronunciation problems as they struggle to perfect theirlanguage. Such students are likely to find problematic sounds when learning theEnglish language. It is therefore significant for the instructors toacknowledge the difficulties faced by such students so that they can be in abetter position to guide them in improving their grammar skills.The Members of the Class The General English course at UpperIntermediate (CEFR B2) level will be a class that will comprise various adultmulti-lingual learners whose intent will be learning English as a foreignlanguage. The B2 class will be attendedby sixteen students: Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, Bangladeshi. It will also be important to consider thefact that the Chinese, Arabs, and Bangladeshi learners may need more attentionsince English may not be so familiar to them when compared to the Jamaicans whocould be speaking English with a unique accent.The Concept of David LaChapelle’sText David’s text: “Can the king ofhyper-real photography help heal the world?” It is an important tool inteaching the Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, and the Bangladeshi English as theirsecond language.
However, it is worth noting that these students will each facedifferent linguistic challenges when analyzing the text. The consistentemphasize on correct grammar, pronunciation, and pragmatics will reduce theproblems facing the students and increase their knowledge of the language usingDavid’s text. Nevertheless, LaChapelle’stext majorly elaborates on the unification of the people regardless of theirgeographical backgrounds. The text criticizes Trump’s ideologies of the wallthat will separate America from Mexico. Instead, love and social cohesivenesshave been presented as better elements in solving the challenges that may befacing America following the effects of the illegal immigrants fromMexico. LaChapelle believes thatphotography can help in healing the world and maintaining the state oftranquility among conflicting nations. His thoughts about the range subject ofthe world’s controversial issues such as the fall of Rome, shooting inuniversities and utilization of metaphysical theories gives him a wide range ofsubjects to analyze.
A critical analysis of the text confirms that mostcelebrities such as Beyoncé are using art and photography to past variousinformation. LaChapelle holds that the people’s oddness and freedoms must betolerated by other if there is a need for peaceful co-existence. For example,the gay people, those who are straight, the transgendered and people fromdifferent races must be treated fairly regardless of their differences. Insummary, the B2 multilingual students must be helped to interpret andunderstand the text even before getting into specific language aspects.
CommonMistakes in the Text Technological advancements andglobalization have made most nations to advocate for second language skillsacquisition. This has been the main reason for the numerous internationalstudents in a foreign nation whose main goal is to escalate their language skillsfor purposes of social cohesiveness and development projects. It is for thisreason that teachers and lecturers are encouraged to teach students the correctforms of grammar and language. Unfortunately,David’s text has numerous mistakes that can impinge on the success of teachinggrammar, pronunciation, pragmatics and other forms of language such as sentencestructure. Listof the mistakes identified.· Grammarmistakes:Regardless of the fact that David’s text is a perfect source in teaching theEnglish language, the grammar mistakes in the text can never be taken forgranted should there be a need to analyze the text surpassingly.· Misuseof articles: there are some occasions where therewere clear article use problems.
Consider this sentence “Bonfire of theVanities idea of society”. It looks like the noun phrase society is missing adeterminer before it. Hence an article could really make the sentence betterfor the leaners.· Plurality:Plurality and singularity are important parts of grammar. If that is the case,then David’s text exhibits some levels of wrongful plurality issues.
In thissentence “the crew that were resistant”, the plural verb “were” may notcorrectly merge or agree with the collective noun crew. The author of the textshould have considered changing it to “was” in order to convert it to thesingular form.· Punctuation:There are numerous sections in the text where punctuation marks were ignored orused wrongly.
In this sentence “I ask him about it: apparently Beyoncé’s”, itis clear that there needs to be a comma between the word apparently and Beyoncéin order for the sentence to be grammatically sound. A good teacher will letthe students note this mistake for purposes of good language skills acquisitionand make them evade grammar mistake in their future assignments, conversations,and authorship. The other punctuation error can be seen in this sentence “Infact, he is dressed head-to-toe”. Grammatically, the introductory phrase “infact” should be followed by a comma. Reasonsfor the mistakes There are many reasons why peoplemake grammar errors or mistakes in their writing or speech. One of the mostprevalent reason is sentence fragmentation.
Secondly, the wringing speed caneasily make people ignore the grammar rules and punctuation marks hence makingmistakes. The usage of wrong words can also escalate the chances of makinglanguage mistakes, especially for learners due to the influence of their firstlanguage. For example, the Jamaican students are likely to be influenced by theAmerican English. For this reason, their words can often be miss-spelled. Suchstudents will consider some words in David’s article to be wrongfully spelt.Such words include “colourful”, “centres”, “modelled”, “aeroplanes” and”travelled” to be wrongly spelled. This may not be the case for British Englishspeaker. Therefore, the teacher or instructor is responsible for letting the B2students understand that there is a great difference between American and TheUnited Kingdom (UK) English by noting such words.
By doing so the students willbe able to advance their English skills and understand the variation of thespelling when they encounter other articles.Expectedcorrect language forms and functions. Despite the fact that the text hadminimal sentence structure issues, one could expect the text to be shorter andless complex.
It is clear that the text may be complex especially for theArabs, Chinese, and Bangladeshi considering the fact that some vocabulary couldbe sophisticated to them. Secondly, the length of some sentences was expectedto be short in order to ease the understanding of the text. Eventually, grammarerrors such as punctuation, pronunciation and sentence structure could beeasily understood by the learners. Thelanguage aspects that I will be trying to teachTheanalysis of LaChapelle’s work motivates a teacher to focus on various languageaspects especially:· Pronunciation· Pragmaticsand· GrammarRationale Since the students have vastorigins, it is true that their language problems are also different. For thisreason, it will be prudent to understand each group of students needs in orderto help them accordingly.
For instance, some voices may be problematic to theChinese and Arabs but not for the Chinese and the Bangladeshi students. otherscould be have sentence structure issues and others could be suffering fromgrammar problems. Pronunciation Pronunciation can be defined as theway in which a word is spoken, or the manner in which a word is uttered in aspecific language. For the General English course at Upper Intermediate (CEFRB2) level class, it is vital to note that correct pronunciation is importantfor better academic success and learning. Despite the fact that themultilingual students may be struggling to perfect their pronunciation skills,it is essential to note that their dialects can influence their learningprocess.
This means that the diversestudents may pronounce a given word differently based on the influence of theirfirst languages. The duration taken for cultural exposure especially inchildhood stages can affect the pronunciation prowess as students continue tolearn English. Secondly, their present residence is a vital element indetermining the success in pronunciation. Other scholars hold that ethnicity,social class, and educational level have a tremendous influence on both speechand communication process.
All this confirms that pronunciation is an importantaspect of the English language since it determines the success ofcommunication. The language used in verbal andwritten communication often behaves as a holistic system where pronunciationplays a vital role. A shift made in a given segment or area is likely to beprojected onto other areas. As a result, the meaning of words especially thewords that have different meaning and same spellings can be so challenging toforeign English learners. This makes pronunciation to be very important whenlearning. According to most English scholar, the people’s accent can affecttheir intonation abilities and speech. Following this observation, the way inwhich words are pronounced must not be taken for granted when learning.
Pronunciationis considered to be the act of producing the sounds of speech. This includesarticulation, stress, and intonation. Every language dictates how some wordsshould be pronounced. The correctness or acceptability of the sound yieldedwhen refereeing to a given work determines the effectiveness of communication. Comparingpronunciation problematic and difficulties.
Research studies demonstrate thatthe numerous errors made by English speakers especially the learners are oftensystematic rather than random. For instance, Arabic students face challengeswhen pronouncing the sounds they are not familiar with yet they are in theEnglish language. An example is wordswith sounds /v/, /p/, /?/ are more problematic to Arabic learners (Brown, 2014,193). According to Battle (2012), Arabsdo not have consonant /v/. Comparatively, the Jamaican may not be having thischallenge.
On the other hand, the Chinese students have problems whenpronouncing words that have sounds /r/ and /l/ (Lee, 2003, 144). The JamaicansEnglish language has been listed as one of the most complex since they use acombination of standard British English and Jamaican English where some wordsare eliminated at the end of the sentence. This makes their pronunciation andrhythms unique (Mordecai & Mordecai, 2001, 72). The Bengali speakers andlearners lack labio-dental fricatives. This makes it hard for them to pronouncesounds /f/ and /v/ correctly. Sounds /w/ and /j/ are also problematic toBengali learners since they are absent in their first language (Mishra, 2010,3). Vowels thatcould be difficult to pronounce Arabs Chinese Jamaicans Bangladeshi Arabic speakers have problems when differentiating /v/ and /f/ sounds.
Consonants /p/ and /n/ are also challenging to Arabic speakers The Chinese speakers experience difficulties when pronouncing sounds /j/ ch/ /v/ and sh/ The inability to stress on syllables can make it difficult for Chinese speakers to pronounce words with given cluster combination such as /sl/, /sn/, /sm/, /br/, /cr/, /fr/ and /sq/ Minimal pronunciation issues Sounds /v/, /f/, /w/ and /j/ are difficult to pronounce for Bengali learners. Words that couldbe difficult for the students in David’s Text Arabs Chinese Jamaicans Bangladeshi Interviewing Video Vienna Fine Fashion Famous After From Photography Spot stepped Rejection Subject Project Job Shaped Shiny Shoot Sheen Love covered None Moved From Lives Serves Carved First Powerful Fashion subject Reasons why students should recognize thepronunciations · Tobe cautious of pronunciation· Toimprove their pronunciation especially on the challenging sounds.· Thestudents should accept their innate difficulties based on the influence oftheir first language.· Theanalysis of the pronunciation difficulties will enable all the students todevelop a positive attitude to the discipline considering the fact that each ofthem may be having individual problems. Pragmatics “Pragmatics” is the manner inwhich members of a specific community express their desires using language. Inregard to this, it is important to understand, for instance, that the way wespeak to our friends is not the same way we relate to our parents.Consequently, the language that is used in a formal speech may be a little bitdifferent from that one would hear during a lunch with four friends or more(Leech, 2016, 7). On the other hand, it is clearly noted that the conversationalstyle that is used in day-to-day interaction is quite different from thelanguage that will be used when narrating a story to pupils in a classroom.
Theessence of pragmatics, in this case, is understanding these differences and thebest time that one is required to use the different styles during differentcases of interaction. The most crucial part of socialinteractions is a facility with language. The educational system is mainlyfocused on the ability of individuals to communicate effectively with othersthrough written and spoken language, whoever, reading is the part that receivesgreater emphasis. “For social and economic progress in any given communityor society, an individual’s ability to read is greatly valued hence making readingvery important for the success of the society”. Successful early readingachievements can be attained by effective instructions from experiencedteachers. The teachers should consider providing instructions in a balanced wayto all children by ensuring that they master alphabetic, acquire wordunderstanding skills, get involved in and maintain an interest in reading justto name a few. The educators are being cautioned on the use the word”balance” suggesting that “integration” should be usedinstead by the “National Research Council Committee”. The term”balance” is considered not to mean a way of dividing time equallyfor the parts of the reading program comprehensively.
Considering the Singlish (ColloquialSingaporean English) language, for example, most of the vocabularies are giventheir meaning from English. Words from Malay and varieties of China are amongthe language which gives the vocabularies in Singlish their meaning. Thelanguage is being rallied against by the Singaporean government because theywant people to speak good English in order to stop some of the funnygrammatical structures that are associated with the language.
Sometimes, likein Mandarin, some sentences in Singlish will open with a topic and finally endwith a comment. Consider the following sentence for instance: “I go officewait for you.” Grammatically, it is not the same thing with “I willbe waiting for you at the office,” whoever, it rotates in a place wherethe sentence structure in question is the order at the particular time.Thepragmatic problems that Jamaicans face The English language causes a lot ofresistance to the young people of Jamaica in a classroom hence one of thegreatest struggle. In connection, students are forced to get into”Jamaican Creole” any time they want to express themselves (Page,2014, 84-101). Whoever, it is important that proper English is imparted to theyouth considering the fact that it is the lingua franca of the world (I am).For instance, for the creole language, there is no indication of number orperson for present tense verbs. The past is, whoever, indicated by insertingthe tense marker mi after the verb (“ai mi ron” – I ran).
Therefore,the pragmatic problems experienced by the Jamaicans are different from thosethe Chinese people go through. An educator in class that consists of Jamaicansand Chinese people will have to employ difference reading writing strategies toindividuals from the different nationalities. Considering David LaChapelle’sarticle, it would be difficult for a Jamaica learner to clear read andcomprehend the sentence “none of us thought it was actually going tohappen”. In such situation, an educator is required to carefully read andexplain the sentence so that the Jamaicans are not left out.Thepragmatic problems that Chinese learners face Chinese English lingua franca face aproblem of cross-cultural differences among English refusals and Chinese. Someof the Chinese learners lack sufficient competence hence encountering acommunicative breakdown. In order to maintain their harmonious interpersonalrelationship, the Chinese mostly prefer to use indirect mode of expressingthemselves (Lin, 2014, 3).
The following indirect and euphemistic speech arecommonly used in English when asking people to do something: “would youmind bringing me water?” or “I was wondering if you could bring mewater?” Normally, this is not the case in China. Individual behaviors arebased on the social expectations of the Chinese. In respect, some individualsare designated with the right to give command, suggestions, and warnings whileothers have to accept. For example, elders are supposed to use directivelanguage to the young ones, nevertheless, it is impolite. Therefore, in regardto the David LaChapelle’s article, it will be against the Chinese tradition tohave a statement like “I was repulsed by this guy” or “it’s’greed is good’ this Bonfire of the Vanities idea of a society where the bullywins”. The statements will sound impolite hence out from the Chinese tradition.In similar cases, the educators are supposed to be very cautious.Grammar Grammar is one of the most complexaspects of any language.
It is the whole system and structure of a particularlanguage. It comprises the syntax, phonology, semantics, and morphology.Grammar rules dictate the correctness of sentence structures and spellings.
Thecombination of words in a sentence to pass given information is dependent ongrammar. In the B2 class, the English grammar rules will be cherished as thereis need to teach the student the correct things that they need to know beforethe end of the course. Some of the grammar considerationissues will be the determiner usage, noun phrases, and the structure ofsentences. The Jamaican students will be an epitome of learning the sentencestructures. The English language is dynamic and prone to flux, where it is usedabroad or in native lands, it is true that English has developed to variousdialects depending on the people using the language.
For this reason, it iseasier to differentiate whether a speaker is Jamaican, Indian, or Arabic and soon.Comparingthe student’s grammar using LaChapelle’s text The most vulnerable students togrammar issues are the Jamaicans. Well, the other students could also be havinggrammar difficulties but the uniqueness of Jamaican language sentencestructures increases their chances of having grammar problems. For example, aJamaican will be tempted to “I have been” as “me av been”. Assuming that thiswas in oral form, it could be difficult for other students to understand. Onthe other hand, sentence structures could be easier for the Arabs, Bangladeshiand Chinese speakers once they master the language because their nativelanguages have minimal influence on their English sentence composition.Additionally, LaChapelle’s has good sentence structure and the students will beencouraged to follow it as a perfect example.Conclusion Instructors may be having challengeswhen helping international students to learn a second language.
Therefore, itis important for the teacher to know that challenges that can impinge thestudent’s ability to learn better. First, it is essential if the students areenabled to understand the contexts. LaChapelle’s work is a worth using whenteaching English to B2 students. The Arabs, Chinese, Jamaicans, Bangladeshistudents have different grammar challenges. It is the ability of thefacilitator to note factors such as pronunciation, pragmatics and grammarissues that are likely to affect these students success in learning English. Acomparison of the challenges in a new language skills accusation will makelearning more successful.
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