NAME: or forward. The clamping circuit or clamper

NAME: EMMANUEL ISRAEL OKPARAREG NO: 2015/199866DEPT: ELECTRONIC ENGINEERINGCOURSE CODE: ECE 321 INTRODUCTIONPractically, diodes canbe used as a switch depending on the biasing type, reverse or forward. Theclamping circuit or clamper keeps the amplitude of the output signal same asthat of the input signal except that the D.C level (offset) has been changed. What is a clamper circuit? A clamper, simplydefined, is a network, which constructed using a diode and a capacitor, shiftsthe waveform to a different dc level without changing the appearance of theapplied signal 1 10. It is the circuit that places either positive ornegative peak of input signal at the desired level 2 7 3 4. From thisdefinition, we should note the following:i.

                   It consists of diode, resistor andcapacitor 5 6;ii.                 It shifts an ac signal into a differentdc level-that is, applying a sinusoidal waveform at the input produces anothersinusoidal waveform at the output;iii.               It does not change wave shape andpeak-to-peak value;iv.               Further shift in the dc level ispossible by adding external bias voltage.

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it is of incrediblesignificance that we take into thought that a clamper can be described as anelectronic circuit which anticipates any input signal from surpassing a certaincharacterized size by moving its comparing Dc value. A diode is one of thevital components in a diode clamp circuit. The diode conducts electric currentin as it were one course.

The resistors and capacitors in the circuit areutilized to preserve a changed DC level the clamper output. These circuitsessentially clamp a crest of a waveform to a particular DC level compared witha capacitive coupled signal which swings around its normal DC level (as a rule0V). In the event that the diode is evacuated from the clamper, it defaults toa straightforward coupling capacitor – no clamping.The clamper, for all intents and purposes, does not limit thepeak-to-peak outing of the signal, but moves it up or down by a settled value.The distinctive sorts of clampers are positive negative and one-sided clampers.A positive clamp circuit yields a simply positive waveform from an inputsignal; it offsets the input signal so that all of the waveform is morenoteworthy than 0V. a negative clamp is the inverse of this –  this clamp yields a simply negative waveformfrom an input signal. A clamping arrangement must have a capacitor, a diode anda resistive component.

The size R and C must be chosen such that the timesteady RC is expansive sufficient to guarantee that the voltage over thecapacitor does not release essentially amid the interim the diode isnon-conducting 2 7 3 4. TYPESOF CLAMPERSThe positive or negativetop of a signal can be situated at the cravel level by utilizing the clampingcircuits 2 7 3 4. As we can move the levels of crests of the signal byutilizing a clamper, subsequently, it is hence called level shifter 2 7 34. The clamper circuit comprises a capacitor and diode associated in parallelover the load 2 7 3 4. The clamper must be chosen such that, amid theconduction of the diode, the capacitor must be adequate to charge rapidly andamid the non-conducting period of diode, the capacitor ought to not releaseradically 2 7 3 4. The clampers are classified as positive and negativeclampers based on the clamping strategy 2 7 3 4 12.  Clampers can be broadly classified into twotypes 8 9.

They are positive clampers and negative clampers 8 9.1.     Positive Clamper: This type of clamping circuit shifts the inputwaveform in a positive direction 8 9; as a result the waveform lies above aDC reference voltage 8. The circuit of the positive clamper is comparative tothe negative clamper but the direction of the diode is altered in such a waythat the cathode of the diode is connected to the capacitor 8 10 2 73 4 5 6.

Amid the positive half wave cycle, yield or output voltage ofthe circuit will be the sum of connected input voltage and the charge stored atcapacitor 8 2 7 3 4. Amid the negative half wave cycle, the diodebegins to conduct and charges the capacitor exceptionally rapidly to itsgreatest value 2 7 8 3 4 5 6 11 12. The output waveform ofthe positive clamper shifts towards the positive direction over the 0 volts 83 4 2 7 5 6. It is nearly comparative to the negative clamper circuit, butthe diode is associated in the inverse direction 2 7 3 4 11 8 56. Amid the positive half cycle, the voltage over the yield or output terminalsgets to be equal to the sum of the input voltage and capacitor voltage(considering the capacitor as at first completely charged) 2 7 3 4 56 11 1 8 10 13 12 14. Amid the negative half cycle of theinput, the diode begins conducting and charges the capacitor quickly to itscrest input value 8 2 7 3 4 11 5 6 12 1 13 10 14.

Hence the waveforms are clamped towards the positive direction as appearedabove 2 7 3 4 5 6 8. Positive Clamper withPositive Vr A positive referencevoltage is included in series arrangement with the diode of the positiveclamper as appeared in the circuit 7 3 4 2 11 8 12 1 5 1014 6. Amid the positive half cycle of the input, the diode conducts as atfirst the supply voltage is less than the anode positive reference voltage 27 3 4 12 14 8 5 6 1 11 13. In case once the cathodevoltage is more noteworthy than anode voltage at that point the diode stopsconduction 2 7 3 4 8 5 12 11 6. Amid the negative half cycle,the diode conducts and charges the capacitor 2 7 3 4 8 5 6 1211 1 10. The yield or output is produced as appeared in the figure.  Positive Clamper withNegative Vr The course of thereference voltage is reversed, which is associated in series arrangement withthe diode making it as a negative reference voltage 7 3 4 2 11 85 6 12 1 10. Amid the positive half cycle the diode will benon-conducting, such that the yield or output is equal to capacitor voltage andinput voltage 2 7 3 4 5 6 8 1 12 11 10.

Amid the negativehalf cycle, the diode begins conduction as it were after the cathode voltagevalue gets to be less than the anode voltage 2 7 3 4 8 1 5 610 12 11 . In this way, the yield waveforms are created as appeared inthe over figure. 2.     Negative Clamper: This type of clamping circuit shifts theinput waveform in a negative direction 8; as a result the waveform lies belowa DC reference voltage 8. The negative clamping circuit comprises a diodeassociated in parallel with the load 8. The capacitor utilized in theclamping circuit can be chosen such that it must charge exceptionally rapidlyand it ought to not release discharge drastically 8. The anode of the diodeis associated to the capacitor and cathode to the ground 8 1. Amid thepositive half cycle of the input, the diode is in forward bias and as the diodeconducts the capacitor charges exceptionally quickly 8 2 7 3 4 512 6 1 11 14 13.

During the negative half cycle of the input, thediode will be in reverse bias and the diode will not conduct, the yield oroutput voltage will be equal to the sum of the applied input voltage and thecharge put away in the capacitor amid reverse bias 8 1 2 7 3 4 56 13 11 12. The yield waveform is same as input waveform, but movedunderneath 0volts 8. Amid the positive half cycle, the input diode is in forwardbias- and as the diode conducts-capacitor gets charged (up to crest value ofinput supply) 7 2 3 4 5 12 6 8. Amid the negative half cycle,switch does not conduct and the yield voltage ended up break even with to theinput voltage put away over the capacitor 3 4 2 7 5 6.   Negative Clamper withPositive Vr It is comparative to the negative clamper, butthe yield waveform is moved towards the positive direction by a positivereference voltage 7 3 4 2 8 5 6.

As the positive referencevoltage is associated in series arrangement with the diode, amid the positivehalf cycle, indeed in spite of the fact the diode conducts, the yield voltagegets to be rise to the reference voltage 2 7 3 4 8 5 6 1 1210; hence, the output is clamped towards the positive direction as shown inthe above figure 2 7 3 4 5 6 1 10 12.Negative Clamper withNegative Vr By altering the reference voltage directions,the negative reference voltage is associated in series arrangement with thediode as appeared in the above figure 7 3 4 2 12 8 1 10 511 6. Amid the positive half cycle, the diode begins conduction beforezero, as the cathode has a negative reference voltage, which is less than thatof zero and the anode voltage, and in this way, the waveform is clamped towardsthe negative direction by the reference voltage value 2 7 3 4 5 61 10 8 12 11. APPLICATION OF CLAMPER1.     Clampers can be frequently used in removing the distortions andidentification of polarity of the circuits 8 13 9.2.     The complex transmitterand receiver circuitry of television clamper is used as a base line stabilizerto define sections of the luminance signals to preset levels 2 7 5 1315 14 16 17 18 6.

3.     Clampers are also calledas direct current restorers as they clamp the wave forms to a fixed DCpotential 2 7 3 4 5 13 15 14 16 17 18 6.4.     These are frequently usedin test equipment, sonar and radar systems 2 7 5 6 15 16 3 4.5.     For the protection of theamplifiers from large errant signals clampers are used 2 7 5 6 1514 16 17 18 3 4 9.6.     Clampers can be used forremoving the distortions 2 7 3 4 5 6 15 16 17 18.

7.     For improving theoverdrive recovery time clampers are used 2 7 5 6 15 16 17 813.8.     Clampers can be used asvoltage doublers or voltage multipliers 2 7 3 4 5 6 15 8 13.9.     The complex transmitterand receiver circuitry of television clamper is used as a base line stabilizer todefine sections of the luminance signals to preset levels.10.  Clampers are also called as direct current restorers as theyclamp the wave forms to a fixed DC potential.

11.  These are frequently used in test equipment, sonar and radar systems.12.  For the protection of the amplifiers from large errant signals clampers are used.

13.  Clampers can be used for removing the distortions14.  For improving the overdrive recovery time clampers are used.15.  Clampers can be used as voltage doublers or voltage multipliers.16.

  For improving thereverse recovery time, clampers are used 8 13 2 7 5 6 15 1617.17.  Clamping circuits can beused as voltage doublers and for modeling the existing waveforms to a requiredshape and range 8 13 2 5 6 7 3 4 15.18.

  Clampers are widely usedin test equipments and other sonar systems 8 13 9.19.  A clamper can be used asdirect current restorers 3 4.

20.  A clamper can be used toremove distortions.21.  A clamper can be used asvoltage multipliers 2 7 3 4 8 5 6 13 15.

22.  A clamper can be usedfor the protection of amplifiers 2 7 15 5 6 3 4.23.  A clamper can be used astest equipment24.  A clamper can be used asbase-line stabilizer REFERENCE1N.

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