NAME: or forward. The clamping circuit or clamper

NAME: EMMANUEL ISRAEL OKPARA

REG NO: 2015/199866

DEPT: ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

COURSE CODE: ECE 321

 

INTRODUCTION

Practically, diodes can
be used as a switch depending on the biasing type, reverse or forward. The
clamping circuit or clamper keeps the amplitude of the output signal same as
that of the input signal except that the D.C level (offset) has been changed.

What is a clamper circuit?

A clamper, simply
defined, is a network, which constructed using a diode and a capacitor, shifts
the waveform to a different dc level without changing the appearance of the
applied signal 1 10. It is the circuit that places either positive or
negative peak of input signal at the desired level 2 7 3 4. From this
definition, we should note the following:

i.                   
It consists of diode, resistor and
capacitor 5 6;

ii.                 
It shifts an ac signal into a different
dc level-that is, applying a sinusoidal waveform at the input produces another
sinusoidal waveform at the output;

iii.               
It does not change wave shape and
peak-to-peak value;

iv.               
Further shift in the dc level is
possible by adding external bias voltage.

it is of incredible
significance that we take into thought that a clamper can be described as an
electronic circuit which anticipates any input signal from surpassing a certain
characterized size by moving its comparing Dc value. A diode is one of the
vital components in a diode clamp circuit. The diode conducts electric current
in as it were one course. The resistors and capacitors in the circuit are
utilized to preserve a changed DC level the clamper output. These circuits
essentially clamp a crest of a waveform to a particular DC level compared with
a capacitive coupled signal which swings around its normal DC level (as a rule
0V). In the event that the diode is evacuated from the clamper, it defaults to
a straightforward coupling capacitor – no clamping.

The clamper, for all intents and purposes, does not limit the
peak-to-peak outing of the signal, but moves it up or down by a settled value.
The distinctive sorts of clampers are positive negative and one-sided clampers.
A positive clamp circuit yields a simply positive waveform from an input
signal; it offsets the input signal so that all of the waveform is more
noteworthy than 0V. a negative clamp is the inverse of this –  this clamp yields a simply negative waveform
from an input signal. A clamping arrangement must have a capacitor, a diode and
a resistive component. The size R and C must be chosen such that the time
steady RC is expansive sufficient to guarantee that the voltage over the
capacitor does not release essentially amid the interim the diode is
non-conducting 2 7 3 4.

 

TYPES
OF CLAMPERS

The positive or negative
top of a signal can be situated at the cravel level by utilizing the clamping
circuits 2 7 3 4. As we can move the levels of crests of the signal by
utilizing a clamper, subsequently, it is hence called level shifter 2 7 3
4. The clamper circuit comprises a capacitor and diode associated in parallel
over the load 2 7 3 4. The clamper must be chosen such that, amid the
conduction of the diode, the capacitor must be adequate to charge rapidly and
amid the non-conducting period of diode, the capacitor ought to not release
radically 2 7 3 4. The clampers are classified as positive and negative
clampers based on the clamping strategy 2 7 3 4 12.

  Clampers can be broadly classified into two
types 8 9. They are positive clampers and negative clampers 8 9.

1.     
Positive Clamper: This type of clamping circuit shifts the input
waveform in a positive direction 8 9; as a result the waveform lies above a
DC reference voltage 8. The circuit of the positive clamper is comparative to
the negative clamper but the direction of the diode is altered in such a way
that the cathode of the diode is connected to the capacitor 8 10 2 7
3 4 5 6. Amid the positive half wave cycle, yield or output voltage of
the circuit will be the sum of connected input voltage and the charge stored at
capacitor 8 2 7 3 4. Amid the negative half wave cycle, the diode
begins to conduct and charges the capacitor exceptionally rapidly to its
greatest value 2 7 8 3 4 5 6 11 12. The output waveform of
the positive clamper shifts towards the positive direction over the 0 volts 8
3 4 2 7 5 6.

It is nearly comparative to the negative clamper circuit, but
the diode is associated in the inverse direction 2 7 3 4 11 8 5
6. Amid the positive half cycle, the voltage over the yield or output terminals
gets to be equal to the sum of the input voltage and capacitor voltage
(considering the capacitor as at first completely charged) 2 7 3 4 5
6 11 1 8 10 13 12 14. Amid the negative half cycle of the
input, the diode begins conducting and charges the capacitor quickly to its
crest input value 8 2 7 3 4 11 5 6 12 1 13 10 14.
Hence the waveforms are clamped towards the positive direction as appeared
above 2 7 3 4 5 6 8.

 

Positive Clamper with
Positive Vr

A positive reference
voltage is included in series arrangement with the diode of the positive
clamper as appeared in the circuit 7 3 4 2 11 8 12 1 5 10
14 6. Amid the positive half cycle of the input, the diode conducts as at
first the supply voltage is less than the anode positive reference voltage 2
7 3 4 12 14 8 5 6 1 11 13. In case once the cathode
voltage is more noteworthy than anode voltage at that point the diode stops
conduction 2 7 3 4 8 5 12 11 6. Amid the negative half cycle,
the diode conducts and charges the capacitor 2 7 3 4 8 5 6 12
11 1 10. The yield or output is produced as appeared in the figure.

 

 

Positive Clamper with
Negative Vr

The course of the
reference voltage is reversed, which is associated in series arrangement with
the diode making it as a negative reference voltage 7 3 4 2 11 8
5 6 12 1 10. Amid the positive half cycle the diode will be
non-conducting, such that the yield or output is equal to capacitor voltage and
input voltage 2 7 3 4 5 6 8 1 12 11 10. Amid the negative
half cycle, the diode begins conduction as it were after the cathode voltage
value gets to be less than the anode voltage 2 7 3 4 8 1 5 6
10 12 11 . In this way, the yield waveforms are created as appeared in
the over figure.

 

2.     
Negative Clamper: This type of clamping circuit shifts the
input waveform in a negative direction 8; as a result the waveform lies below
a DC reference voltage 8. The negative clamping circuit comprises a diode
associated in parallel with the load 8. The capacitor utilized in the
clamping circuit can be chosen such that it must charge exceptionally rapidly
and it ought to not release discharge drastically 8. The anode of the diode
is associated to the capacitor and cathode to the ground 8 1. Amid the
positive half cycle of the input, the diode is in forward bias and as the diode
conducts the capacitor charges exceptionally quickly 8 2 7 3 4 5
12 6 1 11 14 13. During the negative half cycle of the input, the
diode will be in reverse bias and the diode will not conduct, the yield or
output voltage will be equal to the sum of the applied input voltage and the
charge put away in the capacitor amid reverse bias 8 1 2 7 3 4 5
6 13 11 12. The yield waveform is same as input waveform, but moved
underneath 0volts 8. Amid the positive half cycle, the input diode is in forward
bias- and as the diode conducts-capacitor gets charged (up to crest value of
input supply) 7 2 3 4 5 12 6 8. Amid the negative half cycle,
switch does not conduct and the yield voltage ended up break even with to the
input voltage put away over the capacitor 3 4 2 7 5 6.

 

 

Negative Clamper with
Positive Vr

It is comparative to the negative clamper, but
the yield waveform is moved towards the positive direction by a positive
reference voltage 7 3 4 2 8 5 6. As the positive reference
voltage is associated in series arrangement with the diode, amid the positive
half cycle, indeed in spite of the fact the diode conducts, the yield voltage
gets to be rise to the reference voltage 2 7 3 4 8 5 6 1 12
10; hence, the output is clamped towards the positive direction as shown in
the above figure 2 7 3 4 5 6 1 10 12.

Negative Clamper with
Negative Vr

By altering the reference voltage directions,
the negative reference voltage is associated in series arrangement with the
diode as appeared in the above figure 7 3 4 2 12 8 1 10 5
11 6. Amid the positive half cycle, the diode begins conduction before
zero, as the cathode has a negative reference voltage, which is less than that
of zero and the anode voltage, and in this way, the waveform is clamped towards
the negative direction by the reference voltage value 2 7 3 4 5 6
1 10 8 12 11.

 

APPLICATION OF CLAMPER

1.     
Clampers can be frequently used in removing the distortions and
identification of polarity of the circuits 8 13 9.

2.     
The complex transmitter
and receiver circuitry of television clamper is used as a base line stabilizer
to define sections of the luminance signals to preset levels 2 7 5 13
15 14 16 17 18 6.

3.     
Clampers are also called
as direct current restorers as they clamp the wave forms to a fixed DC
potential 2 7 3 4 5 13 15 14 16 17 18 6.

4.     
These are frequently used
in test equipment, sonar and radar systems 2 7 5 6 15 16 3 4.

5.     
For the protection of the
amplifiers from large errant signals clampers are used 2 7 5 6 15
14 16 17 18 3 4 9.

6.     
Clampers can be used for
removing the distortions 2 7 3 4 5 6 15 16 17 18.

7.     
For improving the
overdrive recovery time clampers are used 2 7 5 6 15 16 17 8
13.

8.     
Clampers can be used as
voltage doublers or voltage multipliers 2 7 3 4 5 6 15 8 13.

9.     
The complex transmitter
and receiver circuitry of television clamper is used as a base line stabilizer to
define sections of the luminance signals to preset levels.

10.  Clampers are also called as direct current restorers as they
clamp the wave forms to a fixed DC potential.

11.  These are frequently used in test equipment, sonar and radar systems.

12.  For the protection of the amplifiers from large errant signals clampers are used.

13.  Clampers can be used for removing the distortions

14.  For improving the overdrive recovery time clampers are used.

15.  Clampers can be used as voltage doublers or voltage multipliers.

16.  For improving the
reverse recovery time, clampers are used 8 13 2 7 5 6 15 16
17.

17.  Clamping circuits can be
used as voltage doublers and for modeling the existing waveforms to a required
shape and range 8 13 2 5 6 7 3 4 15.

18.  Clampers are widely used
in test equipments and other sonar systems 8 13 9.

19.  A clamper can be used as
direct current restorers 3 4.

20.  A clamper can be used to
remove distortions.

21.  A clamper can be used as
voltage multipliers 2 7 3 4 8 5 6 13 15.

22.  A clamper can be used
for the protection of amplifiers 2 7 15 5 6 3 4.

23.  A clamper can be used as
test equipment

24.  A clamper can be used as
base-line stabilizer

 

REFERENCE

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