Nowadays, research is required to improve theconditions of life. To do any topics ofthe research is likely to help society directly or indirectly. Before startingcollecting the data, the researchers need to inform and obtain consent firstfrom the participants.The meaning of informedconsent is a main part of the researchers to get to the participants beforedoing the research. Informed consent to participants to make them more aware of the type ofinformation you want from them, why the information is being sought, what thepurpose it will being carried out, how they are expected to participate in thestudy and how it directly effect to themselves and also the coomunity. It isimportant things to get consent voluntary and without any pressure to theparticipants.Information elements of the consents tothe participants must be fully noted.
Subject should be confidential andanonymous. The informed consent form must be written in lay language to makeparticipants easy to understand about the research. The researcher must givetime to answer questions at any time the participants available without anyforce.
The elements in the consent must bevoluntary without any pressure. Participants also must be free to withdrawconsent at any time they want. The consent form must contains explanation the aim of the research project, the ways howthe study will being conducted study, the harm and risk, the value and thebeneficial, privately, refusal from the study, harsh statement, consentform ,and the last thing must being sign by participants. A humansubject is defined as a living person about who will investigatorconducting research get the information. This includes studying of humans through observations or interviews,psychological, physiological or medical testing or treatment, access to theirpersonal document or other materials such as the collection and use of theirbody organs, tissues or fluids.
Access to their details is personally identifiableconfidential information form as a part of an existing published source ordatabase.An issues relating to this is the risk ofthe research to the participants. A risk can cause harm to participants,discomfort or inconvenience. The list of harm include physical harm such asinjury, illness and pain. Psychological harm which is feelings ofworthlessness, distress, guilt, anger or fear.
For example, to expose of somethingsensitive or embarrassing information, or learning about the geneticpossibility of developing an untreatable disease. Another issues is to sought the sensitiveinformation. In seeking this matter, it will make the participants may upset orembarrass to participate, but if we not ask for it, there is no way to soughtthis problem. For most people in this world, the sexual behaviour , drug use,marital status, salary, age are privacy and personal lifestyle without anyoneshould know about that things. So, incollecting the data about the sensitive information, the researchers need toexplain carefully and smoothly to the participants. Keep the information privatelyand give them enough time without any pressure.Another issue is to keep all theinformation privately. Do not share theinformation we get from the participants with another besides the purpose ofthe study.
It is unethical when we do so, so be careful. Make sure all confidentialityis maintained. Providing some present also one of theissue in research human subjects. Some of the researchers provide some presentto their participants as appreciation because of their time involving in thestudy but some thinking is inducements. It depends to any researchers andparticipants about the present.
The major ethical principles that guideresearchers in their works, respect the persons as human dignity, beneficence,and justice.Respect for persons. The principle of respectfor human as an individual involves acknowledge the existence of human beinghas value for themselves. Researchers must equally regard the value of those areinvolving in research. The moral and ethical requirement is based on theacceptance of the participant’s autonomy. It is the important things and the responsibilityof the researcher to get informed consent from the participants and to maintainprivately on their behalf. From the beginning till the end of the researchprocess to the capacity of human beings to make their own decision without anypressure from anybody. When the participants are unable to make their owndecisions or have lack of ability to do so, respect for them by empowering themwhen possible, give them time, providing for their protection as necessary anddo not pressure them to do so and so.
Researchers should respect the privacy,confidentiality and cultural norms sensitivities of participants and what the relevantthings at their communities site. Any specific agreement made with theparticipants or the community should be accomplished.The principle of beneficence is between thepotential of good and the risk for participation.
The likely benefit of theresearch must justify any risks of harm or discomfort to participants or thewider community. Researchers must have to maximize possible good things andminimize possible harm in their study. Researchers are responsible for making theresearch to minimize the risks of harm or discomfort to participants, explainingto the participants the potential of benefits and risk, and the welfare of theparticipants in the research.
Where there is no likely benefit to participants,the risk danger to participants should be lower than would be ethicallyacceptable where there are such likely benefits over there.The principle of justice involves regard forhuman similarity that each person share with others, that means should treatequally. It means a fair distribution of the burdens and benefits of researchand encompasses fair treatment in recruitment of participants and in the reviewof research. Researchers must ensure that the participants are not being exploitedand exposed to any harm either physically or emotionally. Suitable candidateswho may good from participation are not excluded without good cause.