Organ transplantation is the medical act of removing the organ of a healthy patient and placing into the one who is in need. However, over the years the demand for organs has increased as supply decreased. As of 2017, there are 16,130 patients who are on an active waitlist and 20 people who die on that list each day. With humans dying per day due to the failure of organs transplant, with that taken into consider action is essential looking at alternative methods to increase the availability of organs. It is important to consider the overall costs of human organs and the economic repercussions of alternative like tax and financial incentives.
The controversy associated with transplants is the lack and limitation of supply. It is important to note that, donors do not benefit from this system. To begin with, an idea of donating into the market was prohibited by the of law called, “The National Organ Transplant Act”. It was approved on October 19, 1984, and amended in 1988. In 1990, the states outlawed the sale and buys of organs including a request for planning and establishing an initial operation on a human being. One approach that can be used to increase the availability of organs is by the agreement of tax incentives or tax deduction. Tax incentives allow citizens to transplant their organs to another human being in the need in which a tax deduction is a granted back to them. The government removes up to $10,00 from their federal adjusted gross income (legislation document: Income Tax Deduction for Donating Human Organs). Arthur J. Matas, MD, University of Minnesota’s, who is a member Working Group on Incentives for Living Donation argues: “It would be sensible for our nations to offer a small tax incentive to those willing to carry a donation card and act as a potential organ donor in the event of their own death.” Thus, his study support the concept that the annual number of transplants in the US is only approximately 20 000, without including the tax incentives process. Furthermore, this does not include the number of Americans that pass away per year. Andrew Oswald, who is a professor of economics at the University at Warwick and written several journals and research on economics quoted “arguably, the tax incentive and publicity would more than double the stock of officially registered potential organ donors from its current 8 million people. If so, it might be feasible to increase the number of transplants by around 2000 a year.” Therefore, the number of original donors will expand twice the size. According to National Performance Review, about a third of states offer tax incentives to people who donate a kidney, a portion of their liver or bone marrow for transplantation (Erb, 2012). Thus, displaying most states have tax rates that average around 6.5% which explains the tax savings top out at about $650 per body part.
Overall Cost of Organ Transplant
The shortage of human transplants percentage is increasing each year and is becoming an international issue. There are twenty and more organs that can be operated under modern technology including the bone, bone cartilage, bone marrow, corneas, heart, kidneys, intestines, lungs, and livers which are the most demanded. The payment of organs transplant is one reason why the donation supply is low. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services explained that about 16,130 people need a life-saving organ transplant (total waiting list candidates). There is an estimate of 75,491 people are on active waiting list, 28,748 of organ transplants performed in 2017 and only 13,518 donors. Meaning as of the year of 2017, twenty people die each day while waiting for a transplant and one organ can save 8 lives. The most demand amount of transplant organs which is the heart that cost $997.700, Liver is $577.100 and lung is $561.200. Analyzing the statistics, the amount of money that is required, many citizens are not eligible to acquire life insurance to receive a transplant that is very costly. In the past years, countless patients have noted that they are facing higher premiums for life insurance. In most cases, patients own payment are to be enlisted on an active transplant list. There are some medical programs in which the government provide and support to patients but is limited such as the Medicaid Statute. Medicaid Statute was amended in 1985 to include specific organ transplant criteria that states were required to adopt to receive for federal financial assistance for these types of procedures. Coverage for Kidneys: The Intersection of Insurance and Organ Transplantation states that “Under this provision, the federal government will not reimburse states for organ transplants unless the state develops written standards for transplant coverage where similarly situated individuals are treated alike and the accessibility of high-quality care is maintained” (Wong, 2006). Moreover, it is indicated that they are not entitled to change legal unless the states grant them permission. Another critical issue is the risk of utilizing of low income class. Benjamin Hippen, a nephrologist at Metrolina Nephrology Associates based in Charlotte, NC, USA, says that extremely poor people would not be ideal donors in any case because “low socioeconomic status around the world is an independent risk factor for kidney disease” (Shetty, 2009). Henceforth, the patients are better off of not receiving any donation of donors who are at high risked of developing an organ failure. Saba and Courtenay Bruce states that, in a poll conducted by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Ad Hoc Donations Committee, half of the surveyed population favored some kind of compensation for organ donors (Saba S. Shaikh, 2016).This reason lead to the proposal of boosting the system of presume consent, in which everyone is qualified to be donor until the right age to option out.
Correspondingly another method that could be used to increase the availability of organs is financial incentives. Francis L. Delmonico, who is a Professor of Surgery, and attended Harvard Medical School, Harvard University states that monetary benefit offered to consumers, employees and organizations to encourage behavior or actions which otherwise would not take place. It specifies that financial incentive motivates actions which otherwise might not occur without the monetary. This method ethical principle in which is prohibited and beneficial or would it have more positive results than negative. Overall altruism is a question in the main on the topic of organ donation because altruistic donors in most countries are not allowed to receive anything in return. As a matter of fact, financial of incentives is brought to introduce the idea of a field of transplantations, in which is looked through ethics and economics. Overall the approach can be look in different ways. For instance, a direct payment for organs, an income tax or estate benefit, a reimbursement for funeral expenses, a contribution to a charitable organization determined by the family or the deceased. The success or malfunction of financial incentive will depend on the amount of implementation intake. Additionally, Michael Lysaght and Jaclyn Mason expresses” First, the strictures against financial sales of organs donation should be relaxed. Incentives for organs from living donors should be phased in only after any existing problems with cadaveric donations have been identified and resolved” (Mason, May-June 2000).The motive for this approach because it cancels out the use of the auction system and black marketing. Financial incentives data analyze that using this procedure will allow the boost of organs procurement (Francis L. Delmonico, n.d.). Tejus Pradeep, Cell Biology and Neuroscience and Psychology double major express “According to a study by Mark Nadel of the Federal Communications Commission, in Georgia, a discounted driver’s license for organ donors program increased donation rates by 33 percent.” and “Furthermore, Sarah Taub of the Journal of Transplantation even estimates that payment of $500 to $1,000 for cadaveric donation would increase donation rates sufficiently to nearly eliminate the kidney waiting list” (Pradeep, 2015) In addition to, financial incentives data demonstrates that using this procedure that it will boost the organs procurement. Tejus also express that “Gabriel Danovitch of UCLA explains that if there exists a perception that organs can be bought through financial incentives, the temptation to not expose the potential altruistic donor to the risk intrinsic to the process would be overwhelming, causing crowding out to occur.” This effective method allows individuals to donate due to the benefits that can be deluge the nature of donating. Even though financial incentives come with a lot of positive results, it can also have a downfall due to economic issue call crowding out and can barricade people from donating. However, it is one of the many effective solutions to increase the number of organs donations.
After researching the availability of increasing of organs, through the methods of tax incentives and financial incentives. Tax and financial could help with the rising of donors but with financial overloading might become an issue where it can corrupt. When looking at the cost of organs, we know that many patients who are not high class do not have the benefit of having insurance to cover the cost but some organization do provide support but is limited of what can be done. Financial incentives provide tangible benefits to the donors who are individual in the process which increase the percentage of donating. Tax incentives will not be a profitable method due to the factor that it only will be benefitable to taxes, whereas financial incentives money could be through many procedures effects.