Organizational 1988, p.136). Schein (1992) highlights the impact

culture has become an important topic in several scientific disciplines.
Organizational culture is typically defined ;as a set of core values, behavioral
norms, artifacts and behavioral patterns which govern the way people in an
organization interact with each other and invest energy in their jobs and the organization
at large; (Van Muijen, Koopman, Dondeyne, De Cock & De Witte, 1992, p.250).
The proposed organizational outcomes of charismatic leadership such as high
value congruence (Conger & Kanungo, 1988), suggest a link between
organizational culture and charismatic leadership in organizations. Indeed, many
authors postulate a strong relationship between this type of  leadership and organizational culture. Sashkin
(1988), for instance, argues in his. writings on ‘visionary leadership the
essential work of organizational leaders is defining, constructing and gaining
commitment to a set of shared values, beliefs and norms about change, goals and
people working together – that is defining, building and involving people in
the organization’s culture. This is the primary task work of organizational
leaders and it is the reason that the three themes of change, goals and people
working together must be built into a leader’s vision; (emphasis added,
Sashkin, 1988, p.136). Schein (1992) highlights the impact the founder of the
organization can have on organizational culture. Culture can spring from three
sources: the beliefs, values and assumptions of founders of organizations, the
learning experiences of group members as their organization evolves and new
beliefs, values, and assumptions brought by new members and leaders. In this
view the founder . plays a crucial role in culture formation by choosing the
basic mission, the group members, the environmental context in which the new
group will operate, and the initial responses the group makes in order to
succeed and integrate within this environment. Leaders of organizations embed
and transmit culture in the thinking, feeling and behavior of the group. Schein
(1992) suggests a special  impact of
charismatic leaders on organizational culture:The simplest  explanation of how leaders get their message
across is through charisma in that one of the main elements of that mysterious
quality undoubtedly is a leader’s ability communicate major assumptions and
values in a vivid and clear manner. According to Schein, leaders have six
primary ‘culture embedding’ mechanisms (see table 1). There are also several
secondary ‘culture articulation and reinforcement’ mechanisms. These mechanisms
are secondary in the sense that they only work when they are in line with the
primary mechanisms


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