Every nation wants to contain its own powers and privileges. Of course it is needed. Any nation satisfying the definition of state can expect the powers and privileges of its own. It does not like others involvement in its matter by other nations. The ability of a nation to constrain other involvement in its internal affairs is called sovereignty. ¹“Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e.g. legislative, judicial, and/or executive) authority over a geographic region, group of people, or oneself. A sovereign is the supreme lawmaking authority, subject to no other”. The concept of sovereignty got worldwide recognition with the idea of peace, establishment of League of Nations and U.N.O etc. The U.N.O in its charter clearly says about non-interference of other states in the internal affairs of any county. But in reality it is not going to work as we expected. We are seeing internal affairs means only as political affairs, policy affairs. But these things are indirectly influenced by other
factors like pro-westernization, economy, its influence on international arena, etc. Due influence of more number of factors which are showing impact on the sovereignty of a country, the concept of sovereignty has lost its relevance in today’s modern world. It is nothing like organized hypocrisy rather than true sovereignty. ¹“The abolition of inter-state war was the declared goal of the Charter of the UN. Today, the aim seems to include the abolition of internal war as well which implies a redefinition both of internal sovereignty and the non-intervention principle.”
The term sovereignty has been used in four ways
· International legal sovereignty
· Westphalia sovereignty
· Domestic sovereignty
· Interdependence sovereignty
1. Eberwein, Wolf-dieter; Badie, Bertrand ; Ingenta Connect
1. ¹“International Legal Sovereignty: Practices associated with mutual recognition, usually between territorial entities that have formal juridical independence, it contains authority and legitimacy but not control.
2. Westphalian Sovereignty refers to p.org based on the exclusion of external actors from authority structures with in a given territory.
3. Domestic Sovereignty: Formal org of political authority with in the state and the ability of public authorities to exercise effective controls with in borders of their own policy. It is sharing both authority and control.
4. Interdependence Sovereignty, Ability of public authorities to regulate the flow of information, ideas, goods, people, pollutants or capital across the borders of their state, concerned control only, no authority.”
Sovereignty became part and parcel of every written constitution and also included in other forms in unwritten
1. Krasner, Organized Hypocrisy
constitutions as well. Each and every country talks about its sovereign functions and its sovereignty.
For small countries is trying to make propaganda to safe guard its self-interest. This is mainly propagated by the top-level officials to low level officials. However the propaganda of top level is only accountable. These leaders use this in an organized way. They are using it for building personal image and for the country benefits as well. They make use of the word again and again in a planned way, this helps the country to make progress and continue its respect in international stage. Some times they speak crossing their limitations and also accusing other rival nations which later have to be resolved diplomatically. However human factor has its own influence and it is the main real factor to make things in organized way by several means like propaganda, diplomacy etc.
Sovereignty is important and also must need thing now in this period of time is which we think, however in reality it is not so, the concept of sovereignty is loosing its worth. It looks just like an organized hypocrisy now with many developments going around in a quick rate. Hypocrisy means the practice of claiming to have higher standard of beliefs than in the case. This hypocrisy is poised in a planned and a systematic way to get acceptance of all the sections of people. Every country have its own strategy to maintain that hypocrisy knowingly for its own benefits starting from very big country to small countries depending upon its own requirements.
Concept of sovereignty is loosing its grip due to number of factors already stated. These include
· Political affairs
· Diplomatic relations.
· International system
Some students of international politics take sovereignty as an analytic assumption, other as a description of the practice of actors, and still others as a generative grammar.
There is actor oriented perspective Krasner in his books organized hypocrisy focused on actor – oriented perspective. But he says the actors are not the nations like in neo-liberalism, neo-realism etc., International order is must needed thing now or else within no time the world will collapse. This order helps to bind the international society together. “There are four care values in the present international system.
1. The maintenance of minimum public order, meaning the avoidance of behavior that would risk general war.
2. Self-determination, although this term lacks any specific meaning beyond decolonization.
3. Minimum human rights, which consists of the nation that a state violates international norms if it denies on “identifiable¹ group equal access to the political, economic and social perquisite of that society.”
4. Modernization, the assertion that living standards should be raised through at the world.” Several international attempts were also dare to maintain balance with in a country between rulers and the minority groups. Minority groups means any section of society whether based on religion,
1. Krasner, Organized Hypocrisy
language etc., who are in lesser number are treated as minorities. These people’s rights will be sometimes discarded, and then the rulers say it is their internal affairs. It has sovereign right to deal it by itself. There are several instances in past and present as well, where such a situation has raised, for example in the Ottoman Empire, Fiji, where settlers are minority groups here, Sunni-Shia conflicts in many Arab countries, struggle between tribal groups in African countries.
The claim of the states is that it is their internal affair and no one has right to interfere.
Depending upon the issue the international community is interfering and asking the nations to deal the issue in a justified manner. Though there are several methods just like diplomacy, through international institutions , negotiations etc and if they are not going to work out then through economic sanctions , shutting down the diplomatic relations etc.,. Another important factor which influences Sovereignty is very new concept that is Globalization. We are now staying in a global village where we cannot deny relations with others. If any country does that it will be the looser in the end of the day. Nations will suffer and the citizens of that country will be the real victims of the leaders polices. They say that they have every right to have their own agenda. These agenda should be accepted by internationally community. Now with the revolution in telecommunications each and every aspect of development of all countries are known to all. If any country go according it own whims and fancies the international community is curtailing it with a strategy of collective economic sanctions enforced by international organizations. There are several instances where economic sanctions were imposed. Some of the examples are sanctions on Iraq after Gulf War, sanctions on India and Pakistan after Nuclear Tests, on South Africa for showing racial discrimination, etc. like this there are several examples. Like this there is no freedom to do according to its interests. But unfortunately this is not going to apply for developed countries. They are influencing the international organizations to give financial assistance to the smaller countries and to keep sanctions on them. This is possible due to their higher stake in those. This is making fun of the concept of Sovereignty. This will lose confidence on them and small countries will not trust them.
Some countries are ending their relations with IMF and WB.
¹“Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez announced that his country had withdrawn from the IMF and WB.” And some other Latin American countries like Nicaraguan, Argentina etc are in that way. After giving due importance to developed countries also the international institutions though they are claiming that they are safeguarding the interests of nations and their sovereignty. This is nothing other than the organized Hypocrisy by international community controlled by developed nations.
By above examples we may come to a conclusion that international community and globalization is dominating the states sovereignty but is not totally correct as we see. Even though the other factors are looking in front but the real player is the human factor which is influencing all the things. ²“What Krasner regards as ‘organized hypocrisy’ may also be perceived, at least with some compassion for our human infirmities, as the
1. Venezuela to Quit IMF, WB. Deccan Chronicle
2. Krasner, Emperor’s New Clothes.
inherent, perforce ineluctable, contradictions of political existence. Hence, stretching this claim to its ultimate limits, it would follow that in the world of history and politics, the human actor, with all his/her constraints and contingencies, has precedence over institutions and structures, that personal decisions override international norms. For the politics of meaning, even for the modern man, lies beyond the politics of state-sovereignty.”
How many numbers of the factors may be or what ever the levels of their impact may be these factors undermined the concept of sovereignty which had lot of importance in the earlier days. But now it looks just like an organized hypocrisy. Unless there are streamlined basic principles established by international conventions and accepted by international community and each and every nation in the world, we may forget the concept of sovereignty forever which is not good for the nations and world at large in long run.