p.p1 on India’s culture with special reference to

p.p1 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 0.0px; font: 17.0px Times; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} p.p2 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 0.0px; font: 17.0px Times; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 20.0px} p.p3 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 12.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Times; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} p.p4 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 8.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000; min-height: 14.0px} p.p5 {margin: 0.0px 0.0px 8.0px 0.0px; font: 12.0px Helvetica; -webkit-text-stroke: #000000} span.s1 {font-kerning: none} span.s2 {font: 12.0px Times; vertical-align: 8.0px; font-kerning: none} span.s3 {text-decoration: underline ; font-kerning: none}

Globalisation has become a key word in today’s world. And the world of today is very different from what it was ten years ago, even from what it was yesterday. Today, development happens overnight. One of the countries that has been focused on during the past decades is India. India: the diverse country with deep rooted traditions, a deep rooted culture and religion that lives alongside one of the fastest growing economies in the world. As Cohen, Stephen (2001:36) points out: 
“India is an ancient state but a modern civilisation” 
What I find interesting is the fact that this ancient state has “survived” during the process of globalisation. Especially India’s diverse and deeply rooted culture which has always been and still is influenced by a lot of different religions, languages and traditions. Additionally, in connection with globalisation, the western values seem to have gained acceptance in India. 
Research has been done within this field. However, in this thesis, I will analyse the cultural values in India by means of Trompeanaars and Hampden-Turner’s six dimensions; Universalism vs. Particularism, Individualism vs. Communitarianism, Specificity vs. Diffusion, Achieved status vs. Ascribed status, inner direction vs. Outer direction, Sequential time vs. Synchronous time. Consequently, I am going to discuss if globalisation has had an impact on India’s culture with special reference to the six dimensions. 
This paper consists of two parts: the first part, Part I deals with; a general description of India, a discussion of theory used and the analysis of Indian culture by means of the six dimensions. The next part, Part II deals with Indian culture in the era of globalisation. 

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

My intention is to analyse Indian culture with special reference to the six value dimensions described in the book: Building cross-cultural competence by Hampden –Turner, Charles and Trompenaars Fons (2000 and 2001). In order to answer my problem statement, I am going to describe India’s background and the theory used in general. 
Furthermore, I am going to use empirical data, an interview with Mr. Rainer Hamminger in order to put the theory into perspective. Moreover, in my discussion I use interviews with various Indians. Some of the Indians interviewed and Mr. Hamminger are men/women with good jobs. 
The graphs I use are based on only one question. Hampden-Turner, Charles and Trompenaars, Fons have selected a question that reflects each dimension. 
A lot of different definitions of culture exist. However, I will use the definition by Hofstede, Geert. Culture is 
“the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one human group from another.” (Middleton, John: 2002:6) 
In this thesis, I am dealing with business culture as defined by Gesteland and Gesteland (2010: 14): 
“A business culture is a unique set of expectations and assumptions about how business people are supposed to communicate, negotiate and manage.”India is a democratic republic and is divided into 26 states, that each has its own government which is elected by the people living in it. The keyword to describe India is diversity, regarding religion as well as the language(s) and the population. India is a country containing over 1 billion citizens which obviously involves big differences between people. English is the major- and administrative language in India but there are 14 official languages and a very large number of other dialects spoken. (Kobayashi – Hillary, Mark (2004:6). Indian culture has been influenced by a large number of cultures through time, including the British during colonisation in the 19th century. (Kumar, Rajesh, 2005, pp. 2-26) 
In spite of this diversity/difference it seems to be the case that the business culture in India is universal/general independent from/not depending of religion, language and caste line. 
(Gesteland, Richard & Gesteland, Mary, 2010: 14). It is described as a “national business culture”(Gesteland, Richard & Gesteland, Mary, 2010:16).As said, many different religions are present in India. The many religions in India have had a great impact on Indian culture. The dominant one is Hinduism (82% of the population). Besides this, 6 other religions are represented in Indian society. However, my focus will be on Hinduism in this paragraph because of the fact that the legacy of Hinduism is very clear in India. (Kumar, Rajesh 2004: 41) 
Hinduism is the predominant religion in India. It is one of the oldest religions in the world and the historical founder of it is unknown. Hinduism has developed and depending on where you are in India, different traditions are connected with Hinduism. It does not have certain doctrines or rules to follow, like the Ten Commandments, for instance. Dharma, however, is one aspect of Hinduism that seems to be constant. The literature of dharma describes how a person should behave and what to do in the four stages of life. Furthermore, it describes the general rules of how to behave and it describes specific rules of how to behave that corresponds with the placement in the caste system. (Rinehart, Robin 1994: 22-24) 
“By performing actions in accordance with one’s dharma, a person’s “unripened” karma at death leads to rebirth in a better state. Conversely, a person who did not act in accord with dharma would create a store of unripened karma that would lead to rebirth in a worse state.” (Rinehart, Robin 1994: 23) 

If we look at one of the many definitions of globalisation which is free trade and free mobility of goods, it is evident that globalisation has changed India. India’s market has changed from being a seller’s market into being a consumer’s market. Concerning the economic matters, undoubtedly, India has gone through a rapid change during the past decades. According to Kumar, Rajesh (2005: 26) this is a continuing process. However, this only takes economic matters into consideration and what I am dealing with here is the cultural globalisation. These definitions of globalisation do not consider the economy but also the issue of culture which is my focus point. 
“Globalisation is a term that tries to capture the rapid social change that is occurring simultaneously across a number of dimensions, including the economy, politics, communications and culture.” (Longhurst, Brian et.al. 2008:59)….”Where social and cultural life can no longer be seen as firmly located in particular places with clear boundaries.” (Longhurst, Brian et.al.2008:59) 
The first definition by argues that globalisation is a rapid social change that affects four important and inseparable dimensions of a society. The other definition does not contradict the first definition. But it argues that cultures converge and says that there are no clear boundaries and that the locations exist but that their boundaries become fuzzy due to globalisation. I chose these two dimensions because they capture the main themes of this discussion: has globalisation had an impact on Indian culture? And are the western and the Indian culture converging? (I am going to focus on the six dimensions described in par. 3.2-3.6). 

x

Hi!
I'm Mack!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out