Parental Attachment and Emotional Development

Parental attachment is a foundational part of human development. There are various patterns of development; each pattern affects the overall be-havior of the child.

The early bond between infant and parent is crucial, though research reveals that some parents are unaware of the critical role attachment plays in infant development. Such lack of awareness causes the destabilization of the structure that creates emotional connection be-tween child and parent, which can affect the child in negative ways as she or he grows, including criminal activity, substance abuse, and gang activities. Related factors that may lead a child to engage in these activi-ties include the influence of parental alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, and divorce, as well as child abuse and neglect.

My continuing focus will demonstrate how a positive emotional influence beginning in infancy can impact the adult. The positive outcome of emotional at-tachment is manifested in outcomes such as social competency, academic achievement, spiritual fulfillment, and emotional stability. Key word: Delinquency, infant, emotional attachment, influence, sta-bility Introduction Parental attachment is an important aspect of lifespan development; this attachment begins at the stage of infancy, and is a close emotional bond between infant and caregivers (mother).

How caregivers respond to these needs has a life span impact on the development and maintenance of all relationships. Attachment theory places emphasises on the notion that who we are is subjected to the connection we have with others. “Our past relationship with others becomes organized into patterns that tend to repeat again and again. Both positive and problematic aspects of self can often be traced back to critical events in a person’s life that is later manifested as behaviors, thoughts, and feelings.

The understanding of life span developmental history will help to assist clients through the process of change and growth. Ivey, Myers, & Sweeney (2005) Although previous reports have also associate early parental attachment to the needs of the child, however attachment patterns in infancy contin-ues to have lasting effects. Freud made contributions to infant develop-ment in his theory of psychosexual development. In the oral stage, infants develop an attachment with parents, and the provision of oral needs determines the level of attachment.

In examining Freud’s assertions, this argument will focus on essential factors in emotional attachment and long-term development, and how this process develops throughout the lifespan and positively or negatively affects the child and parent. The stability of the attachment patterns in infancy summarizes the out-come of key long term studies, “ secure versus insecure Strange Situation Classification at 12 months accorded with AA1 classifications in adulthood 68-75% of the time : “ this is an unparalleled level of consis-tency between behavior observed in infancy and outcomes in adulthood.

Feldman (2011) The result of this study signifies a change in the way emotional devel-opmental research is carried out and the effect of parental attachment. Recent data and research have provided the link between relationships and emotional experience in both children and adults. In the conclusion of this paper the importance of a secure infant and parental will be highlighted. Although previous reports have also associate early parental at-tachment to the needs of the child, however attachment patterns in in-fancy continues to have lasting effects.

Freud made contributions to in-fant development in his theory of psychosexual development. In the oral stage, infants develop an attachment with parents, and the provision of oral needs determines the level of attachment. My proposing question is as follows: If this oral need is not met continuously, will this attachment change between parent and child? As essential as oral needs are, this fac-tor is not as important to a child’s long-term development—oral needs such as food and breast feeding do not generate a long-term effect.

After examining Freud’s assertions, this argument will focus on essential fac-tors in emotional attachment and long-term development, and how this process develops throughout the lifespan and positively or negatively af-fects the child and parent. Discussion Early Secured Attachment A child needs to have a secure environment because; this development affects the entire lifespan negatively or positively the positive is the Natural outcome of a secure relationship, on the other hand the lack of Such secure emotional attachment results in the inability to cope in later Adulthood (Male pour 2007, pp. 1-95) Parental Sensitivity This article delves into the impact the environment has on a child and how daily communication between parent and child has positive effects. It suggest that formed parent-child attachments and behavior work together to create a positive outcome. The lack of parental sensitivity Can influence the emotional development. Although more steps have been taken to prevent negative outcomes, children still experience unhealthy environment which affects their long term development.

Godbout (2006) noticed that parental deceptive practices indicates more attachment insecurity, which then brings about more distress within the relationship. Godbout, Runtz, & Brier (2010) Safety and Security in the Second Stage of Life Attachment as defined from this concept clarification is as follows: attachment refers to feelings of safety and security Afforded by proximity to attachment figures in response to reliable clues to danger challenge or conflict.

To the extent That the person is confident in attaining these feelings when needed, they can more fully interact with the environment, mobilize developmental resources, and address developmental tasks. Bowlby (1980) described attachment as a natural protective system that evolved within the species because it enhanced an individual’s chances for survival. This view holds that infants who are predisposed to maintain proximity to an attachment ‘figure’ are afforded protections from predation.

This system promotes healthy development wherein an individual can confidently explore him environment with the knowledge that, should the threat of danger arise, a quick return to an attachment ‘object’ will afford safety (the so-called ‘secure base effect’). According to Bowlby, an attachment is a bond developed with ‘some other differentiated and preferred individual, who is usually con- ceiled as stronger and/or wiser’ (1977, p. importantly, Bowlby described attachment as a lifespan development concept ‘held to characterize human beings from cradle to grave’ (Bowlby 2008)1979, p. 29). Ainsworth (1985) viewed attachment as a type ‘afect – tonal bond’ that individuals may form throughout their lives, some of which ‘may be identifiable as attachments, some as having attachment components, whereas others may not resemble attachments in some critical way’ (p. Accord-in to this description, an attachment is an affection bond. Ainsworth expanded Bowlby’s conceptualizations about attachment, and called it ‘patterns of attachment’, Aims- worth et al.

In adolescence, the parental attachment system is believed to persist, although peer relationships become increasingly important. Eventually, attachments involving peers as signify- cant attachment figures come to supplement those established in childhood. From his earliest writings, Bowlby (1969) asserted that ‘attachment behaviour in adult life is a straightforward continuation of attachment behaviour in childhood’ (p. 207). Later attachment theorists echoed this ap-preciation for the continuous quality of attachment with development.

Awareness that attachment is as relevant a concept for senior citizens as at other life phases will help combat Stereotypes of older adulthood as only a time of loss and deterioration. Nurses can use knowledge about attachment to search for ways to connect older people with others, and also to explore connections with other attachment figures such as pets, places, and cherished possessions. Reminiscence there-Apies may provide a rich source of insight into older people previous attachments, the effect of those losses, and ways to move on.

Just as with clients from earlier life phases, nurses should continue to enhance ever higher levels of develop-mental growth and mastery of developmental tasks COOKMAN C. (2005) Journal of Advanced Nursing 50 (5), p. 528–535 Marital Conflicts and Emotional Effect How parents handle everyday marital conflicts has a significant effect on how secure their children feel, which, in turn, significantly affects their future emotional adjustment. “When the marital relationship is functioning well, it serves as a secure base, a structurally sound bridge to support the child’s exploration and relationships with others. “When destructive marital conflict erodes the bridge, children may lack confidence and become hesitant to move forward, or may move forward in a dysregulated way, unable to find appropriate footing within themselves or in interaction with others. ” The researchers examined the effect of marital conflict over three years, finding that forms of destructive marital conflict, such as personal insults, defensiveness, marital withdrawal, sadness or fear, set in motion events that led to later emotional insecurity and maladjustment in children, including depression, anxiety, and behavior problems.

This occurred even when the researchers controlled for any initial adjustment problems. Parents and even mental health professionals are likely unaware of the significance of marital conflict for the well-being of children, said Dr. Cumming, and few may know that children’s security is so closely tied to the quality of parental relationships. At the same time, however, other work from Dr. Cummings and his peers find that constructive marital conflict, in which parents express or engage in physical affection, problem solving, compromise or positive feelings, may increase children’s security.

Atkins, O. (2006, February 10). “Parents Who Fight May Harm Children’s Future Emotional Development. ” Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/releases/37510. php. Avoidant Children According to the transactional model, experience-based variations in acquiring specific relational skills (e. g. , empathy, social perception, Communication, negotiation, conflict resolution) and interpersonal cognitions or Biases likely mediate the link between early attachments and later relationships.

Theoretically, continuity in attachment patterns can be explained at least partially by the impact of early IWMs on cognitive-affective processes, which direct attention to specific stimuli, create biases in memory encoding and retrieval, guide expectations regarding the availability of others, and influence attributions regarding the behavior of others in ambiguous situations for example, research indicates that secure children make realistic or benevolent attributions regarding the intentions of peers, whereas avoidant children showed more unrealistic or hostile and negative biases Riggs (2010) http://www. bl. liu. se/student/psykologi/735a13/filarkiv/1. 214363/Riggs_S2010. pdf Emotional Attachment and Delinquency Poor attachment to parents is considered to be one of the causes of Delinquency (Bowlby 1989) http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375078/ Although many empirical studies found evidence suggesting that poor attachment to parents increases the risk of delinquent behavior, a systematic review of the link between attachment and delinquency has not been conducted yet. It seems important to know how strong attachment is associated with delinquency in males, females and various age groups, as his knowledge can be used to develop and improve intervention programs that target delinquency in youth. We therefore seek to integrate results from Empirical studies examining the association between attachment and delinquency by means of a meta-analysis. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375078/ The second main theory that addresses the link between attachment and delinquency is attachment theory. If the parent-child attachment relationship is disrupted during infancy, long-term negative consequences are the delinquent behavior.

Hoeve, Stams,van der Put, Dubes, van der Laan ; Gerris (2012) Emotional Attachment Continuity Studies Participants for this study were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal adoption study. During the most recent re-interview, participant psychiatric histories were updated and the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; [16]] was administered (n = 208). Approximately 53% of the sample was female and ranged between 24 and 66 years of age (M = 39, S. D. = 7. 95). Adoptees were adopted by non-relatives within 2 months of age (SD = 5. 44) with 67. 8% adopted prior to one month and 94. % adopted prior to 6 months of age. The AAI [16] is a semi-structured interview that assesses an individual’s attachment representations. Individuals are asked to provide five adjectives describing their childhood relationship with their adoptive mother and father, separately. Finally, the individual is asked to describe changes in and current feelings about their relationship with their parents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by coders deemed reliable by the lab of Mary Main and Eric Hesse (Rebecca Yucuis and Kristin Caspers, Trained by

Deborah Jacobvitz, Austin TX, 2001; Beth Troutman and Jeanne Frederickson, Trained by June Sroufe, Minneapolis, MN, 2002 and 1999, respectively). Overall inter-rater agreement was 94% for the secure versus insecure distinction (? = . 86, p < . 001), 91% percent agreement for the organized classifications (? = . 84, p < . 001), and 93% agreement for the unresolved/not unresolved classifications (? = . 71, p < . 001). Cronbach alphas were equally high for the individual scales ranging from . 84 to . 93. Caspers, Yucuis, Troutma & Spinks (2006) Negative Childhood Experiences

Our first hypothesis predicts that individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure will report higher rates of problematic substance use than individuals classified as continuous-secure. We predict high rates of lifetime substance abuse/dependence among individuals classified as earned-secure, despite their secure state of mind, due to the influence of inferred negative childhood experiences on substance use. Although ratings on childhood experiences derived from the Adult Attachment Interview Main M, Goldwyn R: Adult classification system (version 6. ). University of California, Berkeley; 1998. are not veridical with actual experience, we hypothesize that the negative mood proposed to account for the view on childhood experiences will increase the likelihood of problematic substance use Pearson JL, Cohn DA, Cowan PA, Cowan CP: Problematic substance use among individuals classified as dismissing or preoccupied, on the other hand, is hypothesized to result from an insecure working model of attachment which is thought to promote maladaptive approaches to emotional regulation (e. g. , substance abuse).

Our second hypothesis predicts different rates of treatment participation as a function of attachment representations. We anticipate low rates of treatment participation by individuals classified as dismissing, despite predicted high rates of substance use problems, due to persistent devaluing of relationships common among this group. We predict high rates of treatment participation among individuals classified as preoccupied, due to hypervigilance towards distress, and earned-security, due to strong valuing of relationships. Caspers, Yucuis,Troutman & Spinks (2006) HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

PARENTAL ATTACHMENT AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT A PAPER SUBMITTED TO PROFESSOR DAPHNE WASHINGTON DEPARTMENT OF COUNSELLING IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR COUN 502 BY PAMELA E. CAMERON LIBERTY UNIVERSY VIRGINIA, USA AUGUST 16, 2013 Abstract Parental attachment is a foundational part of human development. There are various patterns of development; each pattern affects the overall be-havior of the child. The early bond between infant and parent is crucial, though research reveals that some parents are unaware of the critical role ttachment plays in infant development. Such lack of awareness causes the destabilization of the structure that creates emotional connection be-tween child and parent, which can affect the child in negative ways as she or he grows, including criminal activity, substance abuse, and gang activities. Related factors that may lead a child to engage in these activi-ties include the influence of parental alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, and divorce, as well as child abuse and neglect. My continuing focus will demonstrate how a positive emotional influence beginning in infancy can impact the adult.

The positive outcome of emotional at-tachment is manifested in outcomes such as social competency, academic achievement, spiritual fulfillment, and emotional stability. Key word: Delinquency, infant, emotional attachment, influence, sta-bility Introduction Parental attachment is an important aspect of lifespan development; this attachment begins at the stage of infancy, and is a close emotional bond between infant and caregivers (mother). How caregivers respond to these needs has a life span impact on the development and maintenance of all relationships.

Attachment theory places emphasises on the notion that who we are is subjected to the connection we have with others. “Our past relationship with others becomes organized into patterns that tend to repeat again and again. Both positive and problematic aspects of self can often be traced back to critical events in a person’s life that is later manifested as behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. The understanding of life span developmental history will help to assist clients through the process of change and growth.

Ivey, Myers, & Sweeney (2005) Although previous reports have also associate early parental attachment to the needs of the child, however attachment patterns in infancy contin-ues to have lasting effects. Freud made contributions to infant develop-ment in his theory of psychosexual development. In the oral stage, infants develop an attachment with parents, and the provision of oral needs determines the level of attachment. In examining Freud’s assertions, this argument will focus on essential factors in emotional attachment and long-term development, and how this process develops throughout the lifespan and positively or negatively ffects the child and parent. The stability of the attachment patterns in infancy summarizes the out-come of key long term studies, “ secure versus insecure Strange Situation Classification at 12 months accorded with AA1 classifications in adulthood 68-75% of the time : “ this is an unparalleled level of consis-tency between behavior observed in infancy and outcomes in adulthood. Feldman (2011) The result of this study signifies a change in the way emotional devel-opmental research is carried out and the effect of parental attachment.

Recent data and research have provided the link between relationships and emotional experience in both children and adults. In the conclusion of this paper the importance of a secure infant and parental will be highlighted. Although previous reports have also associate early parental at-tachment to the needs of the child, however attachment patterns in in-fancy continues to have lasting effects. Freud made contributions to in-fant development in his theory of psychosexual development. In the oral stage, infants develop an attachment with parents, and the provision of oral needs determines the level of attachment.

My proposing question is as follows: If this oral need is not met continuously, will this attachment change between parent and child? As essential as oral needs are, this fac-tor is not as important to a child’s long-term development—oral needs such as food and breast feeding do not generate a long-term effect. After examining Freud’s assertions, this argument will focus on essential fac-tors in emotional attachment and long-term development, and how this process develops throughout the lifespan and positively or negatively af-fects the child and parent.

Discussion Early Secured Attachment A child needs to have a secure environment because; this development affects the entire lifespan negatively or positively the positive is the Natural outcome of a secure relationship, on the other hand the lack of Such secure emotional attachment results in the inability to cope in later Adulthood (Male pour 2007, pp. 81-95) Parental Sensitivity This article delves into the impact the environment has on a child and how daily communication between parent and child has positive effects.

It suggest that formed parent-child attachments and behavior work together to create a positive outcome. The lack of parental sensitivity Can influence the emotional development. Although more steps have been taken to prevent negative outcomes, children still experience unhealthy environment which affects their long term development. Godbout (2006) noticed that parental deceptive practices indicates more attachment insecurity, which then brings about more distress within the relationship. Godbout, Runtz, & Brier (2010) Safety and Security in the Second Stage of Life

Attachment as defined from this concept clarification is as follows: attachment refers to feelings of safety and security Afforded by proximity to attachment figures in response to reliable clues to danger challenge or conflict. To the extent That the person is confident in attaining these feelings when needed, they can more fully interact with the environment, mobilize developmental resources, and address developmental tasks. Bowlby (1980) described attachment as a natural protective system that evolved within the species because it enhanced an individual’s chances for survival.

This view holds that infants who are predisposed to maintain proximity to an attachment ‘figure’ are afforded protections from predation. This system promotes healthy development wherein an individual can confidently explore him environment with the knowledge that, should the threat of danger arise, a quick return to an attachment ‘object’ will afford safety (the so-called ‘secure base effect’). According to Bowlby, an attachment is a bond developed with ‘some other differentiated and preferred individual, who is usually con- ceiled as stronger and/or wiser’ (1977, p. mportantly, Bowlby described attachment as a lifespan development concept ‘held to characterize human beings from cradle to grave’ (Bowlby 2008)1979, p. 129). Ainsworth (1985) viewed attachment as a type ‘afect – tonal bond’ that individuals may form throughout their lives, some of which ‘may be identifiable as attachments, some as having attachment components, whereas others may not resemble attachments in some critical way’ (p. Accord-in to this description, an attachment is an affection bond. Ainsworth expanded Bowlby’s conceptualizations about attachment, and called it ‘patterns of attachment’, Aims- worth et al.

In adolescence, the parental attachment system is believed to persist, although peer relationships become increasingly important. Eventually, attachments involving peers as signify- cant attachment figures come to supplement those established in childhood. From his earliest writings, Bowlby (1969) asserted that ‘attachment behaviour in adult life is a straightforward continuation of attachment behaviour in childhood’ (p. 207). Later attachment theorists echoed this ap-preciation for the continuous quality of attachment with development.

Awareness that attachment is as relevant a concept for senior citizens as at other life phases will help combat Stereotypes of older adulthood as only a time of loss and deterioration. Nurses can use knowledge about attachment to search for ways to connect older people with others, and also to explore connections with other attachment figures such as pets, places, and cherished possessions. Reminiscence there-Apies may provide a rich source of insight into older people previous attachments, the effect of those losses, and ways to move on.

Just as with clients from earlier life phases, nurses should continue to enhance ever higher levels of develop-mental growth and mastery of developmental tasks COOKMAN C. (2005) Journal of Advanced Nursing 50 (5), p. 528–535 Marital Conflicts and Emotional Effect How parents handle everyday marital conflicts has a significant effect on how secure their children feel, which, in turn, significantly affects their future emotional adjustment. “When the marital relationship is functioning well, it serves as a secure base, a structurally sound bridge to support the child’s exploration and relationships with others. “When destructive marital conflict erodes the bridge, children may lack confidence and become hesitant to move forward, or may move forward in a dysregulated way, unable to find appropriate footing within themselves or in interaction with others. ” The researchers examined the effect of marital conflict over three years, finding that forms of destructive marital conflict, such as personal insults, defensiveness, marital withdrawal, sadness or fear, set in motion events that led to later emotional insecurity and maladjustment in children, including depression, anxiety, and behavior problems.

This occurred even when the researchers controlled for any initial adjustment problems. Parents and even mental health professionals are likely unaware of the significance of marital conflict for the well-being of children, said Dr. Cumming, and few may know that children’s security is so closely tied to the quality of parental relationships. At the same time, however, other work from Dr. Cummings and his peers find that constructive marital conflict, in which parents express or engage in physical affection, problem solving, compromise or positive feelings, may increase children’s security.

Atkins, O. (2006, February 10). “Parents Who Fight May Harm Children’s Future Emotional Development. ” Medical News Today. Retrieved from http://www. medicalnewstoday. com/releases/37510. php. Avoidant Children According to the transactional model, experience-based variations in acquiring specific relational skills (e. g. , empathy, social perception, Communication, negotiation, conflict resolution) and interpersonal cognitions or Biases likely mediate the link between early attachments and later relationships.

Theoretically, continuity in attachment patterns can be explained at least partially by the impact of early IWMs on cognitive-affective processes, which direct attention to specific stimuli, create biases in memory encoding and retrieval, guide expectations regarding the availability of others, and influence attributions regarding the behavior of others in ambiguous situations for example, research indicates that secure children make realistic or benevolent attributions regarding the intentions of peers, whereas avoidant children showed more unrealistic or hostile and negative biases Riggs (2010) http://www. bl. liu. se/student/psykologi/735a13/filarkiv/1. 214363/Riggs_S2010. pdf Emotional Attachment and Delinquency Poor attachment to parents is considered to be one of the causes of Delinquency (Bowlby 1989) http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375078/ Although many empirical studies found evidence suggesting that poor attachment to parents increases the risk of delinquent behavior, a systematic review of the link between attachment and delinquency has not been conducted yet. It seems important to know how strong attachment is associated with delinquency in males, females and various age groups, as his knowledge can be used to develop and improve intervention programs that target delinquency in youth. We therefore seek to integrate results from Empirical studies examining the association between attachment and delinquency by means of a meta-analysis. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375078/ The second main theory that addresses the link between attachment and delinquency is attachment theory. If the parent-child attachment relationship is disrupted during infancy, long-term negative consequences are the delinquent behavior.

Hoeve, Stams,van der Put, Dubes, van der Laan ; Gerris (2012) Emotional Attachment Continuity Studies Participants for this study were recruited as part of an ongoing longitudinal adoption study. During the most recent re-interview, participant psychiatric histories were updated and the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; [16]] was administered (n = 208). Approximately 53% of the sample was female and ranged between 24 and 66 years of age (M = 39, S. D. = 7. 95). Adoptees were adopted by non-relatives within 2 months of age (SD = 5. 44) with 67. 8% adopted prior to one month and 94. % adopted prior to 6 months of age. The AAI [16] is a semi-structured interview that assesses an individual’s attachment representations. Individuals are asked to provide five adjectives describing their childhood relationship with their adoptive mother and father, separately. Finally, the individual is asked to describe changes in and current feelings about their relationship with their parents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by coders deemed reliable by the lab of Mary Main and Eric Hesse (Rebecca Yucuis and Kristin Caspers, Trained by

Deborah Jacobvitz, Austin TX, 2001; Beth Troutman and Jeanne Frederickson, Trained by June Sroufe, Minneapolis, MN, 2002 and 1999, respectively). Overall inter-rater agreement was 94% for the secure versus insecure distinction (? = . 86, p < . 001), 91% percent agreement for the organized classifications (? = . 84, p < . 001), and 93% agreement for the unresolved/not unresolved classifications (? = . 71, p < . 001). Cronbach alphas were equally high for the individual scales ranging from . 84 to . 93. Caspers, Yucuis, Troutma & Spinks (2006) Negative Childhood Experiences

Our first hypothesis predicts that individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure will report higher rates of problematic substance use than individuals classified as continuous-secure. We predict high rates of lifetime substance abuse/dependence among individuals classified as earned-secure, despite their secure state of mind, due to the influence of inferred negative childhood experiences on substance use. Although ratings on childhood experiences derived from the Adult Attachment Interview Main M, Goldwyn R: Adult classification system (version 6. ). University of California, Berkeley; 1998. are not veridical with actual experience, we hypothesize that the negative mood proposed to account for the view on childhood experiences will increase the likelihood of problematic substance use Pearson JL, Cohn DA, Cowan PA, Cowan CP: Problematic substance use among individuals classified as dismissing or preoccupied, on the other hand, is hypothesized to result from an insecure working model of attachment which is thought to promote maladaptive approaches to emotional regulation (e. g. , substance abuse).

Our second hypothesis predicts different rates of treatment participation as a function of attachment representations. We anticipate low rates of treatment participation by individuals classified as dismissing, despite predicted high rates of substance use problems, due to persistent devaluing of relationships common among this group. We predict high rates of treatment participation among individuals classified as preoccupied, due to hypervigilance towards distress, and earned-security, due to strong valuing of relationships. Caspers, Yucuis,Troutman & Spinks (2006)

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