Pedagogy SAFMEDS Sets 1 & 2
American act stating pedagogical practices must produce measurable effects on learning
NCLB
NCLB Acronym
No Child Left Behind
NCLB Year
2001
Integration of professional wisdom with the best available empirical evidence in making decisions about how to deliver instruction
Evidence-based education
The integration of _____________ with the best available empirical evidence in making decisions about how to deliver instruction
Professional Wisdom
The integration of professional wisdom with the best available _____________ in making decisions about how to deliver instruction
Empirical Evidence
The integration of professional wisdom with the best available empirical evidence in making decisions about how to _____________
Deliver Instruction
American act stating _____________ must produce measurable effects on learning
Pedagogical Practices
American act stating pedagogical practices must produce _____________ on learning
Measurable Effects
Instruction that enables students to demonstrate, maintain, and generalize competency on pre-specified learning outcomes faster than they would on their own or with less effective instruction
Effective Instruction
Effective InstructionInstruction that enables students to _____________ competency on pre-specified learning outcomes
Demonstrate, maintain, and generalize
Effective Instruction_____________ than learning on their own or with less effective instruction
Faster
Effective Instruction Steps__________________________Evoke the behaviorProgram for complex behaviorSequence responsesStretch the ratio
Define terminal objectivesArrange contingencies of reinforcement
Effective Instruction StepsDefine terminal objectivesArrange contingencies of reinforcement__________________________Sequence responsesStretch the ratio
Evoke the behaviorProgram for complex behavior
Effective Instruction StepsDefine terminal objectivesArrange contingencies of reinforcementEvoke the behaviorProgram for complex behavior__________________________
Sequence responsesStretch the ratio
Define terminal objectivesArrange contingencies of reinforcementEvoke the behaviorProgram for complex behaviorSequence responsesStretch the ratio
Effective Instruction Steps
Effective Instruction Outcomes_____________MaintenanceGeneralizationWorking Independently
Fluency
Effective Instruction OutcomesFluency_____________GeneralizationWorking Independently
Maintenance
Effective Instruction OutcomesFluencyMaintenance_____________Working Independently
Generalization
Effective Instruction OutcomesFluencyMaintenanceGeneralization_____________
Working Independently
FluencyMaintenanceGeneralizationWorking Independently
Effective Instruction Outcomes
Effective Instruction Principles_______________________________________Immediate feedbackSelf-pacingMastery progressionReinforcementDirect assessmentData-based decisions
Behavioral objectivesModelingActive responding
Effective Instruction PrinciplesBehavioral objectivesModelingActive responding_______________________________________ReinforcementDirect assessmentData-based decisions
Immediate feedbackSelf-pacingMastery progression
Effective Instruction PrinciplesBehavioral objectivesModelingActive respondingImmediate feedbackSelf-pacingMastery progression_______________________________________
ReinforcementDirect assessmentData-based decisions
Behavioral objectivesModelingActive respondingImmediate feedbackSelf-pacingMastery progressionReinforcementDirect assessmentData-based decisions
Effective Instruction Principles
Doug Greer
CABAS
Private schools applying behavior analytic techniques to all aspects of instruction and administration
CABAS
CABASacronym
Comprehensive Application of Behavior Analysis to Schools
Vargas and Vargas
Programmed Instruction Features
CABASfounder
Doug Greer
Boyce & Hineline
Interteaching
Interteachingfounders
Boyce and Hineline
PSIfounders
Keller, Sherman, Azzi, & Bori
Keller, Sherman, Azzi, & Bori
PSI
Ogden Lindsley
Precision Teaching
PTfounder
Ogden Lindsley
Lindsley, Haughton, Houston, & Brennan
SCC
SCCfounders
Lindsley, Haughton, Houston, & Brennan
Direct Instructionfounders
Engelmann & Becker
Engelmann & Becker
Capital -DI
direct instructionfounders
Rosenshine & Berliner
Rosenshine & Berliner
lowercase – di
Joseph Pear
CAPSI
CAPSIfounder
Joseph Pear
Programmed Instruction Features_____________ReinforcementActivity rate (high and relevant)Successive approximationMastery progression
Behavioral objectives
Programmed Instruction FeaturesBehavioral Objectives_____________Activity rate (high and relevant)Successive approximationMastery progression
Reinforcement
Programmed Instruction FeaturesBehavioral objectivesReinforcement_____________Successive approximationMastery progression
Activity rate (high and relevant)
Programmed Instruction FeaturesBehavioral objectivesReinforcementActivity rate (high and relevant)_____________Mastery progression
Successive approximation
Programmed Instruction FeaturesBehavioral objectivesReinforcementActivity rate (high and relevant)Successive approximation_____________
Mastery progression
Behavioral objectivesReinforcementActivity rate (high and relevant)Successive approximationMastery progression
Programmed Instruction Features
Teaching Machine Benefits_____________Self-pacingSimultaneous Use
Immediate Feedback
Teaching Machine BenefitsImmediate Feedback_____________Simultaneous Use
Self-pacing
Teaching Machine BenefitsImmediate FeedbackSelf-pacing_____________
Simultaneous Use
Teaching Machine Features_____________Sequenced instruction
Compose own responses
Teaching Machine FeaturesCompose own responses_____________
Sequenced instruction
An automatic or self-controlling device that presents a unit of information, provides a means for a learner to respond, and provides immediate feedback on the accuracy of the response
Teaching Machine
PSI Features (Keller)_____________Unit MasteryLectures for motivationEmphasis on the written wordUse of proctors
Self-pacing
PSI Features (Keller)Self-pacing_____________Lectures for motivationEmphasis on the written wordUse of proctors
Unit Mastery
PSI Features (Keller)Self-pacingUnit Mastery_____________Emphasis on the written wordUse of proctors
Lectures for motivation
PSI Features (Keller)Self-pacingUnit MasteryLectures for motivation_____________Use of proctors
Emphasis on the written word
PSI Features (Keller)Self-pacingUnit MasteryLectures for motivationEmphasis on the written word_____________
Use of proctors
Self-pacingUnit MasteryLectures for motivationEmphasis on the written wordUse of proctors
Keller’s PSI features
PSI Features (Fox)_____________Unit MasteryOn-demand course contentImmediate feedbackPeer tutors
Flexible pacing
PSI Features (Fox)Flexible pacing_____________On-demand course contentImmediate feedbackPeer tutors
Unit Mastery
PSI Features (Fox)Flexible pacingUnit Mastery_____________Immediate feedbackPeer tutoring
On-demand course content
PSI Features (Fox)Flexible pacingUnit MasteryOn-demand course content_____________Peer tutoring
Immediate feedback
PSI Features (Fox)Flexible pacingUnit MasteryOn-demand course contentImmediate feedback_____________
Peer tutoring
Flexible pacingUnit MasteryOn-demand course contentImmediate feedbackPeer tutoring
Fox’s PSI features
PSIacronym
Personalized System of Instruction
A method of instruction focusing on mastery learning that allows students to progress through materials at their own pace
PSI
CAPSIacronym
Computer-Aided Personalized System of Instruction
The arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement which expedite learning
Teaching
TeachingThe arrangement of _____________ which expedite learning
contingencies of reinforcement
TeachingThe arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement which _____________
expedite learning
To behave with respect to stimuli
Thinking
The art or science of teaching
Pedagogy
Two Products of EAB
Teaching Machine and Programmed Instruction
Behaviors which produce discriminative stimuli for other behaviors
Precurrent behaviors
Two Methods of evoking responses
Priming and Prompting
Why Teachers Fail_____________Telling and showingGetting attentionMaking material easy to rememberTeacher as midwifeIdols of the school
Aversive control
Why Teachers FailAversive control_____________Getting attentionMaking material easy to rememberTeacher as midwifeIdols of the school
Telling and showing
Why Teachers FailAversive controlTelling and showing_____________Making material easy to rememberTeacher as midwifeIdols of the school
Getting attention
Why Teachers FailAversive controlTelling and showingGetting attention_____________Teacher as midwifeIdols of the school
Making material easy to remember
Why Teachers FailAversive controlTelling and showingGetting attentionMaking material easy to remember_____________Idols of the school
Teacher as midwife
Why Teachers FailAversive controlTelling and showingGetting attentionMaking materials easy to rememberTeacher as midwife_____________
Idols of the school
Aversive controlTelling and showingGetting attentionMaking material easy to rememberTeacher as midwifeIdols of the school
Why Teachers Fail
The extent to which a program or teaching procedure is implemented as described
Procedural Integrity
Procedural Integrity reports on _____________ behavior
Teacher
Inter-observer agreement reports on _____________ behavior
Student
An instructional method in which students are involved in the teaching process
Interteaching
Increasing the number of responses per reinforcer as fast as the organism’s behavior allows
Stretching the ratio
Competency Based Training Features_____________Verbal and nonverbal trainingBehavioral objectivesPerformance criteria
Pre and post assessment
Competency Based Training FeaturesPre and post assessment_____________Behavioral objectivesPerformance criteria
Verbal and nonverbal training
Competency Based Training FeaturesPre and post assessmentVerbal and nonverbal training_____________Performance criteria
Behavioral objectives
Competency Based Training FeaturesPre and post assessmentVerbal and nonverbal trainingBehavioral objectives_____________
Performance criteria
Pre and post assessmentVerbal and nonverbal trainingBehavioral objectivesPerformance criteria
Competency Based Training Features
Effective Programming Features_____________Frequent active respondingImmediate feedback
Instructions and prompts
Effective Programming FeaturesInstruction and prompts_____________Immediate feedback
Frequent active responding
Effective Programming FeaturesInstruction and promptsFrequent active responding_____________
Immediate feedback
Instruction and promptsFrequent active respondingImmediate feedback
Effective Programming Features
PT Tests for Fluency
RESA
RESA
Retention, Endurance, Stability, Application
PT Aims at which fluency outcomes occur
Performance Standards
PT Description of Fluency
SARGE
SARGE
Stable, Applied, Retained, Generalizes, Endures
PT Steps Motto
PRICE
PRICE
Pinpoint, Record, Intervene, Chart, Evaluate
A linear measure of behavior change across time
Celeration
A performance that is smooth, accurate, sufficiently rapid, and does not decay in distracting or novel situations
Fluent
Responses that may be emitted at any time and are not controlled by the experimenter
Free-operant
Doubling of frequency every celeration period multiplier
X2
Doubling of frequency every celeration period angle
34 degrees
SCC Ink Color
Light blue
SCC Paper Quality
Highly Durable
SCC Y-Axis
Frequency
SCC X-Axis
Time
SCC Time-span
20 weeks
SCC Behavior Span
6 cycle
SCC Minimum Frequency
1 per 24 hours
SCC Maximum Frequency
1 thousand per minute
SCC Scale
Semilogarithmic
SCC Acronym
Standard Celeration Chart
A measure of behavioral variability
Bounce
A method of instruction in which students attain fluency by responding for one minute every day
SAFMEDS
A method for learning and practicing skills until they are fluent or automatic
Precision Teaching
A measurement and decision support-system that allows teachers to understand their effects on students
Precision Teaching
Patterns in SCC data upon which instructional changes are based
Learning Pictures
SCC Instructional Goals
AIM star
SCC Maximum score per timing
Record Ceiling
SCC Minimum score per timing
Record Floor
SAFMEDS A method of instruction in which students attain _____________ by responding for one minute every day
Fluency
Celeration A linear measure of _____________ across time
Behavior Change
Celeration A _____________ measure of behavior change across time
Linear
Celeration A linear measure of behavior change across _____________
Time
Fluent A performance that is _____________, accurate, sufficiently rapid and does not decay in distracting or novel situations
Smooth
Fluent A performance that is smooth, _____________, sufficiently rapid, and does not decay in distracting or novel situations
Accurate
Fluent A performance that is smooth, accurate, sufficiently _____________, and does not decay in distracting or novel situations
Rapid
Fluent A performance that is smooth, accurate, sufficiently rapid, and does not decay in _____________ situations
Distracting or Novel
Precision Teaching A method for _____________ skills until they are fluent or automatic
Learning or Practicing
Precision Teaching A method for learning or practicing skills until they are _____________
Fluent or Automatic
Precision Teaching A _____________ system that allows teachers to determine their effects on students
Measurement or Decision-Support
Selected components of complex skills are taught to fluency such that learners generate other components without specific instruction
Generative Instruction
Generative Instruction Selected _____________ of complex skills are taught to fluency such that learners generate other components without specific instruction
Components
Generative Instruction Selected components of complex skills are taught to _____________ such that learners generate other components without specific instruction
Fluency
Generative Instruction Selective components of complex skills are taught to fluency such that learners generate other components without _____________
Specific Instruction
The emergence of complex behavioral repertoires without explicit instruction following the establishment of component skills
Generative Instruction
Commercially available curriculum programs
Capital – DI
Teaching variables related to academic achievement
lowercase- di
Features of DI _____________ _____________ _____________ Mastery Progression Choral Responding Modeling Signalling Reinforcement Error Correction
Scripted lessons Homogeneous grouping Placement testing
Features of Direct Instruction Scripted Lessons Homogeneous Grouping Placement Testing _____________ _____________ _____________ Signalling Reinforcement Error Correction
Mastery Progression Choral Responding Modeling
Features of DI Scripted Lessons Homogeneous Grouping Placement Testing Mastery Progression Choral Responding Modeling _____________ _____________ _____________
Signalling, Reinforcement, Error Correction
Scripted Lessons Homogeneous Grouping Placement Testing’ Mastery Progression Choral Responding Modeling Signalling Reinforcement Error Correction
Capital -DI
Features of di _____________ _____________ Extensive content coverage Monitored student performance Low cognitive level questions Immediate academic feedback
Clear goals, Sufficient and continuous instructional time
Features of di Clear goals Sufficient and continuous instructional time _____________ _____________ Low cognitive level questions Immediate academic feedback
Extensive content coverage, Monitored student performance
Features of di Clear goals Sufficient and continuous instructional time Extensive content coverage Monitored student performance _____________ _____________
Low cognitive level questions, Immediate academic feedback
Clear goals Sufficient and continuous instructional time Extensive content coverage Monitored student performance Low cognitive level questions Immediate academic feedback
lowercase -di
A massive direct research project focusing on the effectiveness of nine educational methods
Project Follow Through
Found Direct Instruction had most positive outcomes compared to 8 other methods
Project Follow Through
PFT Outcomes assessed
Basic skills, Cognitive skills, Affective outcomes
PFT Consequence for education
Ignored
PFT Most effective method
Capital -DI
[image]
Aim
[image]
Crossover
[image]Name
Dive
[image]Name
Downhill
[image]Name
Jaws
[image]Name
Landing
[image]Name
Snow Plow
[image]Name
Surface
[image]Name
Take Off
[image]Name
Uphill
[image]Description
Maintenance
[image]Description
Improving
[image]Description
Improving
[image]Description
Worsening
[image]Description
Improving
[image]Description
Worsening
[image]Description
Worsening
[image]Description
Worsening
[image]Description
Improving
[image]Description
Improving
[image]Change
No change needed
[image]Change
No change needed
[image]Change
Target for increase
[image]Change
Target for increase
[image]Change
No change needed
[image]Change
Change for both
[image]Change
Change for both
[image]Change
Change for both
[image]Change
Target for Decrease
[image]Change
Target for Decrease
Basic skills that form a foundation
Tool Skills
Intermediate skills that serve as building blocks
Component Skills
Advanced skills that demonstrate mastery
Composite Skills