PEDS 293 Final
Initial
-Lacking coordination. -Purposeful attempts at the task/movement-Missing certain phases in the movement or phases are in the wrong order.

Formative
-Control of fundamental movements-Coordination is better but lacks flow-Many stay in this stage into adulthood unless they receive formal training and practice
Mature
-Efficient, coordinated and controlled -Performance is improved-Can translate basic movements into advanced sports
Physically Literate
Being able to perform a wide range of basic movements at a mature level.
Content Modifiers
Refining, Simplifying/Extending, Basic, Engaging.
Refining
Provide cues that focus on the quality of the movement. Cues provide the kids secrets that help learn the skill quicker and correctly and avoid the formation of bad habits.
Simplifying/Extending
Making the task easier or harder based on their performance. Gradually progress static movements into dynamic movements.
Static Movements VS Dynamic Movements
Static: In self-space, just standing.

Example: Shooting a basket alone from a spot on the court.Dynamic: Doing the task while moving. Example: Having a guard and moving around the court and while trying to shoot a basket.

Basic
Starting with the very basic stage of the movement.
Engaging
Use challenges like counting and timing to get the kids excited about the activity.

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Put on music also. “Count how many consecutive baskets you can make!”

GDQ
Guided Discovery Questions: Guide the learners to DISCOVER the answer. Children build on past knowledge/experience to make meaning of new knowledge. Try to foster self reliant learning.

Categories of Movement Concepts
1. Spatial2. Body3. Effort4. Relationship
Spatial concepts
Directions: Forwards, backwards, left, right, up and down.Levels: High, medium and low.Pathways: Straight, curved, zigzags, combos.

Extensions: Big/small movements, close/far from body.

Body concepts
Category of movement: Locomotor, non-locomotor or manipulative.Body shapes: Twisted, narrow, SYMMETRYBody parts in action: Bent, straight, twisted.Role of body parts: Leading, WEIGHTBEARING
Effort concepts
Time: Fast or slowForce: Heavy, firm, lightSpace: Direct or flexibleFlow: Bound or free
Relationship concepts
Environment: Sounds, apparatuses, equipment.People: Mirroring, following.
Reasons to teach dance
-Broaden the movement experience-Develop movement concepts-Increase rhythm awareness-Promote movement skills-Enhance fitness related components-Create expressive abilities-Allow them to experience dance as a performer/creator/spectator
DMP’s (6)
Dominant Movement Patterns-Landing-Static-Locomotions-Rotations-Swings-Springs
Statics
Held or still positions.-Balances-Supports (hands below shoulders)-Hangs (hands above shoulders)
Landings
One of the basic movements that should be practiced often.

Land with 2 feet parallel, bending knees to absorb impact. Toes transfer weight to ball of the foot, to the heel. Start with “quiet” landings.

Locomotions
Travel by running, walking, hopping etc. Animal walks can hurt wrists.

Rotations
Rolling and turning actions are exciting. Transferring weight around the axis of the body. Internal axis.
Swings
Rotation around an external axis such as a bar. Two phases are going up and down.

Do not release grip when going forwards or backwards.

Springs
More of a rebound than a jump. Handsprings are an example of spring movement.

Handsprings are not expected of students. Incorporate spring into their jumps.

Development of Childhood (Ages 5-8)
Affective: Egocentric but gradually learning to socialize. Learning to share and cooperate. More in reality than fantasy. Cognitive: Language development progresses. Concepts like time are difficult.

Decision-making is slow. Awareness of other peoples’ opinions.Psycho-motor: Hand-eye coordination not fully developed. Large muscles more developed than smaller muscles. Boys and girls are physically similar. Sensitive learning period.

Development of Tweens (Ages 9-13)
Affective: Enjoy self testing and risky activities. Enjoy it when younger children looking up to them.

Developing self-concept. Often have best friends.Cognitive: Can comprehend other people’s point of view. Attention span increases. Source of approval shifts from parents to peers. Reasoning is concrete.

Psycho-motor:Growth spurt for girls at age 10, age 12 for boys. Can begin learning sport-specific skills. Motor development is being refined.

Development of Adolescents (14-17)
Affective: Hormonal activity increases and mood swings are evident. Interactions between genders is important. Can consider other while making choices.Cognitive: Central nervous system develops. Abstract reasoning allows them to manipulate thoughts.

Start giving reasons for decisions and plan for the future.Psycho-motor: Major changes in bones, muscles, hormones and size. Decrease in flexibility. Oxygen transportation system improves.

The Playwork Principles
-Freely chosen-Personally directed-Intrinsically motivated-Playworker has an impact on the play space-Encourage kids to incorporate risk and discovery in their play-Play time takes priority over adults schedule-Allow children to extend their play-Support children in their use of play space
A stimulus for Dance
Music, a story, a poem, an image, shapes, moods, or props like ribbons.
Educational Gymnastics
-The child is most important-Children work at their own level-Activities are made to provoke thought and learning-Problem-solving approach is used.
Alberta Phys-Ed Curriculum Outcomes
ActivityBenefits Health CooperationDo it daily.

.for life!

Activity – AB Curriculum
Acquire skills through a variety ofdevelopmentally appropriate movementactivities; dance, games, types of gymnastics, individual activities and activities in an alternative environment
Benefits Health – AB Curriculum
Understand, experience and appreciatethe health benefits that result fromphysical activity.
Cooperation – AB Curriculum
Interact positively with others
Do it daily..For Life! – AB Curriculum
Assume responsibility to lead an active way of life
Effective Instruction for Activity
-Positive learning environment-Variety in Instructional Styles-Clear Concise Instruction and Demonstration-Observe both individuals and group-Feedback-Content development and optimal sequencing
Importance of outdoor activities
-Sensory stimulus’-Physical opportunities-Magical, spiritual and mystical spaces
Requirements for outdoor play space
-Spaces need variety-Fixed equipment and portable equipment-Traveling routes and flat spacesMixing of age groups (yet accommodation for specific ages)
APA + definition
Adapted physical activity-Teachers need to ensure that the activities are inclusive to everyone, especially those with handicaps.

5 Strategies for adapting activities
1. Instruction2. Rules3.

Time4. Boundaries5. Equipment

Why cooperative learning?
a) heterogeneous groups: groups are made to reflect diversity of all types.b) positive interdependence: everyone must feel comfortable and trust one another to accomplish their goal.c) individual accountability: everyone has a role to playd) Social collaborative skills: kids learn social skills like teamwork and cooperation.
Increase in child obesity is due to?
Bad eating habits and a lack of physical activity.
F.

I.T.T. vs F.I.T.

Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type.

Does not work for children. Instead they likeF-FunI-Intrinsic MotivationT-Two C’s: Competence and confidence

Inactivity is associated to..?
-low socioeconomic status-parental safety concerns-limited access to recreation programs, play spaces and active living opportunities
Educational Gymnastics
-Is a problem solving approach to teaching gymnastics-The leader poses a problem, and the child chooses a response that is within their capabilities-The use of exploratory questions helps to realize the range of possibilities -Laban’s movement concepts are used forcreativity and challenge-DMP’s are the building blocks for body control
Purposes of games
-Structured-A Physical challenge-An Opportunity to practice/learn cognitive and physical skills and tactics
3 types of games
Body management games: Simple use of basic motor skills.Lead up games: Like formal games but easier to suit the lower skill developmentFormal games: Set rules, specific roles and skills needed.
Formal Game Types + Difficulty
1. Target2.

Striking/Fielding 3. Net and wall4. Invasion

Target Games
Sending away objects at a target. CURLING
Striking/Fielding
Striking objects to a specific target and sprinting to a specific place.

Fielding players receiving objects at different levels and throwing objects at a specific spot. BASEBALL

Net and Wall
Hitting or striking object into space atvarying levels and either close to or far away from body. Over a net or line. BADMINTON
Invasion
Running distance and with speed (with or without the object). Complex strategy involved. FOOTBALL
Teacher guidelines for cooperative learning
-each child has a contribution-the goal must be meaningful and motivating-cooperative skills must be emphasized-Teach and use cooperative vocabulary-May occur in addition to learning skills-Closure of an activity is critical as learning emphasizes cooperation and social/emotional benefit
5 Characteristics of a body management game
-simple-use both locomotor and non locomotor skillsallow the learner to gain control over their body before object manipulation-use any goal structure-combinations of elements found in other games
6 Collaborative Skills
-Information Sharing-teamwork-listening-be supportive-taking turns