Phonics I
phoneme
the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language; it distinguishes one word from another – for example, ‘b’ in ‘bug’ and ‘l’ in ‘lug’
morpheme
the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language and the spelling of words – i.

e. the suffixes ‘ed’ or ‘ly’

grapheme
a unit (a letter or letters) of a writing system that represents one phoneme – also a written symbol within a language, such as alphabetic letters
grapheme-phonemerelationship
working together, the phonemes comprise graphemes, whereas the graphemes represent the phonemes as written symbols
alphabetic principle
the concept that letters and letter combinations are used to represent phonemes and orthography
onset
the initial consonant sound in a single syllable or word: the onset of ‘fun’ is /f/ and the onset of ‘glide’ is /gl/
rimes
a unit composed of the vowel and any following consonants within a syllable, such as ‘ag’ in ‘bag’
phonemicsegmentation
the process of dividing a spoken word into the smallest units of sound within that word – i.e. cat into three phonemes: /c/a/t/