Psychodynamic Perspective which says that behavior throughout life is motivated by inner, unconscious forces, stemming from childhood, over which we have little control. Who are the major proponents for this?
Sigmund FreudErik Erikson
Behavioral Perspective which says development can be understood through studying observable behavior and environmental stimuli Who are the major proponents for this?
John B. WatsonB.
F. SkinnerAlbert Bandura(Ivan Pavlov as well Classical Conditioning)
Cognitive Perspective says that empahsis is on how changes or growth in the ways people know, understand, and think about the world affect behavior. Who is the major proponent for this?
Contextual Perspective says that behavior is determined by the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, social, and physical worlds. Who are the major proponents for this?
Leo VygotskyUric Bronfenbrenner
Evolutionary Perspective which says behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors: traits and behavior that are adaptive for promoting the survival of our species have been inherited through natural selection. Who is the major proponent for this?
Konrad Lorenz (influenced by the early works of Charles Darwin)
Psychoanalytic Theory- suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
Psychosocial Theory-emphasizes our social development with other people
Theory of Cognitive Development
Classical Conditioning– This basic type of learning was first identified by who? He discovered that repeatedly pairing two stimuli such as the sound of the bell and arrival of meat, he could make hungry dogs respond.
Classical Conditioning: Stimulus substitution.
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He was one of the first American psychologists to advocate a behavioral approach.
John B. Watson
Operant Conditioning was formulated and championed by this psychologists which says individuals learn to act deliberately on their environments in order to bring about desired consequences
Social Cognitive Learning Theory which is an approach that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person, called a model was formed by who?
This person was an advocate of discovery learning and he was one of the founders of the constructivist theory.
In acknowledging the problem with the traditional approaches to life span development, this psychologist proposed an alternative perspective called the bioecological approach. There are 5 levels of the environment that simultaneously influence individuals under the bioecological approach.
This person supported the life course theory
Glen Elder, Jr.
This person’s sociocultural theory emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture.
He proposed the cognitive-development theory.
He also has theories of moral development.
Hierarchy of Needs
In 1956, he along with fellow researchers, published a taxonomy of educational objectives that has been influential in the research and practices of education ever since. He and colleagues categorized objectives from simple to complex or from factual conceptual.
He had a theory of learning and theory of connectionism. (*note: I don’t know much about this. I googled it)He also known as the father of educational psychology.
(This I remember from ed. psych)
This person was influenced by the renaissance and reformation 1300-1700. He expresses the realist view that reality and thought are separate. he describes a child’s mind as a blank slate (tabula rasa) on which teachers must imprint in education.
He was influenced by the 1700s. He expresses a humanistic view of education in which children are not blank slates but possess natural goodness and freedom which must be nurtured so individuals can express their greatest potentials.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
This person was influenced around the turn of the century. She develops an educational philosophy in the humanist tradition that continues today through a system of public and private schools
He was influenced by the 1920s and 1930s. He extends the philosophy of pragmatism in education. His views became known as progressivism.
He was influenced by the 1940s and 1950s. Progressivism underlies with his studies of children’s cognitive and social development.
These 3 were influenced by the 1940s and 1950s as well. Behavioral psychology emerges from experiments by two of these individuals.
And, this person improves this earlier work and develops principles based on the idea that behavior is determined by environment and that people are best motivated by rewards and punishments.
Ivan Pavlov & John WatsonB.F. Skinner
These 3 were influenced by the 1960s & 1970s. Humanistic psychology develops from the work of these three individuals, as well as others, partly as a reaction against behaviorism and influences the open school movement.