In Mauritius, domestic fowl raising has been a traditional domestic pattern particularly in rural countries. Almost everyone was rise uping approximately 20 biddies which were an occasional beginning of eggs and lily-livered meat was consumed on particular juncture. They were being fed with kitchen wastes and some grains.During the last two decennaries, domestic fowl raising has undergone a drastic alteration. With a more wellness witting population about nutritionary value of domestic fowl merchandises and its affordability, the demand for domestic fowl meat is of all time increasing, so poultry raising has moved on to industrial degree. Due the good adaptability features of domestic fowl, husbandmans have been encouraged to pattern domestic fowl agriculture and this has been really profitable.
The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations estimated that in 2002 there were about 16 billion poulets in the universe. ( FAO Report, 2006 )However, with the intensification of domestic fowl raising, there have been several inauspicious environmental impacts which have risen up. Largely Poultry husbandmans were chiefly concerned about increasing output and net income devising. As a consequence, there have been lifting ailments such as odour nuisance reported and besides menace to human wellness.
Site visits effected by concerned governments revealed that the root of ailments was that domestic fowl raising was being done under hapless healthful conditions which may besides be the causes of diseases and taint. ( MoE Report, 2003 )Furthermore, with the pandemic of diseases by agencies of poulet, the Environment Protection Act was introduced by the Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit. A set Torahs and guidelines which poultry manufacturers must follow for an effectual and safe production were proposed.This survey carried out assesses the healthful patterns in domestic fowl farms and whether such guidelines have been decently adopted and maintained and come up with rigorous regulations and ordinances.
AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the survey was to transport out an appraisal of the healthful pratices predominating in domestic fowl farms of Mauritius. For this survey, largely big graduated table domestic fowl manufacturers have been taken into consideration.
The aim of the survey was to1.
- the existent degree of healthful conditions under which domestic fowl manufacturers operate ;
- the degree of hygiene of the domestic fowl workers ;
- the impact of the existent healthful patterns on the environment and ;
2. Suggest possible steps to be taken to better healthful conditions on domestic fowl farms to guarantee safe production of poulet for human ingestion and at the same clip holding an environment friendly attack.
Domestic fowl agriculture is the pattern of raising domestic fowl, such as poulets, Meleagris gallopavos, ducks, and geese, as a subcategory of animate being farming, for the intent of farming meat or eggs for nutrient. Chickens farmed for meat are called broiler poulets, and those farmed for eggs are called egg-laying biddies ( beds ) . ( Wikipedia Online Encyclopaedia )Domestic fowl is been the most easy accessible farm animal species. It is easy to bring forth quickly as it has a short generative rhythm.
Traditionally, domestic fowl raising was confined to the maintaining of birds in the backyard which provided extra nutrient in footings of meat and egg, and besides in some instances it brought income, employment and contributed to poverty relief. However during the last two decennaries, this sector has undergone a really rapid development to a more intensive method of rise uping. Local domestic fowl has been bit by bit replaced with commercial broilers and beds, and the backyard has been modified into little retentions for poulet raising.
( MoA Report, 2008 )During the last two decennaries, there has been a world-wide addition of 1 % to 2 % in the human population and an addition of approximately 1 % is expected to come for the present decennary and this will increase the demand for lily-livered meat, eggs and merchandises of processed domestic fowl. ( MoE Report, 2009 ) . An improved buying power of consumers and a penchant for domestic fowl meat and eggs from a more wellness witting population, as these are beginnings of easy digestible protein and the monetary value of domestic fowl is less than that of ruddy meat have besides contributed to drastic addition in lily-livered demand, therefore taking to an addition of domestic fowl keepers to accomplish autonomy in poulet meat and eggs. ( Vision, 2020 )
Domestic fowl raising can be categorized into three groups viz.
- Domestic – backyard maintaining of a few poulet for place ingestion
- Commercial – raising of birds ( more that 25 beds or 50 broilers but non transcending 500 birds at any one clip ) for sale of meat and / or egg.
- Industrial – raising of more than 500 broilers or beds at any one clip.
However, the rapid addition of domestic fowl farms has resulted in monolithic production of solid and liquid wastes chiefly poultry litter and dungs and farm mortality. These wastes are being disposed by land filling, cloaca every bit good as surface H2O discharge and entombment with a hapless direction system. ( www.fao.org )It has been noted that whatever the graduated table of development, domestic fowl raising is associated with assorted environmental nuisances that are frequently the topic of increasing figure of ailments despite alleviative steps undertaken.
In order to promote an environmentally sound and sustainable development, domestic fowl raising in commercial and industrial graduated table is subjected to a Preliminary Environmental Report ( PER ) Approval under Section 16 of the Environment Protection Act ( EPA ) 2002. ( MoE Report 2003 ) .Diseases and infections are major menaces to the domestic fowl industry, particularly in the hatchery. However, microbic taint can be prevented and controlled utilizing proper direction patterns and modern wellness merchandises. ( MoA Report, 2008 )
Sanitation is defined as the hygienic agencies of advancing wellness through bar of human contact with the jeopardies of wastes. These jeopardies can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. ( Wikipedia Online Encyclopaedia )
The purpose of healthful patterns is to guarantee the decrease of infective being Numberss to a degree at which they do non present a disease menace to their host. Recently with nutrient poisoning jobs, avian grippe menaces and issues about salmonella in domestic fowl, particular attending is being given about healthful conditions in domestic fowl farms, processing workss and selling points throughout the universe.
( www.fao.org ) In Mauritius, concerned governments are implementing the Torahs and ordinances and providing guidelines to husbandmans to guarantee that domestic fowl farms are maintained in good healthful conditions. ( MoE Report, 2003 )Keeping good healthful conditions as an environmental parametric quantity is one of the recommendations of the Preliminary Environment Report ( PER ) which was introduced in the Environmental Protection Act ( EPA ) 2002.
This shows that there is existent concern about healthful conditions from the really start of shiping on a domestic fowl rise uping undertaking.
NUISANCE CAUSED BY POULTRY REARING
Appendix 1 includes Part II of the Public Health Act 1925 ; Section 18, gives a list of reading of ‘nuisance ‘ .Nuisance caused by domestic fowl production may be defined as malpractices which have direct or indirect impact on human wellness.
They are largely due to misdirection of the byproducts of domestic fowl, hapless sanitation and hygiene which lead to environmental jobs and besides present a menace to wellness. Numerous ailments are received against domestic fowl farms about:
- Odour nuisance
- Noise nuisance
- Dust nuisance
- Illegal disposal of liquid and solid waste
- Proliferation of flies in the locality
- Illegal dumping of dead birds, plumes, manure etc near watercourses
In Mauritius, The Health Inspectorate of the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life in coaction with the ‘Police de L’environment ‘ , the Ministry of Environment and NDU and the Health and Environment Department of local governments receive, attend ailments and set up disputes to poultry farms which cause nuisance as explained above.
SANITARY PRACTICES TO BE MAINTAINED IN POULTRY FARM.
The Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) has set up guidelines to guarantee that proper healthful patterns are being applied for safe production of domestic fowl. ( www.fao.org )In Mauritius the Ministry of Environment and NDU has set up guidelines based on FAO rules where a domestic fowl farm should fulfill the undermentioned healthful recommendations to guarantee safe production.
1.1 ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY SITE LOCATION AND PREPARATION
The location of such genteelness countries has to be a certain distance from local inhabitancy so as to keep a good hygiene degree and safe to neighbors.The integrating of healthful conditions in domestic fowl farm starts from the puting up the farm itself.
The Ministry of Environment and National Development Unit has set up some guidelines ( Appendix 2 ) to which the advocates of domestic fowl rise uping undertaking must stay to protect the wellness of the flock and prevent pollution. ( MoE PER Guidelines, 2009 )
1.2 PROPER INFRASTRUCTURES AND PLANNING ON THE FARM
1.2.1 DESIGN OF THE FARM
It is indispensable that domestic fowl farms are designed and operated to understate struggle with neighbors and cut down the hazard of injury to the environment. The farm should be good fenced for biosecurity intents ( PER Guidelines July 2009 MoE ) .
Pens should be designed in a manner where the incubation subdivision is separated from the other raising subdivisions. A decently designed farm ensures the protection of birds from pest invasion, parasites, diseases and marauders. ( Environmental codification of pattern for domestic fowl farms in Western Australia, 2004 )
The proper orientation of a farm with regard to sunshine and has a direct influence on the air status and temperature control inside it. The axle of the farm should be in a manner that will forestall direct sunshine and should be perpendicular to the air current way so that it can profit from natural airing. ( Chapter II – Joseph Tolman ‘s Experience )
1.2.3 CONSTRUCTION OF DRAINS
The farm must hold good built drains of about 400mm ten 400mm where appropriate in the farm premises to canalise waste H2O generated from cleansing of pens and rain H2O. There should be drains in the pens besides to evacuate waste H2O from cleaning procedures. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
1.2.4 CONSTRUCTION OF PENS
22.214.171.124 Construction Materials
Pens should be constructed with stuffs which can defy cyclones and supply a good airing and temperature control.
Construction of pens is advised to be done with concrete blocks or galvanised metal and covered with corrugated Fe sheets and the gaps be fitted with fly cogent evidence wire gauzes sacking of mesh size 12mm A- 12mm to ease airing and every bit good to forestall entry of flies, birds etc in the pens. ( K. Bulkhundee Aug 07 ) ( Environmental Guideline No.
1 Poultry Rearing, 2009 )
126.96.36.199 Walls and Floors
Walls and floors should hold a smooth and non absorbent surface, free of clefts, easy cleaned and disinfected, mould liberate and painted with a light coloring material. Floors should be constructed from strengthened concrete and should ease the remotion of litter and manure and forestall the leaching of contaminations into implicit in dirt. It should besides hold a good drainage system to let rapid H2O emptying during cleansing and flushing.
( Environmental codification of pattern for domestic fowl farms in Western Australia, 2004 ) ( Chapter II – Joseph Tolman ‘s Experience )
188.8.131.52 Windows and Other Openings
All gaps, including Windowss, air blowholes, extractors ‘ gaps etc should be fitted with all right wire gauzes which act as barriers to wild birds, flies etc.Windows should besides be decently positioned to guarantee good cross airing and a good ambiance in the pens, as shown in Plate 1.
( http: //www.upc-online.org/home.html ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.piteraq.dk/gok/smallhouse.html )
Plate 1 Proper Openings for airing
The doors should be made of non-corrosive stuffs, they should hold smooth surfaces and they should be fitted with self-closing device. ( Chapter II – Joseph Tolman ‘s Experience )
2.4.5 Roofing, Internal Heights and Ceilings
The roof is a cardinal factor in keeping a good ambiance in a domestic fowl house. It keeps out the consequence of sunshine and heat radiation in hot climes. In cold climes the roof should retain warmth inside the pens, hence corrugated Fe sheets are largely used.
Pens should hold steeply pitched roofs to supply a greater air modesty within itself to heighten airing and must be fitted with false ceilings to cut down the consequence of warming up of the birds in the pen. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lsuagcenter.
com ) ( Practical Farm Buildings by Hunter-Practical farm bui00huntrich, 2000 )
The farm should hold a storage room to hive away provender bags, eggs, germicides, cleansing and equipment used on the farm. Disinfectants and provender bags must be kept individually in order to avoid any hazard of taint in instance of escape. Feed bags should be stacked on shelves of about 300mm above land degree to ease cleansing and besides to forestall rodent invasion. All necessary safeguards must be taken to avoid any accident or spillage of provender. ( F.
Hossenally, 2007 )
1.2.6 WATER SUPPLY
Water is an of import assistance to the proper direction of the farm and is used for cleansing intents and imbibing for the birds.
For biosecurity grounds, any H2O that can be accessed by birds should be of a drinkable criterion, i.e. filtered and disinfected.
There should be adequate H2O storage armored combat vehicles aided with H2O pump to avoid any H2O deficit job ( K. Bulkhundee, 2007 ) . The H2O armored combat vehicles must be on a regular basis cleaned and disinfected to be free from any type of taint. They should be made of non caustic and immune stuff such as fibre glass and should be closed to forestall entree to any birds or other animate beings. Regular care and fixs should be carried out to forestall shrieking jobs and escape. Drinkable H2O must non acquire into contact with surface H2O overflow or waste H2O. Regular H2O quality criterion trials must be carried out.
( Anon. Water Quality Supply in Farms, 2008 )
1.2.7 TEMPERATURE CONTROL, HUMIDITY AND VENTILATION
Temperature control is really of import for the good wellness of the birds as they are more susceptible to temperature extremes than most other farm animate beings. ( K. Bulkhundee, 2007 ) . One agency of commanding high shed temperatures is insularity and all right mist sprays within the shed.
The needed temperature should be between 18-24 A° C. This is achieved by providing good airing to pens. Temperature detectors should be placed at different topographic points in the pens to supervise the temperature degree. ( MoE Report, 2003 )Proper airing is really of import in the pens.
Ventilation supplies fresh air and helps cut down the extremes of temperature, humidness, smell and air taint. This can be done by natural and unreal agencies.
This is achieved by the proviso of gaps such as Windowss, air blowholes.
This is done by put ining fans and weave driven or electrical extractors, which prevent condensation, dust accretion and mould growing. The location and size of the fans and recesss are of import for efficient airing and clime control. Fan mercantile establishments should be directed off to cut down noise, dust and smell impacts.Tunnel airing system is besides used as it contributes in enabling a higher denseness of farm animal per pens.
Tunnel systems have an airtight shed with computer-controlled forced air extraction combined with water-moistened evaporative tablets to chill incoming air during hot conditions instead than H2O mist within the shed. ( http: //www.upc-online.org )Plan 1 is a good illustration of airing system.
Plan 1 Ventilation System in Broiler House
A well-lit house is indispensable so that the birds remain active and productive. Light is besides of import for feeding, as domestic fowl identify nutrient by sight particularly for day-old biddies, which need really bright 24-hour lighting during their first hebdomad. ( FAO Manual, 2004 )
2.9 NOISE CONTROL
Chickens are really sensitive, where sudden, unfamiliar or loud noises can panic them which may take to injury and even decease through asphyxiation under ‘pile-ups ‘ . Noise on the farm is generated from ill maintained airing systems and feeder units.
Transport of birds ( which is undertaken at dark to cut down heat emphasis and desiccation ) and any conveyance in and out of the farm can besides lend to resound emanations. Therefore noise control should be considered at the farm planning and design phase. ( Environmental codification of pattern for domestic fowl farms in Western Australia, 2004 )
1.3 SAFE PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND GOOD HUSBANDRY PRACTICES
Good healthful conditions and proper farming patterns lead to the production of clean stock which is disease free and safe for ingestion. Therefore, proper healthful patterns must be taken during the raising method and the eating method.There are four types of domestic fowl farms and have been farther elaborated in Appendix 3, viz. :
- Breeder farms
- Broiler farms
- Layer farms
Broilers are reared in the Deep Litter System and Layers are reared the Battery System. ( Explained in Appendix 4 )The different types of poulet and batches every bit good as ill 1s should be put in separate pens as a good farming pattern and flock wellness security grounds.
( Poultry Rearing Guidelines, 2009 )Eating is done manually and in large farms, automatic systems are used where the provenders are supplied at clip intervals from silos, as shown below.
Home plates 2 & A ; 3Automatic Feeding System
Feeding of beds and broilers are done otherwise. ( Appendix 5 gives inside informations of the eating procedure for both ) .Water trough or mammillas and feeders must be of plastic to forestall bacterial and viral infection. ( Plate 4 )In the farm, the provender content should be closely monitored, for each type of poulet and age and ill poulet should be given appropriate medical specialties in their provender. ( Nigel, 1958 )
Plate 4 Feeders/Troughs stuffs
4 GENERAL SANITATION
The Ministry of Environment and NDU has set up guidelines about environmental conditions for sanitation which should be implemented for effectual domestic fowl raising ( Appendix 6 ) . Some parts are elaborated below:
1.4.1 REGULAR GENERAL CLEANING AND DISINFECTION OF PENS
Cleaning and disinfection are cardinal factors in the control of diseases, devastation of harmful micro-organism and bar of any signifier of nuisance such as smell, flies and gnawers.
During the production rhythm, pens should be on a regular basis cleaned to take dirty litter, manure, dust, caky stuffs etc. After a production rhythm, all edifices, coops, airing recesss and mercantile establishments, provender troughs, drinkers, trays roll uping domestic fowl wastes and equipment must be exhaustively cleaned and disinfected before the debut of new batch of birds. ( Woodger G.J.A, 1989 ) . A follow period of at least one hebdomad should be maintained between the old and new batch of birds.A pes bath incorporating germicides must be provided at the entryway of each pen.A washing dip must be available for rinsing of all tools used.
( K. Bulkhundee, 2007 )
1.4.2 Good HYGIENIC Practice
To keep a good hygiene degree on the farm, the farm staff should be trained and educated about personal hygiene, hygiene at work and should be cognizant of operations that may do pollution or nuisance and take appropriate steps to understate impacts. This will besides assist in disease control. ( Anon. Report Animal Production Division MoA, 2002 )The workers must
- hold a good personal hygiene ;
- wear clean baseball mitts, proper and clean working apparels, hairnets, boots ;
- rinse their custodies and usage germicide before and after managing birds ;
- non be bearers of diseases ;
- non hold unfastened lesions, cuts, skin diseases, infections etc ;
- use the footbath while coming in and out of the pens ;
Equipment used must be decently washed and disinfected before and after usage. ( MoA Report, 1999 )
4.3 Good Housework
Good housework is really of import for the smooth running of the farm. The whole site ( shed, equipment, security fence and flora and grassed buffers must be maintained to guarantee the continued effectivity of any design features to understate environmental impacts.Grass within the farm premises should be kept green and short to command plagues ; ( Environmental codification of pattern for domestic fowl farms in Western Australia, 2004 )Fly cogent evidence gauzes at doors, Windowss and extractors must be on a regular basis cleaned and replaced to better airing ; ( MoE Report, 2003 )Machines used must on a regular basis undergo care to guarantee their length of service every bit good as forestalling noise nuisance which may do emphasis to the birds ;The exterior and inside of edifices should be maintained and painted with light colorss to maintain the visual aspect, airing, security, and general operation of the constructions to a high criterion. There should non be molds or clefts in the edifices ; ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lsuagcenter.com )A good plague control programme must be established. ( Nigel, 1958 )
4.4 REGULAR REPLACEMENT OF BEDDINGS ( LITTER MANAGEMENT )
Litter, besides called bedclothes is placed on the floors of pens to function as mattress for the birds and is besides a good absorber of humidness. Wood shaves and proverb dust are used as they are of optimal wet content which will non let proliferation of harmful micro-organisms. ( K. Bulkhundee, 2007 ) ( POULTRY MANAGEMENT MoE 04 )Broilers produce about 1.5 metric tons of dry domestic fowl litter per 1,000 birds in approximately seven hebdomads, consisting 50 % manure and 50 % litter. ( F.
Hossenally, 2007 )Bedclothess should be renewed after every batch. When wet content rises, with increasing domestic fowl manure, gradual bedclothes topping must be done to reconstruct the optimal wet content otherwise there will be rapid proliferations of bugs. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thepoultrysite.com )
1.4.5 PEST CONTROL ACTIVITIES
Parasites such as touchs, ticks, lice and fleas are disease bearers and are of great menace to birds.
Therefore any harborage or nestling site must be eliminated by maintaining the farm substructures in good fix and free from wastes.
184.108.40.206 Rodent Control
Rodents such as rats are a major menace to the farm particularly in the provender shop.
All provenders must be put in good jammed pokes to avoid any spillage in the provender shop and in the pens.Traps and come-ons must be for good placed to extinguish them. All gaps and airing recess and mercantile establishments should be fitted with wire gauze and kept cleaned.
All unwanted H2O beginnings such as leaky lights-outs must be eliminated. The farm premises should be good fenced to forestall entry of gnawers. ( Poultry International, 1984 )
4.5.2 Fly Control
Fly besides is a major nuisance. Insecticidal come-ons and electronic zappers must be used to command flies. Openings must be fitted with fly cogent evidence gauzes.There must non be dispersing of manure and dead H2O on the farm and manure must be kept and handled in a dry province to forestall genteelness of flies.
( M. LOFTIN, 1985 )
1.4.6 ODOUR CONTROL
A domestic fowl farm necessarily generates odour from the birds and fresh body waste in sheds, which is considered as unpleasant and vary with conditions conditions.During the cleansing of sheds, when litter/manure is disturbed ammonium hydroxides and other smells are released in greater measures therefore doing odour nuisance.
Cleaning and remotion of litter/manure from sheds must be done rapidly and when there is a little per centum of the bird turning rhythm. Lime must be applied to the manure to dry it and kill any harmful bacteriums present. ( Nigel, 1958 )
1.4.7 WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL ( Liquid and Solid )
A big measure of waste is generated on the farm and it should be decently managed and disposed to avoid any hazard on the environment.
220.127.116.11 Solid Waste Management
Solid wastes are chiefly bird dungs, litter, plumes, dead birds, rotten eggs, manure and provender bags. Feed bags and domestic garbage should be collected and disposed by scavenging service. Litter and bird dungs should be composted and kept in a manure armored combat vehicle ( H2O tight ) to forestall infiltration during rainfall.A dead bird cavity should be made on the farm premises for disposal of dead birds and damaged eggs ( discussed in 4.8 ) .
( Environmental Guideline No.1 Poultry Rearing, 2009 )
2 Liquid Waste Management
Following sweeping or vacuuming of domestic fowl sheds to take litter, sheds are exhaustively washed to take any residuary stuff. Drains and soaking up cavities must be constructed to suit the wastewaters which consist of used chemicals during cleansing and from rain H2O. ( F. Hossenally, 2007 )A infected armored combat vehicle of 4.0mA? capacity with soaking up cavity of minimal dimension 2m ten 2m ten 2m, as per the demands of the Waste Management Authority and the Ministry of Public Utilities must be set up to handle day-to-day sewerage which may be about 500L day-to-day, generated from administrative blocks. ( Waste Management Authority, 2006 )No effluent shall be discharged either on the surface of the land or into rivers/streams. ( EPA, 2002 )
8 RAPID DISPOSAL OF DEAD BIRDS AND DAMAGED EGGS
A specially designed cavity must be set up to bury damaged eggs and dead birds who died from picking and suppression and where there is monolithic decease due to diseases. A mortality rate of 4-6 % per batch on broiler farms and 5 % per batch on bed farms is considered normal. ( K. Bulkhundee, 2007 )Proper fence of the farm is of import to maintain away animate beings such as isolated Canis familiariss to take carcase from the cavity. ( Animal Production Division Report, 2004 )
1.5 WELFARE OF HENS
1 General Welfare Practices
Ill cared birds will non boom or bring forth expeditiously hence public assistance of birds is of import. The husbandman must give the best quality provender to the birds.The birds must be receive good airing, illuming, good H2O, bedclothess for their good wellness. They should be given intervention when needed and kept cleaned.There should be debeaking and cautery in instance of picking among themselves so ‘Amino emphasis ‘ is used to cut down emphasis of debeaking. Birds victims of picking are treated with anti infected. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //msucares.com )
5.2 Stock Density
The birds must be provided with a comfy environment and appropriate infinite for a healthy growth. If the birds are to be kept in an overcrowded status, the litter will deteriorate quickly and do smell and proliferation of flies.
In a Deep Litter System, the infinite allocated is of 10 birds per mA? for broilers and in Battery System, coops of dimensions 45 x 45 ten 45 cmA? are to be used for each 3 beds. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nda.agric.za )
1.6 DISEASE CONTROL
The birds are exposed to several types of infections and diseases as shown below ( few ) ;However a good farm direction coupled with good hygiene would understate hazards of taint.
Newcastle disease affects all birds and can be transmitted short distances by airborne path or introduced on contaminated places, provender Jesuss, caretakers, visitants, soiled equipment, tyres, provender pokes, crates, and wild birds. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
Infectious bronchitis affects chickens merely. It is spread by air, provender bags, infected dead birds, infected houses, and gnawers. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
Avian grippe can happen in most, if non all, species of birds. Its virus can stay feasible for long periods of clip at moderate temperatures and can populate indefinitely in frozen stuff. So, the disease can be easy spread when there is improper disposal of septic carcases and manure. It can be besides spread by contaminated places, vesture, crates, etc.
Plagues may transport the virus from infected to susceptible birds. Avian Influenza has caused considerable loss to poultry husbandmans throughout Asia, Europe and Africa in recent old ages. ( http: //www.organic-vet.reading.ac.uk )The 2007 Bernard Matthews H5N1 eruption was an happening of avian grippe in England caused by the H5N1 subtype of Influenza virus A which began on 30 January 2007, and affected domestic fowl at one of Bernard Matthews ‘ farms in Holton in Suffolk. This was the 3rd case of H5N1-subtype detected in the United Kingdom.
( “A Focus on Avian Influenza” 06 )“The foremost outbreak occurred in October 2005 among alien birds imported from Taiwan and South America at a in private owned quarantine installation in Essex, England.” ( 2007 Bernard Matthews H5N1 eruption )Over 250 million domestic fowl have died or been destroyed internationally. For FY2008, the Administration of US has requested $ 82 million for avian grippe Control. ( M.
LOFTIN, 1985 )
Egg Drop Syndrome
Egg Dropping Syndrome has reculted reduced egg production in poulets in many parts of the universe, where transmittal occurs from septic breeders to biddies. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.piteraq.dk )
It affects chiefly Meleagris gallopavos, poulets, game birds, and water bird. Staphylococcus aureus is soil-borne and eruptions in flocks frequently occur after storms when birds on scope drink from dead rain pools. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
1.6.1 DISEASES CAUSED BY POULTRY
There are some micro-organisms such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli which are of course present in domestic fowl and can do diseases when there are hapless healthful conditions in farms ;
- SalmonellaSalmonella is an enteric bacteria that can be transmitted by animate beings and broiler poulets arewidely accepted as an of import reservoir of Salmonella ( P.
CASAGRANDE PROIETTI et Al. 2001 ) . It causesSalmonellosis in worlds which is a food-borne infection in industrialized states. However,alteration in domestic fowl production systems by impacting carnal denseness, feeding system, animate beingpublic assistance every bit good as pharmacological interventions are expected to modify the germ colonisation in domestic fowlbowel. ( Todd EC, 1989 )Recently in Mauritius we have encountered several instances of nutrient borne infections caused by Salmonella.However, no statistics have been given by the Ministry of Health as those instances are still inadvancement.
- Escherichia coliEscherichia coli is a Gram negative bacillar bacteria that is normally found in the lower bowelof warm-blooded beings including domestic fowl. It is omnipresent in the domestic fowl farm.
It can betransmitted when fecal matters leak from the carcase until the evisceration phase. In this phase theinside of the carcase get into contact with enteric bacteriums. E.
coli can be killed by propercooking times. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli )
1.6.2 VACCINATION OF HENS
To protect the birds from diseases and forestall them from doing diseases, a proper inoculation programme must be adopted. Vaccines are obtained from the Division of Veterinary Services- Reduit and Mauripharm.Complete inoculation programme explained in Table 2.
Biosecurity is the protection of flocks from bacteriums, viral, fungus, parasites. Its purpose is to forestall disease eruptions and disease transmittal from one belongings to another. It depends on a good sanitation degree, disease control and vermin direction to guarantee that flocks remain healthy and that the meat and eggs produced are uncontaminated and disease free. ( Poultry Management- June deGraft-Hanson )The undermentioned biosecurity steps must be taken for bring forthing healthy flocks:
- The farm premises and pens should be good secured to maintain off cats, Canis familiariss, gnawers, flies as these may be transporting diseases.
- Entrance to the farm should be restricted to staff merely.
- The staff should be good trained and educated about the biosecurity hazards and the safeguards they should take to avoid any taint in instance their apparels contain harmful micro-organisms or if they are disease bearers.
- Staff should hold a shower before and after they enter pens.
- Staff should utilize appropriate personal protective equipment and same should be disinfected after usage ; particularly boots should be exhaustively cleaned.
- Staff must ever utilize the pes bath incorporating germicide at the pen entryway and same must be on a regular basis cleaned and refilled every 3 yearss.
- Vehicles motion should be restricted as harmful micro-organisms may be transmitted to the pens through the vehicle ‘s tyres.
- Any unusual decease or eruption of disease shall be reported instantly to the Ministry of Agro Industry, Food Production and Security ( Veterinary Services ) , the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life and the Ministry of Environment and NDU.
- No slaughtering or processing activities shall be undertaken on site to forestall any hazard of taint.
( MoE Poultry Rearing Guidelines, 2009 ) ( Poultry Farms Policy, 1998 )
1.8 HEALTH AND SAFETY CONTROL
Harmonizing to Section 5 of Occupational Safety and Health Act 2005 ( OSHA ) ( Appendix 7 ) employers must supply employees with a safe working environment, and harmonizing to Section 14 ( 1 ) Duties of employees of Occupational Safety and Health Act 2005 employees should utilize Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE ) which includes caput caps, gum elastic boots, aprons, baseball mitts, inhalators, goggles while executing work where there could be injury hazards. ( OSHA, 2005 )Therefore both employers and employees must stay to these Torahs severally.A First Aid Kit Box besides should be available on site for primary wellness attention in instance of hurt.Workers should besides be trained and educated about the undermentioned issues:
- Zoonotic disease transmittal ;
- Respiratory jeopardies from airborne particulates ;
- Chemical handling ;
- Manual handling ; and
- Vehicle and equipment safety. ( International Hazard Datasheets on Occupation- Poultry Farm Worker 2005 )
The farm premises must hold exigency Safety commissariats in instance of fire. ( OSHA 2005 Sec 75 )
9 SANITARY MEASURES IN STAFF BLOCK
The staff block should hold a muss room, cloakroom, shower suites and lavatories with separate installations for males and females. The lavatories must hold manus wash basins along with soap, germicides, antiseptics, nailbrushes and clean towels. All these installations should be on a regular basis cleaned, disinfected and maintained. Waste H2O from the staff block must be directed to a infected armored combat vehicle or through sewer line. Waste H2O should at any point get into contact with surface overflow H2O or any waterbodies. ( Environmental Report MoE ENV/13/1/9, 2003 )
Transcripts of the Environment Protection Act 2002, Local Government Act 2003, Preliminary Environmental Report ( PER ) Guideline for Poultry Projects, Environmental Guideline No.1 for Poultry Rearing from the Ministry of Environment and NDU and notes from web sites, books and diaries were obtained.
Then all possible jobs refering healthful conditions and inauspicious environmental effects of domestic fowl farms were analysed and assessed with the aid of officers from the Ministry of Environment and NDU.Two types of questionnaires were set up to roll up informations of the existent healthful conditions in domestic fowl farms ;
- Questionnaire of personal observation of the healthful conditions on site, aided with inquiries addressed to directors of the pens ( Appendix 8 ) ;
- Questionnaire addressed to the workers of the farms assessed about degree of healthful patterns in their responsibilities ( Appendix 9 ) .
A sample of THIRTY ( 30 ) domestic fowl farms was selected, ( five are the biggest industrial domestic fowl farms of the island and the remainder are medium sized domestic fowl farms.A farther sample of 10 workers per farm was taken.The healthful patterns predominating were analysed to see whether they conform to the guidelines set by the Ministry of Environment and NDU.The information aggregation was done personally on site by personal observation and questioning the pen directors where needed. A few were rather loath thought that I was from the imperativeness. Some farms were rigorous on “No Visitor Policy” as biosecurity step.
Most of the farms were on distant countries and tonss of clip was used up in going. In a position to avoid any biasness from the domestic fowl directors, several surprise visits had to be effected to corroborate their replies to the questionnaires. This made the study last for approximately 14 hebdomads.
RESULTS AND FINDINGS
1. Possession of PER/ EIA
EIA/PER are the necessity of engendering farms. From the study, it is observed that 90 % of farms assessed possess an EIA or PER ( depending when they started to run ) . While 10 % do non hold PER or EIA as they do non rise up more than 5000 birds ( Figure 1 ) .
2. Site Location
Farms must to be situated in agricultural zone so as to avoid nuisance, but it was noted that merely approximately 63 % of the farms assessed are within agricultural zone, while the remainder prevarication in colony zone ( Figure 2 ) .
3. Construction of pens
Fencing of farms is of import for Biosecurity intents, but merely 60 % of the farms are decently fenced while 40 % overlooked that of import pattern ( Figure 3 ) which may do injury to the flocks.All of the pens assessed are made up of concrete walls, corrugated Fe sheets roofs and concrete floors.
All farms are equipped with self shuting doors. They have adequate gaps, fitted with fly cogent evidence gauzes to let good airing and act as barriers to flies.
Ventilation supplies fresh air and minimise air taint hazard in pens. Both mechanical and natural airing are used and ventilation status was satisfactory ( Figure 4 )However, in seven farms, it was noted that due to hot clime and improper orientation as a consequence of restricted infinite, airing was hapless therefore doing odour nuisance.
5. Drain System
Water drainage systems are of import to avoid accretion of H2O and genteelness of flies and all farms have H2O drainage installations where of satisfactory degree.
60 % of farms have rains inside and outside, and discharged pipes fitted to roofs to dispose rainwater, and effluent from cleaning procedures ( Figure 5 ) .
6. Good Water Supply
Permanent H2O supply and quality is of import for cleansing intents and for imbibing for the birds. The study revealed that 90 % of the farms have good H2O supply and they are accommodated with adequate H2O armored combat vehicles to run into their day-to-day H2O demands ( Figure 6 ) .However, on three farms ( 10 % ) , there was drawn-out break in H2O supply which affects the tidiness of the farms.
7. Temperature Control
Temperature control depends on airing.
If there is proper airing, temperature inside pens will evidently be good, therefore supplying healthy environment. About 43 % farms have a good temperature control, 50 % have a satisfactory temperature control, while the remainder have hapless temperature control ( Figure 7 ) .
8. Production System
Good farming patterns are of import for the production of healthy birds.
About 57 % farms abide to good farming patterns, while approximately 7 % have hapless husbandry patterns ( Figure 8 ) . All birds were packed in the same pen and were served with the same type of provender which may do diseases.
9. General Sanitation
Pens must be ever kept clean and disinfected to avoid taint, smell and plagues. The study shows that general cleansing and disinfection are done day-to-day about 33 % farms. While 40 % are cleaned hebdomadal and about 27 % are cleaned monthly, depending on litter status ( Figure 9.1 ) .
However all farms clean the birds ‘ drinkers daily.Footbath is of import to avoid external taint. Most of the farms have footbath with germicide in front their pens ( about 87 % ) . However, four farms ( about 13 % ) did non hold footbath. ( Figure 9.2 ) .
Personal Hygiene Level of Workers
Personal hygiene of workers is indispensable for the handling of birds. The study revealed that the workers do hold cognition of personal hygiene ( Figure 10.1 ) but yet merely 60 % were observed to be using good personal hygiene and use good healthful patterns ( Figure 10.2 ) which may be a menace to the birds.
11. Health of workers
Workers must be in good wellness and free from any diseases which can be transmitted to the birds. Figure 11.1 shows the diseases sustained by the workers on the farms.
10 % workers have Lung & A ; Respiratory diseases which may be harmful to the birds.The study showed that about 3 % workers have lesions, 4 % have cuts, approximately 2 % have skin diseases and about 4 % have infections. This may be fatal to the workers itself as these lesions etc are optimal medium for entry of bacteriums while they are working which may do terrible infections ( Figure 11.2 ) .
12. Good Housework
Good housework provides a safe and healthy environment to the birds. However merely approximately 33 % farms are in good province and on a regular basis maintained. Their substructures and machinery, tools are all in good fix order. While 40 % are of mean province and about 27 % are ill maintained and several substructures can non be used ( Figure 12 ) .
Regular replacing of Bedding ( Litter Management )
The litter must ever be kept dry to avoid genteelness of flies. The study showed that in approximately 77 % farms, litter status was dry, 10 % was caky and about 13 % was humid and doing odour screening that litter is non decently managed ( Figure 13.1 ) .
Regular replacing of bedding prevents genteelness of flies and odour nuisance. Replacement of bedclothes was being done after every rhythm ( 40 % ) , while 60 % farms replaced bedding whenever required, as a means to command wet content ( Figure 13.2 ) .
14. Pest Control Activities
Pest Control is of import to avoid proliferation of parasites, flies and rats in the farm which may do diseases and decease to birds. In approximately 73 % farms, Pest control activities are done monthly, 10 % do it every two hebdomads ( largely hatcheries ) , and about 17 % perform Pest control every six months which may foster genteelness of gnawers in the farm premises ( Figure 14 ) .
15. Odour Control
Odour nuisance is something rather difficult to slake, but at least necessary steps must be taken to command it. There was presence of smell on 40 % farms.
While on 60 % odour nuisance was being good controlled ( Figure 15 ) .
16. Waste Management and Disposal
Farms generate a batch of waste and if non decently controlled, it may take to pollution of the environment. The study revealed that the farms assessed disposed off their liquid waste through infected armored combat vehicles, 40 % farms compost the manure green goods and 60 % farms sell the manure to local husbandmans which shows that the hazard of pollution from farm wastes is controlled ( Figure 16 ) .
17. Rapid disposal of dead birds and damaged eggs
Dead birds and damaged eggs are unsafe beginning of taint to the birds, so they should be decently dealt with. About 73 % farms assessed disposed dead birds by burying in a cavity within the farm premises, while the remainder send dead birds to be incinerated outside the farm premises ( Figure 17 ) .
Social welfare of Hens
18.1 Stock Density
The biddies must be given a comfy environment and adequate infinite for their growing and wellness. However merely 30 % farms have a good stocking denseness, while approximately 47 % were rather satisfactory, but on about 23 % farms the pens were so closely stacked that they could non travel ( Figure 18.1 ) .
18.2 Disease Control
All farms follow the inoculation programme set by AREU and the birds look healthy.
Biosecurity is aboriginal for the proper direction of the farm and for flock wellness.
About 57 % farms abide to satisfactory biosecurity steps, 30 % have good biosecurity steps, while approximately 13 % have an mean attack to biosecurity ( Figure 18.3 ) .
19. Health and Safety Control
Employers must provide the domestic fowl workers with a safe working environment every bit good as Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE ) , and the workers claimed to have the undermentioned ( Figure 19.1 ) .
20. Sanitary Measures in staff block.
Proper lavatory installations, shower room and disinfection installations are of import healthful conditions to be supplied to workers for their public assistance every bit good as a biosecurity step. The study showed that in 80 % farms, lavatories, shower suites and disinfection installations were in satisfactory, while in 20 % , the lavatories were in a distressing province and doing smell in the locality ( Figure 20 ) .
Sanitary governments visits
Domestic fowl farms are frequently subjected to ailments about odour nuisance, so healthful governments have to consequence regular visits to farms to guarantee that alleviative steps are taken. However, approximately 47 % farms claimed that they have ne’er received visits from any healthful authorization. ( Figure 21 )
Domestic fowl farms every bit good as other engendering units need to keep a certain wellness criterion, every bit good as care of a certain hygienic protocol. The purpose of this survey was to look into whether such appropriate conditions are being maintained in these genteelness topographic points for guaranting distribution of quality nutrient to the population in general.Construction of such units has to be located in certain confined country usually, with a minimal distance of approximately 200m from residential countries.
Consequences of the current survey revealed the presence of approximately 37 % of farms within colony boundaries. This bunch consists merely of medium sized farms, however they prove to be necessarily a beginning of nuisance and likely beginning of wellness jeopardies to the locality. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
lsuagcenter.com )In order to guarantee healthy production of poulet, a comfy environment, harmonizing to norms should usually be provided. Such norms include edifice programs, types of edifices etc. ( Chapter II – Joseph Tolman ‘s Experience ) .
All farms assessed in the current survey were decently built with concrete walls, corrugated Fe sheets roofs, concrete floors, and adequate gaps fitted with fly cogent evidence gauzes. Such substructures aid in supplying a comfy environment for the healthy growing and reproduction of the birds. There were no major concerns sing the edifice installations foe the sound development of such animate beings.Ventilation is yet another facet which ensures proper care of temperature, humidness, smell and air taint. ( Environmental codification of pattern for domestic fowl farms in Western Australia, 2004 ) . Natural and mechanical airing systems are usually used in assorted farms. In add-on, temperature control is really of import for healthy production of biddies, as they are more susceptible to temperature extremes than most other farm animate beings. ( K.
Bulkhundee, 2007 ) . Temperature control relies on the airing status of the pens. Therefore equal airing influences temp, and as expected deficiency of airing in approximately 7 % farms, resulted in the production of non healthy poulet. Poor airing is a beginning of proliferation of certain bacteriums, such as… .
, which compromises the quality of meat indirectly. Though the proportions of such farms non following such norms are low, yet it remains as a beginning of wellness jeopardy and may impact portion of the population.Drain system is of import to canalise waste H2O generated from cleansing of pens and rain H2O. Though 60 % farms are equipped with good H2O drainage system, yet accretion of H2O was common in forepart of pens ( Appendix 10, Plate 6 ) . This may be once more regarded as no attachment to the stipulated norms and yet a beginning of taint and proliferation of bacteriums. ( Hunter, 2000 )Water on the farm is largely used for cleansing intents and imbibing for the birds. Though 90 % farms had good H2O supply and H2O storage installations, nevertheless drawn-out break in H2O supply was common and more so such sites did non hold installations of storage.
This resulted in the soiled province of farms, and creative activity of smell, flies and harboring sites for assorted bacteriums. Such job was observed to be perennial, hence may be considered as an extra beginning of taint and an indirect via media on the quality of meat so produced. ( MoE Water Quality Supply, 2008 ) .
Husbandry patterns are of import to keep a clean stock production. In the survey it was noted that husbandry patterns were hapless on about 7 % farms where the birds including biddies were all closely packed in the same pens and all having the same type of provender. There was frequently picking among biddies during the eating procedure, which was done manually. 60 % farms have automatic eating system, which is a safe method, free from taint hazard.
However care of the machinery was non being on a regular basis done. Stacking of animate beings together is yet another beginning of disease transmittal and besides a beginning of increasing room temperature, which acts as a harbouring land for assorted bacteriums etc. ( www.organic-vet.reading.
ac.uk )The farm premises shall usually be kept clean and tidy to forestall any nuisance such as smell, flies and gnawers to guarantee a good flock wellness. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fao.org ) .
Merely 33 % of the farms adhered to such activities and remainder seemed to be incognizant of such importance. Again such activities can merely increase disease extension and a direct via media on the quality of meat being consumed. ( K. Bulkhundee, 2007 )Personal hygiene is of import to supply a safe environment at work. 40 % farm workers claimed that they have a good cognition of personal hygiene.
While transporting on site observation besides, it was noted that 60 % workers apply good personal hygiene at their workplace. Hygienic patterns were non observed to be a common factor on the genteelness evidences and may therefore increase opportunities disease transmittal. ( Stevenson et al. , 1988 )However, good wellness conditions of the workers were being on a regular basis looked upon, where 90 % workers received regular medical examinations. Such a system ensures that while the worker is on site, they do non endure from any wellness jeopardies hence guaranting that they undergo their activities to the full.Good housework is aboriginal for the general running of the farm and therefore contributes to safe and healthy flock. ( Environmental codification of pattern for domestic fowl farms in Western Australia, 2004 ) . There is merely approximately 33 % farms which are in good province and have good maintained machinery. While approximately 27 % farms do non keep good housework patterns. Incorrect pattern of such housework may take to assorted wellness jeopardies as has been documented earlier. ( MoE Report ENV/13/1/9, 2003 )The substructures are in damaged province and non good cleaned. ( Appendix 10, Plate 7-13 ) .Other installations being provided to the normal growing of the animate beings, such as bedding to animate beings, litter etc have to be on a regular basis controlled. However, such activities were non being adhered in most of the farms. Coupled to that, hapless airing being provided in such parturiencies as discussed above, merely states that such trade goods are usually humid, as has been observed, therefore adding to the list of unhygienic patterns followed and fostering unhealthy production of avian civilizations. In add-on, a deficiency of plague control installations was besides observed in some of the farms. Lack of pest control, increases disease transmittal among animate beings, and besides in the vicinity, making an overall unhygienic environment. Quality of meat and poulet production is badly compromised, which may move as a direct menace to the Mauritanian population.Waste direction and disposal was nevertheless observed to be maintained to the needed criterion. Liquid wastes, dead animate beings etc were decently disposed, and as ascertained they did non hold any influence on the quality of the poulet production.Approximately 53 % farms receive regular visits from healthful governments. This is done to guarantee that the farms conform to good healthful conditions. However it has been noted that merely farms which received ailments that are being on a regular basis visited.
The existent healthful patterns of domestic fowl manufacturers and their impact on the environment were analysed in this survey.The study consequences revealed that, on the whole, domestic fowl manufacturers, whether industrial or average graduated table manufacturers, do hold an consciousness of healthful conditions to which they should stay, as per the guidelines set by the Ministry of Environment and NDU. However, in pattern, non all adhere to these guidelines. Most of them have appropriate substructures and other installations as recommended by the guidelines, but they do non keep the healthful conditions which they ab initio set at the start of the undertaking.The medium sized domestic fowl manufacturers seem to be concentrating more on net income devising instead than caring for production safety. They are anticipating to spread out their concern in their existent site, paying non plenty attending to public assistance of the birds. While the industrial manufacturers follow the guidelines and guarantee that all needed healthful conditions are being satisfied and supply alleviative solutions.It has been besides observed that domestic fowl nuisances originate largely from medium sized domestic fowl farms. Basic patterns such as proper cleansing, disinfection, waste disposal, and edifice and machinery care are being overlooked in some farms.Medium sized domestic fowl farms are more legion when compared to industrial farms and they offer cheaper monetary value, so this shows that they play an of import function in the domestic fowl market. Therefore, the authorities must supply medium sized domestic fowl manufacturers with inducements, every bit good as proficient know-how, in coaction with the industrial farms to guarantee that medium sized domestic fowl husbandmans follow the needed healthful conditions for a safer production and running their concern with decreased impacts on the environment.
The undermentioned recommendations can be made based on the existent defects in the existent healthful conditions in domestic fowl farms:
1. Education and Training
The authorities, through the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life, Ministry of Agriculture, Food Technology and Natural Resources, Ministry of Environment and NDU must supply basic instruction and preparation programme about good farming patterns, importance of hygiene and disease control in domestic fowl farms ; keeping good healthful conditions in farms.
2. Health attention of workers
Domestic fowl proprietors must supply their workers with medical installations at regular intervals.
3. Planing towards sustainability
- To minimise any possible hazard of the Avian grippe disease, a phasing out program for farms in built up countries shall be devised. A study must be carried out on all farms located within colony boundary with regard of their action in production and involvement in resettlement to go a professional farm. As such, the farms would hold the agencies and capacity to forestall and react to possible hazards of the latter diseases.
- With the debut of a resettlement scheme, some low possible agricultural/marginal lands, which are outside the Irrigation Zone, must be identified to be recommended for the bunch of domestic fowl farms/other related activities whilst detecting the statutory reverse between domestic fowl farms.
4. Water Quality Monitoring
Concerned governments must execute regular cheque of H2O stored in armored combat vehicles in the farms to guarantee that there is no taint of H2O.
5. Waste intervention
- Proper farming patterns must be adopted as a agency to minimise wastes, nuisances and flies/pests proliferation from beginning.
- In position of the infective nature of both solid wastes and effluent from the farm, both solid and liquid wastes shall be carefully handled, contained, stored by decently equipped operators and/or transported to be treated or carted away in accredited waste bearers as provided for in the Local Government Act, 2003.
- As litter and dungs have good composting potency, husbandmans must be encouraged to make composting of litter.
- As dead birds represent 3 to 5 % of the bird ‘s rhythm, it is recommended to bury them on site or co-compost them with litter/droppings as per guidelines of the Ministry of Environment and NDU.
6. Effective Pest Control
More attending must be given to Pest Control activities on the farm as it is one of the best ways to forestall proliferation of diseases.
Rigorous steps must be taken to avoid any external debut of any disease. The usage of footbath at entryway of pens must be monitored. The germicide used must be on a regular basis replaced. Fencing of the farm premises must be on a regular basis screened.
8. Sanitary Governments
Sanitary Authorities ( Health Inspectors ) must transport regular review on domestic fowl farms to guarantee that the needed healthful conditions are being satisfied.