Praxis 2
Which of the following is something that should almost always be discussed with students when they are given a type of assessment that may be new to them?
What the students can expect to learn from doing the assignmentThe consensus among researchers is that students will learn only when motivated. The be motivated to learn, students must find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and work toward the learning goals, not merely toward performance goals. By discussing learning goals with the students, the teacher helps them have motivation to learn.

A teacher gives his students a list of terms to use in an essay and intends the lsit to serve as a kind of learning support called a scaffold. If the students use the list effectively, what would be an appropriate next step for the teacher to take when assigning the students their essays?
Asking the students to come up with their own list of terms to use in the new assignment.A scaffold is a temporary learning aid, designed to help the student to grow in independence as a learner; thus, once the skill the scaffold is intended to help teach has been mastered, the scaffold should be withdrawn. Asking the students to come up with their own list of terms to use in the new assignment in effect withdraws the scaffold and encourages independence.
A high school teacher is trying to help nonfluent speakers of English understand and English text. During the class, the teacher asks the students to read aloud and focuses on correcting errors in pronunciation.

What is a principle of second-language development that this approach fails to take into account?

Nonfluent speakers of a language can understand what they are reading before they can accurately pronounce all the sounds in the language.Formal accuracy in pronunciation should not be required initially or be expected in the beginning stages of language development. Learning should focus initially on comprehension rather than on correct and incorrect usage.
The concept of the placement of students in the “least restrictive” educational environment developed as a result of efforts to:
Normalize the lives of those children with disabilities who were being educated in isolation from their peers.The concept of “least restrictive” stems from P.

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L. 94-142 and subsequent legislation regarding the education of students with disabilities and implies that special students are not to be classified by disability and given permanent special placement on the basis of these classifications. Rather, they are to be moved to special settings only if necessary and only for as long as necessary.

A tenth-grade student feels overwhelmed by an assignment to write a term paper on an assigned topic. The teacher’s advice is to approach the task by breaking it into smaller subtasks with which the student has more experience. What activity can the student do that is most consistent with this method?
Finding two sources of information on the topic and reading each to see what they have in common.A large task is more easily acomplished by breaking the taks into smaller parts.
A teacher would get better information from a criterion-referenced test rather than from a norm-referenced test about what?
How each individual student’s knowledge of a particular aspect of the curriculum compares to that of a national sample of students at the same age level.

Criterion-referenced tests are developed to assess knowledge and understanding of specified standards for learning particular content. They are designed to enable individual students or groups of students who have studied the same material to assess how much they have learned as compared to the criterion. A norm-group performance is not required for a criterion-referenced test since the goal is to measure knowledge against a predetermined knowledge standard.

What are Gardner’s Mulitple Intelligences?
1- Visual Spatial2.

Kinesthetic3. Musical4. Interpersonal5.

Intrapersonal6. Linguistic7. Logical/Mathmatical8. Naturalist

What is Visual-Spatial mean/include?
1- Visual Spatial–think in terms of physical space.They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream.Taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery.

Tools include models, graphics, charts, photographs, drawings.

What is Bodily-kinesthetic mean/include?
Kinesthetic– use the body effectively. They like movement, making things, touching.Taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role-playing. 
What does Musical mean/include?
Musical- shows sensitivity to rhythm and sound. May study better with music in the background.They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythmically, tapping out time.Tools include musical instruments, music, radio, stereo, CD-Rom, multimedia
What does Interpersonal mean/include?
understanding, interacting with others.

These students learn through interaction. They have friends, empathy for others, street smarts.Taught through group activities, seminars, dialogues.

Tools include the telephone, audio conferencing, time and attention from the instructor, video conferencing, writing, computer conferencing, email.

What does Intrapersonal mean/include?
Understanding one’s own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They’re in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motivation, as well as strong will, confidence and opinions. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time.
What does Linguistic mean/include?
Using words effectively.

These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories.  Taught by encouraging them to say and see words, read books together.

Tools include computers, games, multimedia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.

What does Logical-Mathematical mean/include?
Reasoning, Calculating. Think conceptually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relationships. They like to experiment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. Taught through logic games, investigations, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.
Name ways to build positive student/teacher relationships

Treat each student with respect and kindness2. Identify a few students each period and praise them so by the end of the week, every student in your class has been praised.3. Be available before and after school in case a student needs help or simply needs to talk.4.

Praise students for good work5. Praise students for effort6. Establish appropriate levels of dominance and cooperation7. Create one-on-one interactions with students8. Display students’ successful work in the classroom9.

Disclose appropriate personal information that your students might find helpful.

Name ways to prevent misbehavior in the classroom
1. Establish realistic and age-appropriate rules and procedures2. Walk through the classroom during lectures and seat work to provide assistance and monitor behavior3.

Have students work bell-to-bell4. reinforce and praise appropriate behavior5.Establish routines for transitions (bathroom, leaving classroom, etc)6. Have rules and expectations visible

What are Instructional Strategies?
Instructional strategies are methods that are used in the lesson to ensure that the sequence or delivery of instruction helps students learn.
What are the levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy?

Knowledge- remembering of previously learned material2. Comprehension- grasping (understanding) the meaning of informational materials3. Application- the use of previously learned information in new and concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best answers.

4. Analysis- the breaking down of informational materials into their component parts, examining such information to develop divergent conclusions by identifying motives or causes, making inferences, and/or finding evidence to support generalizations5. Synthesis- Creativity or divergently applying prior knowledge and skills to produce a new or original whole.6. Evaluation- Judging the value of material based on personal values/opinions, resulting in an end product, with a given purpose, without real right or wrong answers.

What is Formal Assessment?

A formal assessment is based on the results of standardized tests or other exams that are administered under regulated or controlled test-taking conditions. In the process of a formal assessment, data is collected on student performance on the test or tests to determine the level of academic achievement or various other characteristics under analysis.

What is Informal Assessment?
An informal assessment is a method of measuring an individual’s performance by casually watching their behavior or using other informal techniques. Informal assessments are different from formal assessments such as standardized tests or graded formal presentations because the graded individual is less aware of the assessment in progress.
Types of Formal Assessments
Multiple-choice examEssaysShort-answer or problem-solving examLab reportResearch paperPerformance-based (“authentic”) – interpreting a piece of music, writing a computer program, constructing a three-dimensional model of a scientific concept, etc.Oral PresentationsComprehensive portfolios
Types of Informal Assessment
Think/Pair/ShareEntrance/Exit ExamsWhip Around 
What are Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
What is intrinsic motivation?
The internal desire to perform a particular task; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward.
What are extrinsic motivation?
Motivation promoted by factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed; motivation created by external factor (reward or punishment)
What is self-efficacy?
The belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals.
What are examples of direct instruction?
MnemonicsNote-takingOut-liningUse of Visual aidsAdvance organizersLecturing 
What are examples of indirect instruction?
webquestscooperative learning groupsproject based assignmentsdiscovery learnersimulationsconcept mappingproblem solvinginductive/deductive thinking
What is differentiated instruction?
How you modify the instruction to meet the needs of all students at all different learning levels.Ex: Tiered lesson plansProjects that require the same goal but different task to achieve that goal