Praxis II: Fundamental Knowledge, English Language Arts
Initial (construction) stage of interpretation
Reader has contact with content, structure, genre and can use prior knowledge
Developing stage of interpretation
Reader delves into the text, uses background knowledge to build understanding
Reflection/response stage of interpretation
Uses text knowledge to connect to personal knowledge
Critical analysis stage of interpretation
Reader reflects and reacts by judging, evaluating and relating
Expository
reference, resource works, textbooks and informational material, often used in subject or content areas
Autobiography
about an author’s personal life
biography
about someones life, written by another person
Epic
A narrative poem about historical or legendary characters
fantasy
imaginary setting, plot or characters
folktales
passed down from generation to generation that includes fables, myths, legends, folktales and tall tales
historical fiction
altered to some extent but based on history
mystery
relates to the unknown and revealed through human or worldly dilemmas or situations that include horror, fantasy, crime-solving, secret events and the supernatural
play
a story written for the purpose of performance
realistic fiction
a theme or plot that could happen in real life
science fiction
mix of reality and imaginary
theme
main idea or fundamental meaning of a literary work
themes can:
articulate or highlight emotions; convey ideas, thoughts and compromise conversations; be intertwined in characters; be found in actions or events
Difference between theme and subject
NOT all works have themes, ALL have a sugject
allegory
represents an idea or truth about life in general
tall tale
humorous and exaggerated story often based on the life of a real person
literary elements
refer to the specific and recognizable characteristics of text or literary work
theme
feeling or attitude conveyed
plot
sequence within a narrative: exposition, inciting force, conflict, rising action, crisis, climax, falling action, resolution
characters
people, animals or objects
setting
physical location or time
Early themes
heroism, friendship and religion
Middle Ages themes
morals, religion and romance
19th century themes
realism and nature
20th century themes
symbolism and character development
schema
background knowledge or experiences
text-to-text
connect two similar texts
text-to-self
relate to students own life
text to world
student relays information to the rest of the world
Physical point of view
the position in time and space where an author describes views or material
mental point of view
feelings or attitudes towards a subject
First person point of view
the author takes the view of the character “I”
Second person point of view
tells the story to another character: “you”
Third person
Tells the story from an outside voice, “They”
Character
person who is identified by the author as being responsible for thoughts and actions within a story or poem
2 groups of characterization (2 types of characters)
Protagonist, Antagonist
dynamic character
grow or progress throughout the story
static character
lacks depth
tone
writers attitude towards a subject
Mood
sense of feelings
imagery
specific use of language appeals to readers senses
figurative language
changes the literal meaning of words
alliteration
consonant sounds are repeated
hyperbole
an exaggeration or use of a statement to make a point
idiom
a group of words with a special more figurative meaning
metaphor
a figure of speech to compare without using like or as
onomatopoeia
words that appeal to the sense of hearing and mimics in making sounds
oxymoron
pair of words that have opposite meanings
personification
words that gives human characteristics to nonhuman characters
simile
compares 2 unrelated objects not using like or as
analogy
compares similar objects that suggests if they are alike in one way, they will be alike in another
dialogue
use of conversation between characters to give readers insight
Dramatic monologue
speech or poem spoken by one character to share innermost thoughts
exaggeration
overstatement or stretching of truth to emphasize a point
flashback
author interrupts the story to go back and explain/recall an earlier memory of a character
foreshadow
hint or clue to suggest what will happen later in the story
irony
a device that means the exact opposite of normal meaning
verbal irony
when the author says one thing and means something else
situational irony
discrepancy between the expected result and actual results
motif
use of a recurring object, concept, element, word, phrase or structure to draw readers attention to specific point
symbol
real or concrete object that is used to represent an idea or concept
Decoding skills
the process of understanding that letters in text represent the sounds in speech
Communication
the ability to impart and share knowledge, opinions, ideas feelings and beliefs
paraphrase
restate in different words
conjunction
joins words or a group of words
interjection
show strong emotion