Praxis II PLT
David Elkind
Imaginary AudiencePersonal Fable
Jean Piaget
Stages of Cognitive Development:Sensorimotor (0-2)Preoperational (2-7) – egocentric – stubborn – limited social awarenessConcrete Operations (7-11) – can perform transformations – decenter (less stubborn) – Inductive Reasoning – Better Math/Counting skills – Can manipulate symbolsFormal Operations (11+) – high-ordered critical thinking – Can engage in abstract, hypothetical thought – Can use scientific
Erik Erikson
Psycho-social stages1. Initiative v. Guilt – Being able to break away from parents2. Industry v. Inferiority – basic scholastic skills3. Identity v.

Identity diffusion – knowing ‘who I am’, my goals, ideas, values4. Intimacy v. Isolation – Able to for ‘true’ relationships

Abraham Maslow
Needs that need to met before students can be effective learners: 1. Physiological 2. Safety 3. Affiliation
Information-processing
What information needs to actually be learned in order to meet the desired objectives
Stenberg’s Triarchic Theory
Three factors of learning:1. The mechanics of intelligence2.

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The Learner’s experiences3. The Learner’s context

Metacognition
Metacognitive Knowledge and Metacognitive Control – person knowledge, task knowledge, strategy knowledge – intraindividual, interindividual, universe knowledge
MB Baxter-Magolda
Promote Motivation through:1. Validating Students as Learners2. Questioning Authority by example3.

Validate Students’ Opinions

Watson/Skinner
Behaviorism: Operant Conditioning
Albert Bandura
Reciprocal Determinism: Behavior, environment, and psychological processes may change, without rewards or stimulus (i.e. through observing).

Modeling

L.S. Vygotsky
Social interaction effects cognitive development. Zone of Proximal Development: Life span for each stage of cognitive development. Social interaction enhances these life spans (i.

e. learning to speak is social first, then becomes internal).

Howard Gardner
Multiple Intelligences1.

Linguistic2. Logical-Mathematical3. Spatial4. Bodily-Kinesthetic5.

Musical6. Interpersonal7. Intrapersonal8. Naturalist

Jerome Bruner
Learning is an Active Process. Four aspects of instruction:1.

Creating a disposition towards learning2. Structuring a body of knowledge so that the learner can easily grasp it.3. Determining the best sequence for presenting the material4.

Presenting the stimuli, reinforcing the stimuli, rewards, and punishments appropriately

John Dewey
The theory of inquiry – learning by doing
Educational Scaffolding
Spiral Curriculum?
Gagne-Ausubel
Pattern of Lecture:1. Get attention/introduce a question2. Present new content (less than 15 min.)3. Practice new content4. Monitor practice5.

Present results6. Make assignment

Jointly Constructed Meaning
M.B. Baxter-Magolda: dialogue/mutual learningSituate learning in the students’ own experiences (use inclusive language, activities, and personal experience)
Ethnocentrism
My family’s (culture’s) way of doing things is best
Hawthorne Effect
Teacher’s beliefs about their students become self-fulfilling prophecy
1975 IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
1990 ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act
IEP
Individual Education Plan
Benjamin Bloom
Bloom’s Taxonomy:Classification of different levels of comprehension:1.

Knowledge (repeating an answer)2. Comprehension (Stating in own words)3. Application (Applying to different situations)4. Analysis (Taking apart and putting back together)5. Synthesis (Putting together in a new creative way)6. Evaluation (Explaining why)

Kohlberg
Six different levels of Moral Development:1. Obedience and Punishment – No recess2.

Individualism and Change – Fear of punishment and expectation of reward3. Interpersonal Conformity – Obedience to please those who are important4. Established Social Order – Recognize importance of established rules5. Post-conventional morality – Abiding by rules brings about greatest good6.

Universal principle of justice – Recognize when rules violate ethical principals (MLK)

Bud Churchward
System of discipline with 4 stages:1. Reminder2. Reprimand – Give infraction – student holds infraction3. Collect Infraction Slip4.

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