PRAXIS II Reading Specialist
Teachers need to undergo extensive preparation in the following disciplines inherent in literacy:
  Language development, phonology, phonemic awareness, alphabet knowledge, handwriting, decoding, spelling, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, somposition, testing , assessment, lesson planning, behavior management, study skills, history of the ENglish language use of technology and the needs of older struggling readers.
The move toward data analysis and research to improve instruction due to NCLB and the Reading First Initiative resulted in:
 RTI or Response To Intervention forDifferentiated Instruction,the creation of the Common Core Standardsandthe adoption of the International Dyslexia Association’s  set of standards  
What is the basis for differentiated instruction?
That it is language based, intensive, systematic, direct and comprehensive.
Each individual brings
unique cognitive and linguistic strengths and differences to the task.

Teachers who work at prevention, intervention and remediation require
a foundation based on scientific evidence and a need to be informed about the complex nature of instruction in reading and related skills.
What are the 3 component processes in literacy?
Learning to read, reading disabilities and models of effective instruction.
Reading insturctiobn is no longer formed on opinion bit is fueled by _________.
Scientifically based research or evidence-based research ________
is a process that gathers evidence to answer questions and bring new knowledge to the field of study so that effective practices can be determined and implemented.
A scientist develops a ________.
The theory is used to form a __________.
A _______ designed to evaluate the hypothesis.

The ___________ used in the study depend on the hypothesis and result in findings.
The scientist integrates the findings into the _________________________ accumulated around a research question.
Body of Knowledge
Scientific research is a cumulative process that is derived from _________, _________ and _________.
systematic evaluations of questions, models and theories.
Good evidence is derived from __________.

A study that asks clear questions that can be answered empirically, selects and implements valid research methods and accurately analyzes and interprets data.
   Randomized Control Trials
Individuals in an intervention study are randomlyassigned to experimental and control groups and ALL variables are held constant ( gender age demographics, skill level) EXCEPT for the one variable HYPOTHESIZED to create a change.
Randomized control trials allow the researcher to show a causal relationship between
the applied intervention and the outcomes
  Quasi-experimental Research
  determines cause and effect without strict randomized control trials, is valid but less reliable
  Authentic Experimental Research
uses strict randomized controlled trials
A statistical technique that allows result comparisons across many studies.
  Peer Review
  Scrutiny and evaluation of the results of a n intervention by a group of independent researchers with experties and credentials in that field of study
  Convergence of evidence
the identical replication of a study in a similar population by other researchers because the outcomes of a single study are not sufficient across all populations.
   Qualitative Research
  observing individuals and settings and describingevents in the immediate context
   Ethnographic Research
   Qualitative reseach in which observations and data collection involve data collection about the content, context and dynamics of the instructional setting.

   What works or does not work
   Quantitative Research
  Large numbers of subjects used to generalize findings in similar settings using statistical analysis through experimental or quasi-experimental design methods.
   cut off point rather than random assignment in grouping through comparison
  What Works Clearinghouse
 Division of the Federal Institute of Science which reviews program impacts of experimental research
   The National Reading Panel
 A national panel that assesses the status of research based knowledge on the effectiveness of various approaches to teaching children to read
   NRP’s 5 Critical Components for Teaching Children to Read
1.  Phonemic awareness2. Phonics3.

Vocabulary Devlopment4. Reading Fluency including oral reading skills5. Reading Comprehension Strategies

   What research developments did dyslexia studies reveal
   How reading develops in both the imparied and unimpaired
   Building Blocks for Reading
  5 Essential Components
  Phonemic Awareness
  The ability to notice, think about and work with the individual sounds in words
  Phonemeic Awarenessand Alphabetical knowledge
  are key components that contribute to effectiveness of beginning reading and spellinginstruction 
   Why does Phonemeic Awareness play a vital role in teaching children to read?
1. Connnects spoken language to written language2. exposes underlying sounds in language that correspond to alphebetic principles on the written page3.  Causal relationship with literacy achievement and understanding it
  In Kindergarten, what is the single best predictor of later reading and spelling achievement?
  Phonemic Awareness
  CHildren at risk of becasue of early speech impairments and those with dyslexia perform ____________.

more poorly on tests of phonemeic awareness than tyoically developing children.
When children do not have good word identification skills _________
they fall behind in reading and without appropriate intervention have only a 1 in 8 chance of catching up to grade level.
 The relationship between letters or letter combinations in written language (graphemes).
  Isolating and manipulating oral sounds inwords using oral segmenting and blending activities helps children learn _________.
  The Alphabetic Principle
  Combinations of letters in written words
  The 44 sounds in the English Language
  Phonics is best introduced in __________, which leads to recognizing familiar words and decoding unfamiliar words.
  Kindergarten and first grade
 How is teaching phonics beneficial forall socio-economic groups?  
  When accompanied by KEY WORDS,and other memory aids such as sounds, picturesand articulatory gestures.

 What is the reciprocal relationship betweenphonics and reading?
 Phonology and orthography help readers toattend to speech sounds
  how letters represent sounds
  seeing words in printWhat the letters and words look like
   Effect Sizes
  The degree to which a form ofinstruction is found to be more effective than another form
  What is the effect of phonics instruction for both low and middle class students?
  Contributes to higher performance.
   Synthetic Phonics
  Insturction of phonics that begins with part and leads to the whole.
   analytic phonics
   Whole to part instruction
   embedded phonics
  Phonological awareness taught implicitly through reading words in the text
  Is phonics a one size fits all approach?
  When taught systematically phonics ________older readers.
   Phonics and meaning-focused activitieslead to
   balanced reading programs.
 What do beginning readers need to become fluent in?
  letter namingknowledge of soundsphonemic awareness
 The ability to read text accurately and quickly,recognize words and gain meaning from the text.
  What is the advantage of fluency in children’s reading progress?
  Without it they will be slow and laborious readers
   Guided oral reading
  repeated oral reading with modeling by the instructor and in which students receive feedback from peers, parents or teachers
   Where do gaps in fluency remain?
 In older students, with both extremely low level reading skills and with good compensatedword accuracy.
 What trends are implicit in the data for NRP in terms of instruction for Vocabulary?

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taught direct,y and indirectly2. repetition and multiple exposures3. learned in rich contexts4. tasks should be restructured when necessary5. entails active engagement in learning tasks6.

use of computer technology7. can be acquired through incidental learning8. requires multiple methods9. type of assessment has a differential effect 

  Making snense of what we read and depends on good word recognition
The act of identifying a stimulus as the act of something previously occurring
  Cognitive strategies began being implemented in the ___.
   Cognitive strategies
   self regulating mechanisms used in problem solving; higher ordered cognitive skills that regulate lower skill levels
  Thinking about thinking