Prostitution is frequently described as the universe ‘s oldest profession. Although this claim is disputed and there are statements proposing that runing or subsistence agriculture predate harlotry, Head ( 2009 ) maintains that in ancient times excessively, sex had been bartered for services, goods or money.
Looking at the records of the ancient universe, harlotry was referred every bit early as eighteenth Century BCE in the codification of Hammurabi. Whorehouses are said to hold been instituted by Solon, an ancient Grecian solon and lawgiver in the sixth Century BCE. In 1161 AD, King Henry II accepted harlotry as a fact of life and sought to modulate it alternatively of stamp downing it ( ibid ) . Till the present twenty-four hours, the principle for quashing harlotry can differ extensively from cardinal moral and ethical abomination, to apprehensivenesss sing its effects on society in general and on those who pattern it in peculiar. In most instances, nevertheless, harlotry remains an exploitatory process.In India excessively, harlotry existed from ancient times, nevertheless, instituionalised harlotry in India began during the British East India Company ‘s regulation in the late eighteenth Century.
The Company entered India under the stalking-horse of trade and commercialism which would finally convey about modernisaton and stableness. However within a century, by virtuousness of their military might, the British annexed a major portion of the state and enslaved its people. Marshall ( 2001 ) observes that this military dominance possessed by the British would allow them in the following 50 old ages to overmaster all the staying Indian provinces of any significance, either by busying them or obliging their swayers to go inferior Alliess. Bombay ( Mumbai ) , Madras ( Chennai ) and Calcutta ( Kolkata ) became the Company ‘s chief colonies, for the ground that these states had an abundant supply of cotton for fabrics ( ibid ) . Datta ( 2004 ) notes that towards the terminal of the eighteenth century, the British work forces in Calcutta outnumbered European adult females, by a ratio of 4000:250. As a consequence, to sate their soldiers ‘ demand for sexual satisfaction, and to forestall them from traveling astray into barbarous homosexualism, the British felt it was indispensable to set up red-light territories in camps that were out of bounds for civilians.
A similar form was witnessed in Bombay which became a thriving Centre for harlotry.
Prostitution is a firing issue in India today and has ever been a major point of concern. Soon the estimated figure of cocottes or commercial sex workers in India, harmonizing to a Human Rights Watch study is around 15 million ( Rani 2008 ) , and the Numberss are increasing. The authorities nevertheless undertakings this figure as 3 million ( ExpressIndia 2007 ) . Harmonizing to a study a jutting 50 % rise has been witnessed in less than a decennary ( Bhat 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to another survey on harlotry in India, 35.47 per cent of the sex workers entered the trade before the age of 18 old ages ( ExpressIndia 2007 ) . Other surveies besides reveal that India has an startling figure of 3,00,000 whorehouses in 1100 identified red-light countries, lodging about 5 million kids in add-on to commercial sex workers ( Burman 2008 ) . Mumbai entirely is place to more than 100,000 cocottes and is Asia ‘s largest sex industry centre ( Rani 2008 ) . Poverty, unemployment, human trafficking, illiteracy, abandonment are some of the grounds due to which adult females are forced into this profession.
However these factors are non limited to adult females entirely, work forces in India are besides progressively giving in to this profession ( DNA 2009 ) . Of these poorness remains the singularly largest cause of harlotry ; nevertheless it is non the lone ground. Helplessness of work forces and adult females besides force them into the flesh trade. Brothel proprietors and procurers besides run rackets wherein unsuspicious misss are lured under the stalking-horse of love, whereby they elope from their places merely to stop up in whorehouses. Womans sometimes enter the trade after abandonment by their hubbies, or they are trafficked by manner of irresistible impulse and misrepresentation.
Prior incest and colza, ailment intervention by household members, societal imposts, deficiency of sex instruction, bad company, inability to set up matrimony, and early matrimony, are some other causes of harlotry ( Rani 2008 ) . Economic causes for turning to prostitution include poorness and economic hurt, wherein some parents are forced to sell their kids for pecuniary benefits. Desire for physical pleasance, greed, and dejection are some of the psychological causes of turning to harlotry. As the illustrations above clearly indicate, adult females largely enter this profession involuntarily. Most of the adult females who are illicitly trafficked across international boundary lines into India are from the economically deprived neighbouring states of Nepal and Bangladesh. In South Asiatic states 100s of adult females are compelled to take to the streets where they fall quarries to trafficking for harlotry and bonded labors due to factors like political instability, natural catastrophes, and civil wars.
Nepal is peculiarly economically deprived and maintains a affable economic and political relationship with India ( Roy 2008 ) . These factors have helped ease the illicit motion of Nepali misss and adult females Indian whorehouses. As a consequence up to half of Mumbai ‘s estimated 100,000 brothel workers come from Nepal and about 60 per cent of them are pubescent misss between the ages of 12 to 16 old ages. Here in India the whorehouses are steadfastly kept under controlled, and the misss are continually supervised ; as a consequence of which flying off is practically non possible. Severe whippings and menaces are besides used by the capturers to maintain inmates in order. The sex workers besides fear being arrested by the constabulary and being captured by other whorehouse agents if they are found on the streets ( ibid ) . In India and Nepal likewise, the bing Torahs have had virtually no existent consequence on controling harlotry and local constabulary and functionaries patronise whorehouses and precaution sellers and whorehouse proprietors. In bend the constabulary are paid payoffs and offered protection money to forestall any deliverance attempts to collar under-age sex workers.
The economic conditions and dealingss of the two states need to be understood in context of the booming trafficking. Although Nepal has witnessed industrialization in the past few decennaries ; it is largely limited to urban countries, the national capital and along the boundary line with India. In malice of the growing in urban countries, there has non been much alteration in the state ‘s rural economic system, which continues to be by and big reliant on agribusiness ( ibid ) . In aftermath of this widening urban-rural chasm, adult females are lured to India under the stalking-horse of employment and forced into sex trade.
In India many transexuals or castrates are besides sex workers ( Rani 2008 ) . They are rejected by their households and they face hostility from the society and with the deficiency of employment chances, they resort to imploring and later enter the flesh trade.The parturiency of sex workers in the whorehouses exposes them to an extended and variable array of sexual outlooks, intervention, and disease. Physical every bit good as psychological steps are an built-in portion of the procedure employed to ‘break in ‘ new misss purchased for the whorehouses ( Roy 2008 ) . Most sex workers are beaten and raped in whorehouses to hale them in the profession.
They are besides resold to other whorehouses for pecuniary net income or as requital for attempted flights. If a sex worker somehow manages to get away, being illiterate knows nil about the metropolis and will once more fall quarry to the constabulary or local people ( ibid ) . To intensify their sufferings, the sex workers decidedly are in no bid of their sexual dealingss and sexual wellness.In India where illiteracy, hapless wellness and poorness are endemic, the spread of AIDS nowadayss an overpowering challenge.
Although HIV and AIDS have affected all subdivisions of Indian society, the prevalence remains high among sex workers, male homophiles and endovenous drug users. This ratio is presently estimated to be about 6 to 8 times that of the general population ( AVERT n.d. ) . There are assorted grounds for the extended spread of HIV among sex workers as it is hard to make them with information about HIV and misinformation about AIDS is besides rampant among sex workers.
42 % of sex workers assume that they can judge their client ‘s HIV position on the footing of their physical visual aspect ( ibid ) . Although a communicating position towards development has been stressed, ignorance and illiteracy impede the effectual transmittal of societal selling messages and instruction between the beginning and the receiving system. Roy ( 2008 ) elaborates this statement by asseverating that the whorehouse proprietors exercise sufficient powers to order the footings of entree for wellness pedagogues, and to restrict their visits to clinics. Language besides proves to be a cardinal obstruction as most illegitimately trafficked sex workers are analphabetic and do non understand local Indian linguistic communications used in written booklets or public service proclamations for telecasting or wireless. Human Rights Watch Asia besides reports that merely a little proportion of commercial sex workers had any cognition about the transmittal of HIV / AIDS or the usage of contraceptive method.
The survey farther illustrated that merely 20 per centum of sex workers were found to be regular users of rubbers ( ibid ) . Harmonizing to the latest UNAIDS and NACO figures, India ranks 3rd after South Africa and Nigeria in the figure of reported HIV and AIDS instances ( Zaheer 2007, AVERT n.d. ) . The study estimates that between 2 million and 3.1 million people in India were affected by HIV. This figure rose to 2.5 million in 2008, which equates to a prevalence of 0.
3 % among the general population. While this may look a low rate, the existent figures are dismaying because of India ‘s big population ( ibid ) .In India, populating with HIV / AIDS is frequently seen as a stigma and considered immoral. Violent onslaughts, rejection by household members and community, refusal of medical intervention are common in India ( ibid ) . Antipathy from wellness attention forces has besides caused fright and anxiousness among bearers. This favoritism impedes attempts to forestall new infections. It is besides hard to educate people about avoiding infections due to strong negative reactions to HIV and AIDS.
A survey conducted in 2006 revealed that because of their HIV positive position one 4th of people had been refused medical intervention ( ibid ) . Stigma besides existed in the workplace and two tierces of employees did non unwrap their position for the fright of unfairness. Of the other one 4th who did so, a ample figure reported holding faced favoritism.
AIDS alleviation workers and pedagogues in India have non been spared of torment as good. Schools instructors face inauspicious unfavorable judgment from the parents of pupils when they teach about AIDS. However among the discriminated batch, the most stigmatised are the female sex workers, transexuals and cheery work forces, owing to their HIV position and belonging to socially excluded groups.Not all work forces and adult females, nevertheless, who enter the flesh trade, do it out of irresistible impulse, weakness, poorness, or coercion ; some opt to take this profession out of sheer mercenary cravings and the quest for modernization, which forms the basic kernel of the dominant paradigm. Much accent is laid on urbanization, industrialization and economic growing which have transformed India from a traditionally agricultural economic system to one to a great extent reliant on consumerism. The really ethnocentric nature of modernization requires Indian young person to blatantly emulate the West. Lee ( 2008 ) studies that educated adult females from in-between category households, far removed from the morbid life in the ruddy light territories, see harlotry as a rewarding and tempting profession and prefer to provide their trade as bodyguards in five star hotels instead than in whorehouses or on the streets.
The escalation of high-end harlotry in India high spots non merely the prosperity among the Indian upper categories, but besides the switching place of adult females in a profoundly hidebound societal order ( ibid ) . India ‘s freshly acquired pecuniary prosperity and spread outing in-between category has besides brought an quenchless craving for the good things in life. With increased consumerism and the alterations in the economic system, the Indian adult female feels compelled to fit up to an extremely capitalistic image which requires a just sum of wealth to upkeep.
These are unimpeachably an result of globalization and modernization. Womans who voluntarily enter this trade in most instances do non necessitate rehabilitation ; however, they need to be educated about the hazards of modernization. However this is a negligible fraction, and the bigger image still remains unreassuring and basic comfortss like nutrient, vesture, shelter in add-on to rehabilitation and reding remain issues of concern for the victims of commercial sex development.
Kolkata along with Mumbai has the largest concentration of sex workers in India ( Briski 2002 ) . Here development administrations are increasingly involved in enterprises like undertaking shame linked to HIV/AIDS, edifice policies for authorization of victims, resettlement of sex workers, and affecting communities in the rehabilitation of reclaimed adult females and misss ( Rani 2008 ) . A cardinal enterprise among them is Sanlaap, founded in 1987 by Indrani Sinha ( Sanlaap n.
d. ) . It is a developmental administration that works towards human rights of adult females and misss, and for the amendment of social disparities such as gender biass and force against adult females and kids ( ibid ) . Their primary attempt is centered towards the abolishment of trafficking of adult females and kids for the intent of sexual development and harlotry ( The Telegraph 2004 ) . Sanlaap has besides founded Centres to leave preparation to sex workers to happen a beginning of support.
One of the jobs the sex workers faced was happening a trusty topographic point for their kids while they were busy during flushing hours. Therefore as a portion of their instruction plan, Sanlaap established 14 bead in Centres in 11 ruddy light territories of Kolkata and environing countries. Sanlaap besides established shelter places in 1993 for girl kids of sex workers who would choose out of school to run off and acquire married. These misss were earlier or subsequently abandoned by their partners and frequently left with a kid. This would so coerce the misss to take up harlotry for endurance ( Sanlaap n.d. ) . Sanlaap works in coordination with small town councils and authorities sections for the prohibition of trafficking of adult females and kids.
In the procedure they identify the beginning countries for trafficking and thereby work out setup and methods to screen susceptible adult females and kids from being trafficked and to take attention of dependable migration for work or matrimony ( Boliji 2006 ) . It besides provides psychological rehabilitation to victims and their kids. Sanlaap besides works with the constabulary through puting up a legal guidance Centre, working towards reform in juvenile justness. Sanlaap besides arranges for elector individuality cards and ration cards for commercial sex workers to assist them populate a dignified life free from development and maltreatment ( Sanlaap n.
d. ) . Sanlaap ‘s flagship inaugural Srijoni provides vocational preparation to sex workers to hasten their rehabilitation procedure. Training is imparted in the field of garment production and processing. The production unit punctually employs the adult females after preparation and pays them commensurate wage. Srijoni besides endeavors to supply practical custodies on preparation for misss to seek employment in coffeehouse or beauty parlors ( ibid ) .
Recommendations and Decision
Although some of the communicating attacks discussed before have met with a limited response, dance signifier as an alternate manner of therapy and rehabilitation for sex workers and their family has proven to be successful.
It has permitted them to intermix together with mainstream society on a unvarying degree thereby conveying about affirmatory transmutation in head, organic structure and spirit. One of Sanlaap ‘s enterprise Sanved, comprising of a group of subsisters of sexual development and maltreatment, uses the dance signifier to recommend and portray issues of gender and human rights. It combines modern-day and classical signifiers of dance to bring forth consciousness and for the psychosocial rehabilitation of people enduring from HIV/AIDS, victims of force and trafficking, among others ( Kolkata Sanved n.d. ) .
Sohini Chakraborty the laminitis manager of Sanved sees it as a centre of excellence in the field of Dance Therapy in South Asia. She is of the sentiment that the typical vocational preparation and reding everyday leaves a batch to be desired ; and hence advanced processs like dance therapy can turn out to be a persuasive agency for protagonism and rehabilitation. This transforms them from being a rehabilitative victim to a proactive advocator, person who has made peace within her profaned psyche and is now ready to voice her concerns through physical motion. The confidant and powerful medium of dance allows members to pass on and execute on issues associating to trafficking, force against adult females, and child development ( ibid ) . Victims of development lead a respectable and dignified life as performing artists and trainers, equal pedagogues and advocators of the cause, after counsel by Sanved.Another constructive enterprise, which has met with a batch of success, is the Sonagachi undertaking, named after the ruddy light territory of Kolkata.
Initiated in 1992 with the purpose of making out to sex workers and helping them to predominate over HIV on their ain footings ; its methodological analysis is centered around three R ‘s, Respect, Reliance and Recognition ; esteeming sex workers, trusting on them to run the plan, and recognizing their professional and human rights ( AVERT n.d. ) . Trained sex workers, who act as peer-educators, visit red light countries to educate other sex workers about the hazards HIV and AIDS, and the value of utilizing contraceptive method.
Education is non merely limited to the sex workers but the procurers and whorehouse proprietors are besides educated about the benefits of implementing contraceptive method in their whorehouses. The constabulary have besides been convinced to stop busting whorehouses, for the ground that such foraies frequently meant that sex workers would lose their income, thereby doing them less likely to prevail with rubber usage. The Sonagachi undertaking has attained extraordinary consequences by enabling sex workers to be in charge of their ain demands. As the consequences show, condom usage among sex workers rose steadily ; in that manner cut downing the HIV prevalence among sex workers. The Sonagachi undertaking has thereby attained international celebrity and acknowledgment for its achievements, and the UN has utilised the undertaking as a ‘best pattern ‘ theoretical account for other similar undertakings universe over.Another measure in easing the economic authorization of sex workers is offered by an enterprise called Sangini. They aim to cut down their exposure to fiscal use by supplying them information about financial merchandises and services which would ease them to be in charge of their financial determinations.
The exploited sex workers normally do non hold any pecuniary security, and they are caught up in debt and poorness ( Sangini n.d. ) . In add-on when they scrupulously seek fiscal security for their hard-earned nest eggs, they are deprived of entree to basic banking services, normally for the privation of sufficient certification. In order to stop their distressful rhythm of debt and poorness, Sangini, registered a recognition society which has over 1500 registered bank histories. Members are provided with microloans, sedimentation and backdown services, insurance, and fixed sedimentation strategies. Through Sangini, sex workers are able to beef up their nest eggs, and finally achieve fiscal freedom, accordingly procuring their ain hereafters every bit good as those of their kids ( ibid ) .Economic, mental and societal authorization of sex workers will increase their sense of ego worth in add-on to transfusing regard and understanding for their single and corporate wellness, nevertheless, their passionate chase attain the elusive social credence will stay everlastingly.