Pt Education
Reasons PTs educate
communitypatients (dx, prevention, etc)peers & healthcare professionals
Hx of pt ed: scientific method became prevalent
Hx of pt ed: 85-90% of med grads specializing
Hx of pt ed: Nixon mandates pt ed for pts & families
Hx of pt ed: Am Hospital Assoc (AHAS) publishes Pt’s Bill of Rights
Hx of pt ed: failure to provide informed consent = negligence
Hx of pt ed: AMA makes pt ed ‘integral part of healthcare’
Hx of pt ed: the JC makes pt ed an entitlement
Principles driving pt ed rights (6)
autonomy (pt’s choice)veracity (truth-telling)confidentiality (HIPAA)nonmaleficence (do no harm)beneficence (do good)justice
Hx of pt ed: APTA develops educational criteria
Why Ed Tech class? We should know how to… (5)
how to best change our pts’ skills/beliefsID how our pt feelseducate pts, family, etcuse various learning styleschange behaviors (multi-culturally)
HOW do we educate? (4)
information (knowledge)show & instructobserve & correctnon-verbal, lifestyle
Characteristics of TEACHING (v. learning) (4)
facilitating learningorganizing info into easy chunksprovide practical applicationcommunicate in easy terms
Characteristics of LEARNING (v.

teaching) (2)

acquiring skillsputting knowledge into action
art and science of educating children
art and science of educating adults
**Teaching Concepts (4)
knowledgetransformationinstructionreflection & evaluation
Teaching Concept: Teach is an expert!ways of acquiring knowledge: (5)
researchmentoringcon edmedical journalsreading
Teaching Concept: Transformationtransform knowledge to students’ level (
suitable level of understandingdirect & clearconfirm relevanceunderstandknow your student
Teaching Concept: Instructionhow to: (3)
relate (pt hx, pt goals)draw (info out of pt)develop (POC)
Teaching Concept: Reflective Evaluation metacognition; process of… (3)
reviewingreconstructingcritically analyzing
Metacognition =
monitoring one’s own thinking/learning process
Learning Theories (3)
behavior ismcognitivismconstructivism
Behaviorism – learning =
reacting to external stimuli
Cognitivism – learning =
acquiring & storing info
Constructivism – learning =
constructing subjective reality based on previous knowledge
Behaviorism – behavior =
explained without mental states/consciousness
Cognitivism – behavior =
a reflection of what’s in people’s minds
Constructivism – behavior =
result of testing personal hypotheses
Classical conditioning: founder
JB Watson
Operant conditioning: founder
BF Skinner(EL Thorndike – puzzle box)
Behaviorism – classical conditioning: belief regarding the mind
no mind or consciousness
Behaviorism – operant conditioning: belief regarding the mind
mind exists, but we can’t study it; can only observe behaviors
Stages of Cognitive theory (4)
sensorimotor (birth – 2yo)pre-operational (2-7yo)concrete operational (7-11yo)formal operational (adolescent-adult)
Cognitive theory – sensorimotor:
learn by interacting c environment; differentiating self from environment
Cognitive theory – preoperational:
no abstract thinking; concrete onlyobjects classified by important features
Cognitive theory – concrete operational:
beginning abstract thinking & conceptualizationcreate logical structures to explain experiences
Cognitive theory – formal operational:
deductive/hypothetical reasoning;abstract thinking
Social cognitivism – aka.

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classical modeling theory
Social cognitivism =
people learn by observing others’ behaviors (interaction of person/behavior/environment)
Cognitive theory – R Gagne
“hierarchy of learning”factsconceptsprinciplesproblem solving
Gagne’s hierarchy of learning: pyramid (bottom to top) (6)
knowledge (recall)comprehension (understanding)application (using knowledge in new situation)analysis (critical thinking)synthesis (creative thinking)evaluation (judgment)
Constructivism – founder
John Dewey
Constructivism – learning = (3)
begins c problemneeds a contextis *experiential*
Constructivism – characteristics (4)
hands-on projectsproblem solvinggroup workservice learning
Learning Theory v. Learning Style
Theory = what it means to learnStyle = the way we learn
Myers-Briggs: first letter
Introvert or Extrovertdescribes how people interact c environment
Myers-Briggs: 2nd letter
Sensing or INtuitionhow people gather information
Myers-Briggs: 3rd letter
Thinking or Feelinghow people make decisions using the info they’ve gathered
Myers-Briggs: 4th letter
Judging or Perceivinghow people deal with the outside world
Myers-Briggs: reliability
good reliability
Myers-Briggs: validity
questionable validity
Myers-Briggs: uses
counselingcareer managementemployment
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory
assesses learning preferences30 items, 4 categories (conditions, modes, content, expectancy)
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory: reliability
high reliability
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory: validity
marginal validity
Kolb: defn of learning
“process by which knowledge is created through the Transformation of Experience”internal cognitive processacquisition of abstract concepts
Kolb’s Learning Styles (4)
diverging (feeling & watching)assimilating (watching & thinking)converging (doing & thinking)accommodating (doing & feeling)
Learning Styles – general categories (3)
perceptual modality (adapting to data)information processing (how we solve problems, remember info)personality patterns (attention, emotion, values)
Memletics learning styles (Gardner – 9)
Perceptual modalities (4)
visualauditorykinesthetictactile (most people have dominant & auxiliary modalities)