Pt Education
Reasons PTs educate
communitypatients (dx, prevention, etc)peers & healthcare professionals
Hx of pt ed: scientific method became prevalent
1900
Hx of pt ed: 85-90% of med grads specializing
1960
Hx of pt ed: Nixon mandates pt ed for pts & families
1970
Hx of pt ed: Am Hospital Assoc (AHAS) publishes Pt’s Bill of Rights
1973
Hx of pt ed: failure to provide informed consent = negligence
1974
Hx of pt ed: AMA makes pt ed ‘integral part of healthcare’
1975
Hx of pt ed: the JC makes pt ed an entitlement
1976
Principles driving pt ed rights (6)
autonomy (pt’s choice)veracity (truth-telling)confidentiality (HIPAA)nonmaleficence (do no harm)beneficence (do good)justice
Hx of pt ed: APTA develops educational criteria
1978
Why Ed Tech class? We should know how to… (5)
how to best change our pts’ skills/beliefsID how our pt feelseducate pts, family, etcuse various learning styleschange behaviors (multi-culturally)
HOW do we educate? (4)
information (knowledge)show & instructobserve & correctnon-verbal, lifestyle
Characteristics of TEACHING (v. learning) (4)
facilitating learningorganizing info into easy chunksprovide practical applicationcommunicate in easy terms
Characteristics of LEARNING (v.

teaching) (2)

acquiring skillsputting knowledge into action
Pedagogy:
art and science of educating children
Andragogy:
art and science of educating adults
**Teaching Concepts (4)
knowledgetransformationinstructionreflection & evaluation
Teaching Concept: Teach is an expert!ways of acquiring knowledge: (5)
researchmentoringcon edmedical journalsreading
Teaching Concept: Transformationtransform knowledge to students’ level (
suitable level of understandingdirect & clearconfirm relevanceunderstandknow your student
Teaching Concept: Instructionhow to: (3)
relate (pt hx, pt goals)draw (info out of pt)develop (POC)
Teaching Concept: Reflective Evaluation metacognition; process of… (3)
reviewingreconstructingcritically analyzing
Metacognition =
monitoring one’s own thinking/learning process
Learning Theories (3)
behavior ismcognitivismconstructivism
Behaviorism – learning =
reacting to external stimuli
Cognitivism – learning =
acquiring & storing info
Constructivism – learning =
constructing subjective reality based on previous knowledge
Behaviorism – behavior =
explained without mental states/consciousness
Cognitivism – behavior =
a reflection of what’s in people’s minds
Constructivism – behavior =
result of testing personal hypotheses
Classical conditioning: founder
JB Watson
Operant conditioning: founder
BF Skinner(EL Thorndike – puzzle box)
Behaviorism – classical conditioning: belief regarding the mind
no mind or consciousness
Behaviorism – operant conditioning: belief regarding the mind
mind exists, but we can’t study it; can only observe behaviors
Stages of Cognitive theory (4)
sensorimotor (birth – 2yo)pre-operational (2-7yo)concrete operational (7-11yo)formal operational (adolescent-adult)
Cognitive theory – sensorimotor:
learn by interacting c environment; differentiating self from environment
Cognitive theory – preoperational:
no abstract thinking; concrete onlyobjects classified by important features
Cognitive theory – concrete operational:
beginning abstract thinking & conceptualizationcreate logical structures to explain experiences
Cognitive theory – formal operational:
deductive/hypothetical reasoning;abstract thinking
Social cognitivism – aka.

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classical modeling theory
Social cognitivism =
people learn by observing others’ behaviors (interaction of person/behavior/environment)
Cognitive theory – R Gagne
“hierarchy of learning”factsconceptsprinciplesproblem solving
Gagne’s hierarchy of learning: pyramid (bottom to top) (6)
knowledge (recall)comprehension (understanding)application (using knowledge in new situation)analysis (critical thinking)synthesis (creative thinking)evaluation (judgment)
Constructivism – founder
John Dewey
Constructivism – learning = (3)
begins c problemneeds a contextis *experiential*
Constructivism – characteristics (4)
hands-on projectsproblem solvinggroup workservice learning
Learning Theory v. Learning Style
Theory = what it means to learnStyle = the way we learn
Myers-Briggs: first letter
Introvert or Extrovertdescribes how people interact c environment
Myers-Briggs: 2nd letter
Sensing or INtuitionhow people gather information
Myers-Briggs: 3rd letter
Thinking or Feelinghow people make decisions using the info they’ve gathered
Myers-Briggs: 4th letter
Judging or Perceivinghow people deal with the outside world
Myers-Briggs: reliability
good reliability
Myers-Briggs: validity
questionable validity
Myers-Briggs: uses
counselingcareer managementemployment
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory
assesses learning preferences30 items, 4 categories (conditions, modes, content, expectancy)
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory: reliability
high reliability
Canfield Learning Styles Inventory: validity
marginal validity
Kolb: defn of learning
“process by which knowledge is created through the Transformation of Experience”internal cognitive processacquisition of abstract concepts
Kolb’s Learning Styles (4)
diverging (feeling & watching)assimilating (watching & thinking)converging (doing & thinking)accommodating (doing & feeling)
Learning Styles – general categories (3)
perceptual modality (adapting to data)information processing (how we solve problems, remember info)personality patterns (attention, emotion, values)
Memletics learning styles (Gardner – 9)
verbal-linguisticmusicallogicalspatialkinestheticinterpersonalintrapersonalnaturalistexistential
Perceptual modalities (4)
visualauditorykinesthetictactile (most people have dominant & auxiliary modalities)