Quantum that can interoperate with existing communication protocols.

Quantum and Post-Quantum Cryptography

Recent years have prompted research into
quantum computers. Quantum computers have been the subject of controversy due
to their abilities to solve complex mathematical phenomena that have been
primarily developed as the basis of information encryption .Given that these
large quantum computers are built, they shall inevitably compromise the key
cryptosystem that is currently in use. This would jeopardize the
confidentiality presently enjoyed by digital communication and internet users
worldwide. The primary objective of post-quantum cryptography is to create
cryptographic systems that can interoperate with existing communication
protocols. This paper shall look into common cryptographic topics and reflect
the effect of post cryptographic quantum computing on common information

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Quantum key distribution


Quantum key distribution is indeed a
successful application to cryptography, quantum information that utilizes the quantum
mechanics theory to secure data (Quantum.ukzn.ac.za.). Quantum key
distribution generates a random key between two points over an insecure
network. Quantum key distribution is founded the superposition principle and
the Heisenberg’s principle.  A one- time
pad encryption scheme is created and implemented using the securely distributed
quantum key.  A great protocol of quantum
key distribution is the “BB84” protocol in which single qubits are
chosen randomly from {???, ???, ???, ???} states and sent. For QKD
the key used for encryption should only be used once. This removes the chances
of prediction from an eavesdropper or from the sender/receiver. Hence Quantum
key distribution guarantees integrity over an insecure channel unlike in
post-quantum cryptography whose key algorithms’ security rely on tough
mathematical problems and the capability of a quantum computer, one that ideally
runs Shor’s algorithm, to solve them these problems.



Symmetric cryptography & Symmetric key
management systems and protocols


involves the process of making messages non-readable by encypting them with
different algorithms. Cryptographic algorithms are grouped into two types of
encryption: symmetric and asymmetric encryption.In Symmetric encryption a
single key is used for the encryption and decryption proccess.


A crucial problem that
lies in symmetric key cryptography is the distribution of the secret key. The
key distribution must happen secretly. However key sharing can happen in one
some ways; a trusted third party could get involved in sharing the key with the
recipient. Alternatively, the sender can physically deliver the key to the
receiver. If the sender and reciever have previously used a key, they can
communicate the new key through encryption using the old key. Nonetheless this
option of distribution is hazardous because of the fact that an eavesdropper
can gain access to the old key and acquire the new key by intercepting
communication of the new key


Hash functions

A cryptographic hash
function receives a message as input and produces what is known as a message
digest of predetermined fixed length. One property of a cryptographic hash
function is that the digest from the hash function for any given message is impossible
to compute for those with a given hash. Another property of the cryptographic functions
have is uniqueness There are collisions of hash functions put the probability
is low 1?e/(?k(k?1)/2N). However with the development of quantum computers, it
is very likely that using the hash value, the initial message could be computed
and derived successfully. This would in a high magnitude compromise the
integrity of information passed over an insecure channel. Other practical
applications that use hash functions such as digital signatures and
authentication also face an integrity threat following the development
post-quantum cryptography.


Public key

Public key
cryptography also known as asymmetric encryption uses two non-identical for
communication. The two keys involved are a public and a public key. Each of
these two keys have different roles; the public key encrypts the message while
the private key decrypts the message. Private keys can however not be computed
from public keys. Public keys are therefore shared hence allowing users a
convenient content encryption platform. Given that the public keys have to be
shared for decryption and encryption to take place , they are therefore stored within
digital certificates to facilitate structured and secure sharing among
communicators. Users, therefore, have them at their disposal for encryption
during information sharing. However, only the users of private keys can decrypt
the information.

Shor’s algorithm

algorithm was developed by a mathematician known as Peter Shor. His innovation
brought about a quantum algorithm for integer factorization.  All it takes is one post cryptography quantum
machine with enough qubits to solve quantum gates for 0((log N) 2(log log N) (log log log N)). For this reason, therefore, these quantum computers can
break public key cryptography which is based on Shor’s algorithm.  The public key encryption is pegged on a
principle huge numbers are computationally impractical.  This phenomenon is however only valid for
classic computers. The development of quantum computers withstanding, software
developers need to reach common ground with mechatronic engineers in developing
computing systems that shall not compromise the integrity of information
reliance and computing. 


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