Most commonly a suffix or prefix attached to a base word, stem, or root.
The occurrence in a phrase or line of speech of two or more words having the same sound.
The concept that letters and letter combinations, are used to represent phonemes in orthography.
A vowel sound represented by a variety of different spelling patterns, or vowel patterns that represent a wide range of sounds (e.g., the ouin cough, through, and could.
Refers to the speed and accuracy of word recognition and spelling. _____ is the goal of word study instruction and frees cognitive resources for comprehension.
A phonics term for an orthographic unit of two or three letters at the beginning or end of words that are blended together. There are l-blends such as bl, cl, and fl; r-blends such as gr, tr, and pr; s-blends such as sc, scr, and squ; and final blends such as ft, rd, and st. Every sound represented in a blend is pronounced, if only briefly.
Oral reading done in unison with another person or persons.
Complex Consonant Patterns
Consonant units occuring at the end of words determined by the previous vowel sound. For example, a final tch follows the short vowel sound in fetch and scotch, while a final ch follows the long-vowel sound in peach and coach.
Other ____ _____ _____ include final ck (pack vs. peak) and final dge (badge vs. cage).
Concept of Word
The ability to match spoken words to printed words, as demonstrated by the ability to point to the words of a memorized text while reading.
Concepts About Print (CAP)
Understandings about how books are organized (front to back page turning, titles, illustrations), how print is oriented on the page (top to bottom, left to right), and features of print such as punctuation and capitalization.
Letters that are not vowels (a, e, i, o, and u).
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Whereas vowel sounds are thought of as musical, consonant sounds are known for their noise and the way in which air is constricted as it is stopped and released or forced through the vocal tract, mouth, teeth, and lips.
A consonant sound, such as /s/ or /m/, that can be prolonged as long as the breath lasts without distorting the sound quality.
An individual’s stage of spelling development: emergent, letter name-alphabetic, within word pattern, syllables and affixes, or derivational relations.
Two letters that represent one sound. There are consonant ____ and vowel ____, though the term most commonly refers to consonant ____.
Examples include sh, ch, th, and wh. Consonant ____ at the beginning of words are onset.
A complex speech sound beginning with one vowel sound and moving to another within the same syllable. The oy in boy is a ____, as is the ou in cloud.
The left to right direction used for reading and writing English.
Oral reading in which the student echoes or imitates the reading of the teacher or partner. ____ ____ is used with very beginning readers as a form of support. ____ ____ can also be used to model fluent reading.
A period of literacy development ranging from birth to beginning reading. This period precedes the letter name-alphabetic stage of spelling development.
A dysfunctional level of instruction where there is a mismatch between instruction and what an individual is able to grasp. This mismatch precludes learning and often results in frustration.
Words that make up roughly 50% of any text– those that occur most often (e.
g., the, was, were, is)
Words that are spelled alike but have different pronounciations and different meanings (e.g., “tear a piece of paper” and “to shed a tear“; “lead someone along” and “the element lead).
Words that share the same spelling but have different meanings (tell a yarn, knit with yarn).
Words that sound alike, are spelled differently, and have different meanings (e.g., bear and bare, pane and pain, forth and fourth).
The level of academic engagement in which an individual works independently, without need of instructional support. ____ ____behaviors demonstrate a high degree of accuracy, speed, ease, and fluency.
A level of academic engagement in which instruction is comfortably matched to what an individual is able to grasp.
Language Experience Approach
An approach to the teaching of reading in which students dictate to a teacher, who records their language. Dictated accounts can then be used as familiar reading materials.
Every vowel (a, e, i, o, u) has two sounds, commonly referred to as “long” and “short.” The ____ vowel sound “says its letter name.”The vocal cords are tense when producing the ____ vowel sound. Because of this, the linguistic term for the ____ vowel sound is tense.
An accurate recitation of text accompanied by fingerpoint reading.
Meaning units in the spelling of words, such as the suffix -ed, which signals past tense, or the root graph in the words autograph and graphite.
The smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. For example, the t of tug and the r of rug are two ____.
The process of dividing a spoken word into the smallest units of sound within that word. The word bat can be ____ into three phonemes: /b/, /a/, /t/.
The ability to consciously manipulate individual phonemes in a spoken language. ____ _____ is often assessed by the ability to tap, count, or push a penny forward for every sound heard in a word like cat: /c/, /a/, /t/.
The systematic relationship between letters and sounds.
Often called word families, ____ end in high-frequency rimes that vary only in the beginning consonant sound to make a word. For example, back, sack, black, and track are ____ with the rime -ack.
An awareness of various speech sounds such as syllables, rhyme, and individual phonemes.
Text for beginning readers with repetitive language patterns, rhythm and rhyme, and illustrations that make it easy to read and remember.
An affix attached at the beginning of a base word or word root that changes the meaning of the word.
A paraphrase or spontaneous retelling told by children as they turn pages of a familiar story book.
A ____ unit is composed of the vowel and any following consonants within a syllable. For example, the ____ unit in the word tag would be ag.
R-influenced (R-controlled) Vowels
In English, r colors the way the preceding vowel is pronounced. For example, compare the pronounciation in bar and bad. The vowel in bar is influenced by the r.
An activity in which the teacher prereads a text and then invites students to join in on subsequent readings.
Printed words stored in memory by the reader that can be read immediately, “at first sight,” without having to use decoding strategies.
Charts used by letter name-alphabetic spellers that contain pictures and letters for the basic sound-symbol correspondences (e.g., the letter b, a picture of a bell, and the word bell.)
An affix attached at the end of a base word or word root.
A speech sound produced by the easy passage of air through a relatively open vocal tract. ____ form the most central sound of a syllable.
In English, ____ sounds are represented by the following letters: a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y.
Phonograms or words that share the same rime. (For example, fast, past, last, and blast all share the ast rime.) In the derivational relations stage, ____ ____ refers to words that share the same root or origin, as in spectator, inspect, spectacle, and inspector.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
A term coined by the Russian psychologist Vygotsky, referring to the ripe conditions for learning something new. A person’s ____ is that zone which is neither too hard nor too easy. The term is similar to the concept instructional level.
Absorbed (Assimilated) Prefixes
Prefixes in which the spelling and sound of the consonant has been absorbed into the spelling and sound at the beginning of the base or root to which the prefix is affixed. (e.g., ad + tract = attract)
The syllable in a word that receives more emphasis when spoken, and usually has a clearly pronounced vowel sound.
The process of attaching a word part, such as a prefix or suffix, to a base word, stem, or root.
A speech sound produced when the breath stream is stopped and released at the point of articulation, usually where the tip of the tongue rubs against the roof of the mouth just behind the teeth, such as when pronouncing the final sound in the word clutch, or the beginning sound in the word trip.
A writing system containing characters or symbols representing individual speech sounds.
The first layer of word study instruction, focusing on letter-sound correspondences. Old English was phonetically regular to a great extent.
Word study that divides words into their elemental parts through phonemic, orthographic (spelling), and morphological analysis.
How sounds are shaped in the mouth during speech. Some confusions are made in spelling based on similarities in ____.
A word to which prefixes and/or suffixes are added.
For example, the base word of unwholesome is whole.
A picture of word sort done with a partner in which students who are responsible for sorting cannot see the word. They must instead attend to the sounds and sometimes visualize the spelling pattern to determine the category.
Blind Writing Sort
A variant of a blind sort in which one student (or teacher) names a word without showing it to another student, who must write it in the correct category under a keyword.
Meaning units of language (morphemes) that cannot stand alone as a word. Respected has three _____ morphemes: re + spect + ed.
Work completed independently in prepared areas within a classroom.
Group work conducted under the teacher’s direction.
A classroom profile that organizes children into instructional groups by features to be taught within each stage.
Word sorts based on predetermined categories.
A syllable that ends in or is “closed” by a consonant sound. In polysyllabic words, a closed syllable contains a short vowel sound that is closed by two consonants (e.
g. rabbit, racket).
Words in different languages derived from the same root.
Words made up of two smaller words. A compound word may or may not be hyphenated, based on its part of speech.
A categorization task in which pictures, objects, or words are grouped by shared attributes or meanings to develop concepts and vocabulary.
Consolidated Alphabetic Readers/Phase
Ehri’s fourth phase of word recognition, in which readers use patterns, chunks, and other word parts to figure out unfamiliar words.
The process in which the pronunciation of consonants changes in the base or root of derivationally related words while the spelling does not change.
(sign, signal and music, musician)
Cut and Paste Activities
A variation of picture sorting in which students cut out pictures from magazines or catalogs and paste them into categories.
Affixes added to base words that affect the meaning (sign, resign; break, breakable) and/or the part of speech (beauty, beautiful).
Derivational Relations Spelling Stage
The last stage of spelling development, in which spellers learn about derivational relationships preserved in the spelling of words.
Derivational refers to the process by which new words are created from existing words, chiefly through affixation, and the development of a word from its historical origin. Derivational constancy refers to spelling patterns that remain the same despite changes in pronunciation across derived forms. For example, bomb retains the b from bombard because of its historical evolution.
Draw and Label Activities
An extension activity for a picture sort in which students draw pictures of things that begin with the sounds under study. The pictures are drawn in the appropriate categories and labeled with the letter(s) corresponding to that sound.
Places, things, or actions that are named after an individual.
The study of the origin and historical development of words.
More than scoring words right and wrong, ____ ____ provides a way of interpreting children’s errors by taking into account their knowledge of specific orthographic features such as consonant blends or short vowels. Feature analyses inform teachers what spelling features to teach.
A tool used to classify students’ errors within a hierarchy of orthographic features. Used to score spelling inventories to assess students’ knowledge of specific spelling features at their particular stage of spelling development and to plan word study instruction to meet individual needs.
Meaning units of language (morphemes) that stand alone as words. (Workshop has two ____ morphemes: work and shop.)
Full Alphabetic Readers/Phase
Ehri’s third phase of word recognition, in which readers are able to sound out words using letter-sound correspondences or phonics they know.
An approach to word study that emphasizes processes that apply to many words, as opposed to an approach that focuses on one word at a time.
Words, pictures, or other labels used to designate categories for sorting.
Suffixes that change the verb tense (walks, walked, walking) or number (dogs, boxes) of a word.
Pictures placed at the top of each category in a picture sort. Key pictures act as headers for each column and can be used for analogy.
Words placed at the top of each category in a word sort. Key words act as headers for each column and can be used for analogy.
An error of letter order (PTE for pet.)
Lax vowels are commonly known as the short-vowel sound.
Letter Name-Alphabetic Spelling Stage
The second stage of spelling development, in which students represent beginning, middle, and ending sounds or words with phonetically accurate letter choices. Often the selections are based on the sound of the letter name itself, rather than abstract letter-sound associations.
The latter name h (aitch), for example, produces the /ch/ sound, and is often selected to represent that sound (HEP for chip).
The consonant sounds for /r/ and /l/, which, unlike other consonant sounds, do not obstruct air in the mouth. The sounds for /r/ and /l/ are more vowel-like in that they do not involve direct contact between the lips, tongue, and the roof of the mouth as other consonants do. Instead, they “roll around” in the mouth, as if liquid.
The third layer of English orthography, including meaning units such as prefixes, suffixes, and word roots. These word elements were acquired primarily during the Renaissance, when English was overlaid with many words of Greek and Latin derivation.
A type of word sort in which the categories are determined by semantic categories or by spelling-meaning connections.
Referring to morphemes.
The process of analyzing or breaking down a word in terms of its meaning units or morphemes. (e.g. in-struct-or)
The study of word parts related to syntax and meaning.
A sound such as /m/, /n/, or /ng/ produced when the air is blocked in the oral cavity but escapes through the nose. The first consonants of the words mom and no represent nasal sounds.
Words that do not fit the targeted feature in a sort.
The initial consonant(s) sound of a single syllable or word. The ____ of the word slide is /sl/.
A type of picture or word sort in which the categories for sorting are left open. Students sort pictures or words into groups according to the students’ own judgement.
Syllables that end with a long vowel sound (e.g. la-bor or sea-son.)
The writing system of a language– specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols.
Partial Alphabetic Readers/Phase
Ehri’s second phase of word recognition, in which children use partial clues, primarily initial consonants to identify words. Also known as selective cue stage.
A letter sequence that functions as a unit to represent a sound (such as ai in rain, pain, and train) or a sequence of vowels and consonants, such as the CVC pattern in a word such as rag or at a syllable juncture such as the VCCV pattern in button.
The second layer or tier of English orthography, in which patterns of letter sequences, rather than individual letters themselves, represent vowel sounds. This layer of information was acquired during the period of English history following the Norman invasion.
Many of the vowel patterns of English are of French derivation.
A word sort in which students categorize words according to similar spelling patterns.
Individual books of reading materials for beginning readers. Group experience charts, dictations, rhymes, and short excerpts from books comprise the majority of the reading material.
Representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols (letters), each denoting a single sound.
Beginning reading books written with controlled vocabulary that contain recurring phonics elements.
A categorization task in which pictures are sorted into categories of similarity and difference. Pictures may be sorted by sound or by meaning. Pictures cannot be sorted by pattern.
Ehri’s first phase of word recognition, in which children use non-alphabetic clues like word length or distinctive print to identify words. Also known as logographic.
Nasals that occur before consonants, as in the words bump or sink.
The vowel is nasalized as part of the air escapes through the nose during pronunciation.
Writing that bears no correspondence to speech sounds; literally, “before sound.” Prephonetic writing occurs during the emergent stage and typically consists of random scribbles, mock linear writing, or heiroglyphic-looking symbols.
The practice of referring to features of print such as punctuation, capital letters, directionality, and so forth as a way to teach children concepts about print (CAP).
The musical qualities of language, including intonation, expression, stress, and rhythm.
A vowel occurring in an unstressed syllable.
Words or word parts, often of Latin or Greek origin. They are often combined with other roots to form words such as telephone (teleand phone).
A prominent sound in a word or syllable that stands out because of the way that it is made or felt in the mouth, or because of idiosyncratic reasons such as being similar to a sound in one’s name.
A vowel sound in English that often occurs in an unstressed syllable, such as the /uh/ sound in the first syllable of the word above.
Schoolwork that is completed at the student’s own desk.
Seatwork is usually on a student’s independent level and is assigned for practice.
Writing that demonstrates some awareness that letters represent speech sounds. Literally, “part sound.” Beginning and/or ending consonant sounds of syllables or words may be represented, but medial vowels are usually omitted. (ICDD for I see Daddy.) Semiphonetic writing occurs at the end of the emergent stage or the very outset of Letter Name-Alphabetic stage.
Every vowel (a, e, i, o, u) has two sounds, commonly referred to as long and short. The vocal cords are more relaxed when producing the short vowel sound than the long vowel sound.
Because of this, ____ vowel sounds are often referred to as lax. The five _____ vowels can be heard at the beginning of these words: apple, Ed, igloo, octopus, and umbrella.
Sorts that ask students to categorize pictures or words by sound as opposed to visual patterns.
Pictures or words that are sorted under a timed condition. Students try to beat their own time.
Spelling-by-Stage Classroom Organizational Chart
A classroom composite sheet used to place children in a developmental spelling stage and form groups.
Assessments that ask students to spell a series of increasingly difficult words used to determine what features students know or use but confuse, as well as a specific developmental stage of spelling.
Words that are related in meaning often share the same spelling despite changes in pronunciation from one form of the word to the next. The word sign, for example, retains the g from signal even though it is not pronounced, thus “signaling” the meaning connection through spelling.
A handwriting error that is the mirror image of the intended letter (b for d, or p for d).
A consonant such as /b/ or /t/ that is formed by obstructing air at a given place of articulation; ____ consonant sounds cannot by prolonged without distorting the sound.
The process of determining the pronunciation and/or meaning of a word by analyzing word parts, including syllables, base words, and affixes.
The transition from one syllable to the next. Sometimes this transition involves a spelling change such as consonant doubling or dropping the final -e before adding -ing.
Syllable Juncture Patterns
The alternating patterns of consonants (C) and vowels (V) at the point where syllables meet. For example, the word rabbit follows the VCCV syllable pattern at the point where the syllables meet.
Units of spoken language that consist of a vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by several consonants. ____ are units of sound and can often be detected by paying attention to movements of the mouth.
Syllabic divisions indicated in the dictionary are not always correct because the dictionary will always separate meaning units regardless of how the word is pronounced. For example, the proper syllable division for the word naming is na-ming; however the dictionary divides this word as nam-ing to preserve the ing.
Syllables and Affixes Stage
The fourth stage of spelling development, which coincides with intermediate reading.
Syllables and affixes spellers learn about the spelling changes that often take place at the point of transition from one syllable to the next. Frequently this transition involves consonant doubling or dropping the final -e before adding a suffix.
Occurring at the same time. In this book, stages of spelling development are described in the context of reading and writing behaviors occurring at the same time.
Phonics instruction that begins with individual sounds and the blending of sounds to form words.
An explicit word study lesson in which the teacher models and leads students through the sorting process, offers explanations, and facilitates a discussion about the features and the meaning of words.
A vowel sound that is commonly known as the long vowel sound.
Long vowel sounds are produced by tensing the vocal cords.
The ability to fingerpoint read a text, demonstrating the concept of a word.
The syllable in a word that gets little emphasis and may have an indistinct vowel sound such as the first syllable in about, the second syllable in definition, or the final syllables in doctor or table.
A sound that, when produced, does not necessitate the vibration of the vocal cords.
A sound that, when produced, vibrates the vocal cords. The letter sound d, for example, vibrates the vocal cords in a way that the letter sound t does not.
The process in which the pronunciation of vowels changes in the base or root of derivationally related words, while the spelling does not change. For example, the long-to-short vowel change in the related words crime and criminal, or the long-to-schwa vowel change in the related words impose and imposition.
A phonics term for pairs of vowels that represent a single vowel sound (such as the ai in rain, the oa in boat, and the ue in blue.)
A silent letter used to indicate the sound of the vowel. In English, silent letters are used to form pattern associated with specific vowel sounds. ____ ____ are usually vowels, as in the i in drain or the a in treat, but they can also be consonants, as the l in told.
Within Word Pattern Spelling Stage
The third stage of spelling development, which coincides with the transitional period of literacy development. Within word pattern spellers have mastered the basic letter-sound correspondences of written English, and they grapple with letter sequences that function as a unit, especially long vowel patterns.
Some of the letters within the unit may have no sound themselves. These silent letters, such as the silent e in snake or the silent i in drain, serve as important markers in the pattern.
A unit of meaning. A ____ may be a single syllable or a combination of syllables. A ____ may contain smaller units of meaning within it. In print, a ____ is separated by white space. In speech, several ____ may be strung together in a breath group.
For this reason, it takes children a while to develop a clear concept of word.
A collection of known words harvested from frequently read texts, such as little leveled books, dictated stories, basal preprimers, and primers. ____ ____ words are written on small cards. These words, which students can recognize with ease, are used in word study games and word sorts.
Words written on 2-by-1 inch pieces of cardstock or paper.
An attitude of curiosity and attention to words critical for vocabulary development.
A word study activity in which students go back to texts they have previously read to hunt for other words that follow the same spelling features examined during the word or picture sort.
A basic word study routine in which students group words into categories.
____ ____ involves comparing and contrasting within and across categories. ____ ____ are often cued by key words placed at the top of each category.
A learner-centered, conceptual approach to instruction in phonics, spelling, word recognition, and vocabulary, based on a developmental model.
Word Study Notebooks
Notebooks in which students write their word sorts into columns and add other words that follow similar spelling patterns throughout the week. ____ ____ ____ may also contain lists of words generated over time, such as new vocabulary, homophones, cognates, and so on.
An extension activity in which students write the words they have sorted into categories.