Describe how Behaviorism is different from Cognitive Science
Behaviorism is passive in nature and encompasses isolated skills, decoding words mechanically and is rote in nature.Cognitive science requires active learners where interaction is necessary. In cognitive science, students are constructing meaning.
Explain scaffolding
Theory by Vygotsky. It is the I Do, We Do, You do strategy. It is based on the principle that students must learn a step above their knowledge base.

If too high, the same or lower than their level, the student will not be engaged.

To what does climate refer?
Climate refers to the learning environment. It should allow each student to feel accepted, safe and secure, feel confident, and understand the value of learning.

Consciously aware of what you are doing. Thinking about thinking.
What is the reading process?
Step 1: Pre-readingStep 2: During readingStep 3: Post-reading
What is meant by “good readers are reflective”?
Good readers can make inferences, analyze, think, revise views, and extend and refine thoughts and ideas.
Describe 3 activities that promote reflection?
1. Asking reflective questions2. Have students write reflectively3. Class or peer discussions
What are the “Big Five” in reading?
1. Phonemic awareness2.

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Phonics3. Vocabulary4. Fluency5. Comprehension

Explain the statement “you win on talent”
A good teacher can succeed without a reading program or pre-made learning materials, and conversely, a poor teacher can fail even with all the tools/programs available.
Explain the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) and Reading First.
The NCLBA began with the Johnson administration, but passed under George W. Bush.

In theory, the desire for highly qualified teachers and adequate yearly progress was optimal. However, the implementation of the Act was less than desirable. The Reading First Act was passed in Florida in response to the NCLBA to meet those standards and receive federal monies.

Top-down theory
It is the whole language approach. Is the opposite of the bottom-up theory. It starts with sentences, then words, then sounds, etc.

Bottom-up theory
It is the phonics approach. It starts small and builds up. It starts with a sound, then putting sounds together to make words, etc.
Transitional theory
It is based on Rosenblatt. Meaning construction occurs among the reader, the text and social situation.
Describe good reading instruction.

1. Explicit2. Direct3. Systematic4. Includes writing5. Includes Big 5 a.

phonics b. vocabulary c. phonemic awareness d. fluency e. comprehension6. literacy study

Explain Chall’s stages of reading development.
6 Stages1. Pre-reading: pre-alphabet (PreK-K)2.

Initial reading / alphabetic decoding (K-2)3. Confirmation / fluency (2-3)4. Reading to learn (4-8)5. Multiple points of view (9-12)6. Construction reconstruction (12+)

What are some signs of dyslexia?
1. Late learning to talk2. Inconsistent memory of words3.

Mispronunciation4. Poor letter-sound recall5. Slow to learn alphabet6. Reads too slowly7.

Word by word8. Misreads same word9. Spells phonetically

What is phonemic awareness?
The ability to think and work with sounds. It is manipulating sounds, understanding that words are made of sounds and all activities are verbal (all can be done in the dark).
Phoneme isolation
Recognizing individual sounds in a word.What sounds does the “c” in cat make?
Phoneme identification
Recognizing the same sounds in different words. Which sound is the same in box, bug and bat?
Phoneme substitution
The changing of one sound to another to create a new word.

If you change the b in bat to a c, what word does that make?

Phoneme categorization
The word that has the odd soundEx: cat, car, bus
Speech sounds /l/ and /r/ that have vowel-like qualities and no easily definable point of articulation.Ex: Elmer Fudd speech
Consonants always followed by a vowel that literally glide together.Ex: well, yell, help, yelp, whelp
A vowel sound that glides in the middle, giving the impression that the vowel has 2 parts.Ex: boy, shout
Phoneme addition
Creates a new word by adding a sound.

Add /s/ to the beginning of “park” to get “spark”

Describe the best way to teach phonemic awareness.
1. Lessons should be brief (between 5-10 minutes). 2. They should be done orally.3. There should be 2-3 activities per lesson and should be done in a model/lead, observe fashion. 4.

Students should receive immediate feedback.

Why must dialect be considered when teaching phonemic awareness?
Because language and culture are very personal issues and you don’t want to isolate a student and then have them shutdown and be unwilling to learn from you.
Explain the 3 ways to divide a word.

1. Syllabes2. Phonemes3. Onset-rime
Why is phonemic awareness important?
Because it predicts reading development and students need to know sound to write symbol.
What is phonics?
Phonics are rules or generalizations of what conditions will make certain sounds. It is teaching letter-sound correspondence and focuses on linking sounds to letters.
Describe the 5 instructional approaches for teaching phonics.

Analogy uses known words to teach unknown words.2. Analytical shows groups of words to see what they have in common. (pet, push, pin, put, pen)3. Embedded is the top-down approach and starts with the story, then students discuss and repeat sounds.

4. Systematic synthetic phonics is explicitly teaching students to connect letters to sounds.5. Spelling

Discuss 4 of the results of the meta-analysis from the National Reading Panel (NRP).
1. Good phonics in/by 1st grade=better decoding and comprehension.2.

Getting phonics later (~6th grade)=decoding improves but comprehension does not.3. Phonics in only part of learning to read, not the whole program.4.

Intensive systematic phonics (SSP) is recommended – but they do not define how much time is recommended.

Individual sounds.
The letter or letter combinations that represent a sound.
The smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language.
Base word
A free morpheme to which an affix can be added.
Prefixes and suffixes.
Unit of pronunciation organized around a vowel.
A word part (morpheme) that is added in front of the base.

A word part that is added at the end of the base.
Describe 4 important phonic rules students need to know.
1. C-rule: the i or y makes a soft c sound. Ex: cake, cut, cot make /k/ sound, but cite, cycle, circle make /s/ sound.2. G-rule: the e, i or y make a soft g sound. Ex: gate, got and gum make a hard g sound, but gym, gentle and giraffe all make a /j/ sound.

3. A (vowel)(consonant)(vowel) makes a long vowel sound.4. A (consonant)(vowel)(consonant) makes a short vowel sound.

Why is the study of phonics important?

It leads to the understanding of the alphabet;2. It leads to the understanding of the predictable relationships of letter sounds; and 3. no phonics=no letter sound relationship.

What is the best approach for teaching phonics?
Systematic synthetic phonics (SSP) because it explicitly teaches students to connect letters to sounds.
Describe attributes of an effective phonics program.

explicit2. systematic3. explains importance of phonics4. flexible5. adaptable6.

includes phonemic awareness7. alphabet principles8. vocabulary

What is the typical implication of economic status (“SES”) with a students vocabulary?
The higher the SES of a student equals 2x the amount of word knowledge/exposure.
Describe the 2 ways we typically learn vocabulary.
1. Indirectly (through listening to adults, reading, TV, video games, etc.

)2. Directly (through explicit teaching)

Why are children’s books better than adult conversation or television?
Children’s books have more variety.
What are some problems with having students look up words in the dictionary?
1. No context2. Only gives denotation, not connotation3.

May be incomplete4. Defining is the end result (not deriving meaning)

How do we know words?
1. Reading a lot (at grade level with motivation)2. Multiple exposures3. Metacognitant of sounds, prefixes, roots.4. Morphemes, usage and multi-meanings.

Describe the 4 stages of word knowledge.
1. No knowledge2.

Vague familiarity3. Contextual knowledge4. Rich & flexible (“own it”)

What are the 4 principle of effective vocabulary instruction?
1. active involvement2. personal connections3. immersion4.

multiple sources

Sight words
Words that you should know automatically.
Oral vocabulary
Words that you use to speak.
Reading vocabulary
Words that you recognize when you read.
Listening vocabulary
Words that you know when you hear them.
Writing vocabulary
Words you are comfortable using.

Dictionary definition.
Personal definition
What words should be taught directly?
1. Critical to understanding text,2.

General utility words, and3. Words that need interpretation.

Describe 4 different vocabulary strategies.

Word walls: group alphabetically, conceptually, or morphemically.2. Read aloud.3. Vocabulary word trees: the trunk is the word, the roots will be origin and affixes, branches are definition, sentence.4. Logographic clues: drawing pictures of words (grapheme)

How does fluency provide a bridge between vocabulary (word recognition) and comprehension?
Because there is less focus on decoding and more focus on comprehension.

Describe the 3 parts of fluency.
1. accuracy (correctness)2. rate (speed)3. prosody (expression)
Why is fluency rate for any one person not stable?
Because it depends on the (grade) level of the text.
What does research say about the popular SSR and DEAR programs?
Though the research is qualitative, not quantitative, they believe it works. There are no quantitative studies done on SSR and DEAR.

What is the correlation between the more a person reads and their fluency level?
More reading = improved reading (fluency)
How does a teacher recognize if a student needs need with fluency?
1. More than 10% word recognition errors on unfamiliar grade level passages.2. Read without prosody (expression)3. Students have little comprehension of what they have just read aloud.

Describe the 3 levels of text.
1. Independent level (1 word in 20 difficult)2. Instructional level (1 word in 10 difficult)3.

Frustration level (2 or more words in 10 are difficult)

Describe what happens more often to struggling readers than proficient readers.
1. Have reading material that is too hard to read,2. Have to read aloud,3. Be interrupted when they make a mistake,4. Be interrupted quickly,5.

Wait for a teacher prompt (looks up),6. Told to “sound out” the word.

Describe 4 strategies for improving fluency.
1. Choral reading2. Adult reads then students read3. Partner reading4. Improve sight word recognition
Explain formal fluency assessment.

1. Timed samples: reading a sample at grade level or at target level for students and having them read orally for a period of time (1 minute, 5 minutes, etc.). Score is measured by number of sentences, number of words, number of syllables – then graph.2.

Monitored over time: using timed samples throughout the year, schooling, etc. to monitor growth of fluency.

What is listening comprehension?
1. Language ability: sentence structure knowledge and word knowledge (phonemic awareness, phonics and vocabulary); and2. Background knowledge.
List 5 characteristics of proficient readers.
1. Connectors2.

Questioners3. Inferrers4. Distinguishers5. Synthesizers6.

Repairers7. Monitorers8. Visualizers

Describe the steps in scaffolding.

This is the gradual release model.1. Teacher modeling (I do)2. Guided practice (we do)3. Independent practice (you do)4. Application of practice (assessments)
Merging text clues with prior knowledge, elaborating upon what is read, draw conclusions, going beyond the text.It involves making predictions, connecting points, figuring unknown words, asking questions.

Students use background knowledge to infer.

Explain how text can influence comprehension.
1. The text may be too difficult.

2. May not have prior knowledge of vocabulary.3.

Sentence length may be too long.4. May be unfamiliar with the organization of textbook/text features.5. Text or genre may not be appealing.

Explain how the reader can influence comprehension.

Reader may not have the language ability2. May not have the background knowledge.3. May not have the intelligence.

4. May not have the learned reading skills necessary.

Explain how the task can influence comprehension.

1. The purpose may be unclear.2. The motivation may not be there.3. The consequences may not be clear or high enough.4. The support may be not apparent.

What are some challenges of textbook language?
1. High density2. Longer sentences3. Unusual words4. Too formal
Why is metaphoric language difficult for struggling readers?
1. Idioms- Ex: It’s raining cats and dogs.

2. Colloquialisms – That band was bad.3. Metaphors – His feet flew down that path.

Why is there a need for sentence comprehension?
1. Written language is different than oral language.2. Syntactic awareness helps correct decoding errors.

3. Efficient processing of structure helps comprehension.4. Supports writing.

Explain how fictional text structure differs from non-fictional text structure.

Fiction has:1. Exposition2. Conflict3. Climax4. ResolutionNon-fiction has:1.

Describe/define2. Examples3. Reasons4. Compare/contrast5. Sequence/time order

Describe 3 strands that appeared in the National Reading Panel concerning comprehension.
1. Need for vocabulary instruction.2.

Need for teacher preparation to either use direct explanation (problem-solving approach) or transactional (facilitating discussion)3. Need for explicit instruction through teacher modeling, such as summarizing and identifying structure.

Describe the 4 types of Question-Answer Relationships (QARs).
1. It’s Right There2. Think and Search 3.

What You Know “On My Own”4. The Author and You.

What is an anticipation guide?
Is a comprehension strategy that is used before reading to activate students’ prior knowledge and build curiosity about a new topic.

Before reading, students listen to or read several statements about key concepts presented in the text; they’re often structured as a series of statements with which the students can choose to agree or disagree. Anticipation guides stimulate students’ interest in a topic and set a purpose for reading.

Describe a RAFT Strategy.
(R)ole, (A)udience, (F)ormat, (T)opicExample: Role is Ice, the Audience is Water, the Format is an Expository Essay, and the Topic is What You Will Become.
What is thoughtful literacy?
It is reading to remember or to think.

Theory of Allington (UF)To craft understanding you must be able to:1. activate prior knowledge,2. summarize3. teach story grammar lessons (text structure)4. use imagery5. create a question generating atmosphere6. and think aloud

Describe effective programs for struggling readers.
A balance of the top-down, bottom-up and transactional programs is most effective.Effective programs have (i) explicit teaching of word identification, comprehension, vocabulary with authentic reading and writing tasks; (ii) daily read alouds, and (iii) reading instruction based on assessments.