Report on technologies relating to businesses and organizations

In the 21st Century, businesses and organizations wholly depend on a wide range of technologies. However in this report I will be concentrating on three technologies used by businesses/organizations to access and exchange information, and carry out transactions.The Internet (Information Access and Exchange)Businesses will use the Internet, the World Wide Web, to consolidate its customers and employers. Many companies will have their own website to sell a service or product. By changing one thing, for example the price of a computer, it automatically advertises to the whole world saving time and money.

There is no need to send out newsletters to individual customers or employers and notify them about company changes individually.What is the Internet and when was it made?”The internet is a worldwide network of computer networks. It is an interconnection of large and small networks around the globe. The Internet began in 1962 as a computer network for the U.

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S. military and over time has grown into a global communication tool of many thousands of computer networks that share a common addressing scheme. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet.

Most online services, such as America Online, offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP).”The uses of the InternetThe Internet has many uses; however the main use for businesses and organizations is that it provides a worldwide wide connection with customers and employers. It allows companies to access information from other companies around the world via e-mail and websites to make changes internally.E-commerce is where the Internet is used to sell products or services. This has many advantages, as it is cheaper, then running a shop. It requires lees employers increasing the income. The maintenance of an e-commerce is also cheaper.

To really understand how the Internet works we must know how a network works. This leads me to Network technologies, available for businesses and organizations.Network TechnologiesThe main purpose of a network is to simply connect a group, if not, 2 computers to together so that they can share information from each other.

Networks are separated into two main categories, Local Area Networks and Wide Area Networks.LANLocal Area Network – A computer communications system limited to no more than a few miles and using high-speed connections (2 to 100 megabits per second). A short-haul communications system that connects ADP devices in a building or group of buildings within a few square kilometers, including workstations, front-end processors, controllers, switches, and gateways.LAN’s can be used by companies internally in other words within the company. This allows companies to access their own databases for customer and employee records. The transfer of data within a LAN is very quick, and allows data to be transferred at high speeds, which is also dependent on the medium.The data stored by a company or business is on a server.

This Server is connected to many workstations and is the main source of data.The advantage of a LAN is that once installed, computers can easily be updated with information and data by updating the server only. This then allows all employers quick access to the same information. Traditional methods would mean that each console/terminal had to be updated individually, costing money and time.However, even LAN’s have limitations.

WANWide Area Network is a network connecting computers within very large areas, such as states, countries, and the world. It is, in a way, a group of LAN’s connected over longer distances. The Internet is a very large Wide Area Network.WAN can be used by businesses to connect companies over large distances i.e.

connecting devices kilometers away.WAN’s are slower than LAN’s at transferring data, however recent development in fibre optic medium allowing large data transfer at speed.To connect to WAN (The Internet) you will require a modem.EncryptionEncryption is he translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. Unencrypted data is called plain text; encrypted data is referred to as cipher text. Most e-commerce software applications utilize encryption technology.

EthernetEthernet is a local area technology with networks operating in a single building. This is known as connecting devices in close proximity. Ethernet is usually connected using a few hundred meters of cable. Since this medium has improved it allows Ethernet to be connected over longer distances. Businesses may use Ethernet for internal use, within the company, to make an Intranet.An Intranet is a private network inside a company or organization, which uses software like that, used on the Internet, but is for internal use only, and is not accessible to the public. Companies use Intranets to manage projects, provide employee information, distribute data and information, etc. The main purpose of an intranet is to share company information and computing resources among employees.

ExtranetAn extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols and public telecommunications lines. An extranet can be viewed as part of a company’s intranet that is extended to users outside the company. The main purpose of an extranet is to share information with individuals or groups outside a company, such as suppliers, customers and partners.Terms and Rules used in NetworkingIn networking, the term protocol refers to a set of rules that govern communication relations. Protocols are a language to computers. Both devices must understand must understand the same language, same protocol, to communicate. The Internet was setup using the TCP/IP protocol.The medium is the type of cable used to connect the network, traditionally coaxial copper, and now fibre optic cable.

Data is sent in chunks called frames through the segments. A segment is a single shared medium, which is connected with node devices.In the Ethernet protocol there are set of rules, minimum and maximum length for frames and a set of required pieces in that frame. Each frame must contain a destination and source address.

The address specifies the node.A broadcast address can be used to send information to every node device i.e. to every computer.

An improvement in network technology has lead to developments in carrier sensing and collision detection (CSMA/CD). Carrier Sensor Multiple Access/Collision DetectionMultiple accesses means that all the stations hear the transmission and carrier sensor is when a station is going to transmit data it listens to see if another station is transmitting avoiding collision of data.Collision detection is when two stations transmit at the same time and collide.

This causes both stations to wait a random number of times and transmit again.A disadvantage of Ethernet is that the signal transmitted can weaken over long distances. A network must be short enough so that devices can communicate clearly that is known as the network diameter.To solve this problem companies may use repeaters in their network. These then allow repetition of data from one segment to another. These can significantly increase the network diameter.Another disadvantage is that Ethernet networks can face congestion problems as the network diameter increases.

If more stations are connected to a segment then collisions may be frequent. One way to reduce congestion is to split a single segment creating multiple session domains but these segments cannot share information. To solve this Ethernet networks are bridged. This echoes information from one segment to another. A bridge can reduce unnecessary traffic on segments. The bridge also filters out unnecessary frames. If something is broadcasted then the bridge will transmit to all stations.Routers are advanced networking components that can divide a single network into two separate networks.

An Ethernet LAN that uses switches to connect individual hosts or segments. In the case of individual hosts, the switch replaces the repeater and effectively gives the device full 10 Mbps bandwidth (or 100 Mbps for Fast Ethernet) to the rest of the network. This type of network is sometimes called a desktop switched Ethernet. In the case of segments, the hub is replaced with a switching hub. Allowing simultaneous conversations to occur as the frame only reaches the recipient.