ReportCaoZheng18th/Dec/2017GraphaneIntroduction Graphane, an allotrope form of carbon which consists a single layer of carbon, which atoms arranged in an hexagonal lattice. It is a basic and auxiliary component of numerous other allotropes of carbon such as graphite, charcoal, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes.
Graphane can be imaged as an aromatic molecule with indefinitely size.Numerous surprising properties are found in graphane. For instance, graphane is the most strongest material among ever tested, with nearly transparent efficiently conducts heat and electricity. Graphane demonstrates a huge and nonlinear diamagnetism, which is more prominent than the diamagnetism of graphite, and can be suspended by neodymium magnets.
BodyWallace firstly explored graphane as a starting point in research to understand 3D graphite especially the electronic characteristics in 1947. Producing monolayer flakes of reduced graphane oxide was reported by Boehm in 1962. Since 2004 Geim and Novoselov extracted single-atom-thick crystallites from bulk graphite.
Therefore Geim and Novoselov received 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for their pioneering research of graphane.Graphane is one of allotrope of carbon in crystalline state with 2-dimensional properties. Carbon atoms in graphane are densely packed in the form of a regular hexagonal pattern. It has various excellent properties, including area of electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical.
First of all, the specific surface area of graphane is up to 2630 , which is larger than normal carbon and carbon nanotubes. Besides, graphane is the strongest material among ever tests which makes graphane has a good characteristic of mechanical. What’s more, the thermal conductivity measured of graphane is approximately 5300 , which is much larger than what of pyrolytic graphite of nearly 2000 at room temperature. In the end, the properties of graphane of optical is unique, because of the produce of an high opacity for an atomic monolayer in vacuum unexpectedly.
Graphane can be used in variety of aspects of life, one typical example is the usage of transistors. On the one hand, the excellent mobility of graphane is its most compelling feature. On the other hand, it may be possible to making devices with extremely thin channels which will give graphane more possibility to field-effect transistors to be scaled to shorter channel lengths and higher speeds without be encountered with the adverse short-channel effects which restrict the performance of existing devices. In the future, more Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor(MOSFET) can be settled in the same size of the Central Processing Unit(CPU) because of the technical of graphane transistor. Besides, some other applications should be paid attention such as graphane-based sensor and graphane-based hydrogen storage, which are the usage of graphane to give sensor or hydrogen storage higher performance. In spite of electronic applications, graphane is also reported to improve the color of photonics crystals in optical devices.There are several preparation method of graphane, since 2014, graphane produced by exfoliation has the highest electron mobility and lowest number of defects.
Geim and Novoselov firstly used adhesive tape to get graphane sheets from graphite, then single layers can achieved with multiple exfoliation steps. After exfoliation they deposited the flakes on a silicon wafer. Finally a sharp single-crystal diamond wedge cleave layers from a graphite source alternatively.
Another method to produce graphane is reduction of graphite oxide monolayer films, which in divided in four steps, including oxidation of graphite to graphite oxide, exfoliation of graphite oxide in H2O by sonication to obtain GO colloids and controlled conversion of GO colloids to conducting graphane colloids through deoxygenation by hydrazine reduction.ConclusionSince the theory introduced by Wallace in 1947, the graphane has been researched to various aspects. Its excellence properties in many aspects makes it much useful in different areas and beneficial to human’s life in future. According to the latest research, graphane can be used as a transparent and flexible conductor to achieve various material applications, including solar cells, LED, touch sensors and smart cell phones. For example, the produce of graphane transistors can improve the performance of the mobile electrical devices like cell phones with the decrease of the power supply.In addition to the various application, there will be over $9 million of the global market for graphane in the aspects of the semiconductor, battery, electronics, energy storage and conversion, which will brings uncountable value of business in future.