Richard Nixon

“My fellow Americans, I come before you tonight as a candidate for the Vice-presidency and as a man whose honesty and integrity has been questioned.”(Checkers Speech, 4) These words from the famous Nixon speech can be interpreted in different manner. There are a plenty of opinions and discussion about President Nixon and his honesty and not all of them are in Nixon’s favour. This research is planned to show that Nixon’s activities during his presidency have been efficient and useful for Americans of those times. His main value was the capability to dedicate himself in complete measure to his professional life. The problem is that political honesty differs from the honesty in its regular meaning. And the thesis statement of this research is to show that Nixon was a completely politically honest person (though so he was in his regular, non-official life)

When Richard Nixon on August, 9, 1974 has signed the application for resignation for the first time in a history the president of the United States has ahead of schedule refused the post.  In the first years of being in the White house Nixon tried to create a wide conservative coalition from Wallace’s supporters, democrats and devout republicans. During his ruling the process of a desegregation of schools has stopped, the president has imposed the veto and on laws in the field of social programs and preservations of the environment.

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The largest national achievement within Nixon’s board became one of results of the project to which the president had no the direct relation, – programs of research of the space, started at president Kennedi. In July 1969 American astronauts became the first earthmen who have stepped into a surface of the Moon. However Nixon has refused to develop this success and to carry out planned still at Kennedi and Johnson plans of reusable use of the spacecrafts, manned orbital stations, lunar bases and sending of the person to Mars. Instead of it the budget of space researches has been seriously reduced. Its lion’s share has gone on creation of reusable ships – shuttles.

The basic problem became the inflation accompanied with economic recession. Application of monetarist methods has led to rise of interest rates and rendered depressive influence on the share market. The fast rise in prices proceeded, and in 1971 deficiency of the balance of payments has achieved the menacing sizes. In August Nixon has established the control of the prices and wages. He has carried out reform of tax system with the purpose of stimulation of business activity. The monitoring system has firstly lowered rates of a rise in prices and a wages, but then has been weakened in connection with renewal of economic growth in the autumn 1971.

In the field of foreign policy Nixon promised to reach the « worthy end » of Vietnamese war and from June 1969 began a gradual conclusion of armies. However in the spring 1970 Americans have grasped Cambodia, and in 1971 have supported intrusion South Vietnam armies to Laos. Bombardments of Vietnam in addition have amplified. Intrusion into Cambodia has caused the wave of the manifestations of protest which have swept on 400 colleges and universities the USA.

Nixon has taken steps to discharge of intensity in relations with China and the USSR. In 1971 under his  initiative the USA have ceased to interfere with reception of China in the United Nations, and in February 1972 Nixon has visited with official visit Peking, having opened doors for expansion of trade and other contacts. Nixon has achieved from the USSR of some concessions in exchange for trading agreements and granting of credits, which this country desperately needed to pay off for deliveries of the American grain, technologies and the equipment for development of bowels of Siberia. In May 1972 Nixon has gone to Moscow for signing the agreement on restriction of strategic armaments, thus showing the culmination of the negotiations started  in 1969.  The arrangement on restriction of systems of antimissile defense also had been achieved .

In 1972 the liberal wing of Democratic party has achieved promotion by the candidate in presidents of the senator of South Dakota George Makgoverna acted for an immediate and full conclusion of the American armies from Indochina, for gradual reduction of military charges on 30 billion dollars and large-scale internal reforms. Despite of arrest of some Nixon’s employees in June 1972 on accusation of breaking of headquarters of the Democratic party in Watergate complex of Washington, Nixon has easily won elections, having received 61% of voices of voters. However democrats have kept the majority in the Congress.

In December 1972 peace talks across Vietnam have been interrupted and have renewed only after Nixon has given an order on massed bombardments North Vietnam cities. On January 27, 1973 in Paris the agreement which has put an end to the American military intervention in Vietnam has been signed. This agreement and the cancellation which has followed behind it have uplifted Nixon on top of popularity. However less than in 20 months internal political problems and scandals have compelled him to leave in resignation.

The most serious economic problem inflation continued to remain. In the beginning 1973 rate of inflation has sharply grown, mainly owing to large deliveries of a grain of the USSR in 1972 and the second devaluation of dollar in February 1973. Inflation was aggravated in 1973-1974 in connection with quadruple increase of the prices for import oil on which the USA began to depend all in the greater degree. Wholesale prices, during 1973 evolved on 14 %, in 1974 have increased for 19 %, and cost of a life has increased by 11 %. Nixon tried to suppress inflation due to the means allocated on social programs (national education, modernization of a city infrastructure, struggling against poverty). He also has imposed the veto on the new social legislation.

Watergate scandal has undermined Nixon’s support in the Congress. In January 1973 in Washington under John Siriki’s presidency began the court above the Watergate burglars during which the true underlying reason of their actions and confidential communication with Nixon’s high-ranking advisers have been revealed. In May the senatorial commission on investigations led by San Ervin resulted in the broadcast on TV during which Nixon’s assistants have admitted, that within four years conducted campaign of espionage and sabotage against democrats and liberal critics of the administration, in part financed of illegal sources. Soon Nixon has been compelled to appoint special public prosecutor Archibalda of Coke for investigation of an affair. Almost all Nixon’s advisers had to leave in resignation, under suspicion there was also a president. When Coke has requested recorder records of conversations of Nixon concerning to scandal, the president has dismissed him. Legal committee of the House of Representatives under Peter Rodino’s presidency of began the discussions on impeachment of the president.

In the meantime Nixon had troubles in connection with investigation of his financial activities, in particular evasion from payment of taxes. To a post of vice-president Nixon has appointed the leader of republicans from Michigan.  Within one year Nixon counteracted attempts of the commissions of the Congress and the special public prosecutor to receive from him a film with records of conversations, referring on privileges of executive authority and immunity from a call in court for evidence.    The president experienced the paranoid hatred to liberals and tried to be protected from them by all means, including adjoining with infringements of the law. Nixon’s  relation to liberals was transferred his  advisers and assistants. They could extinguish a beginning fire – approximately to punish burglars and to give to publicity everything, that has taken place in  the Watergate complex.But the White house has gone in other way. To burglars have been offered money that they spoke a lie. Those who was going to speak the truth, blackmailed. When about it became known, the liberal press (first of all Washington Post) has begun to inflate a fire. Eventually in the Congress the committee on investigation   of Watergate scandal been created. It was the beginning of the end. The legal committee of the House of Representatives has accused the president of excess by the Constitution of authority given to him and recommended impeachment. In order to prevent a shame, on August, 9, 1974 Nixon has submitted to resignation.

Nixon considered liberals as participants of plot against him and was hardly far from true. Watrergate is, certainly, plot of liberals against Nixon though it at all does not mean that conspirators gathered and coordinated the affairs and acts. It is necessary to understand as plot in this case purposeful activity of the Congress, newspapers and TV, the public organizations, aimed on Nixon’s elimination from authority. Liberals did not forgive Nixon that easily escaped punishment all to his predecessors including the nearest – to Johnson and Kennedi.

If the policy spent by Nixon would have been carried out not by Nixon but someone another, Washington would be shaken with applauses. Nixon has helped to finish the Vietnamese war untied Kennedi and Johnson, he has improved  relations with Soviet Union and has established  relations with communistic China, he has put forward in members of the Supreme court of ultraliberal lawyer Harry Blakmana. But the more liberal policy Nixon carried out, the more liberals hated him. They had been composed a legend that the headquarters of National committee of Democratic Party has been broken open to help Nixon to win elections.

As we can see from the mentioned above, Nixon activities have been really favorable for the USA life. He was a really smart and clever politician who managed to direct the political way of his country in the correct current.

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