Roots controled conditions in container. It includes a

            Roots
of Aquaponics

 INTRODUCTION

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Aquaponics  is
a combination of aquaculture and hydroculture which includes elements of
recurculation  and symbiosis(1),its gives
output of vegetables and fishes utilizing water which is nutrient rich and fish
food and excreata as a basic source,again it is a soilless culture. History
says that one of the ancient practice is using fish waste as fertilizer for
crops.”stationary islands” set up in shallow lakes in central
America(e.g.,Aztec’s Chinampas 1150-1350
BC)2. In South East Asia about 1500 years ago used to introduction of
fish into paddy fields3 ,researchers at the New
Alchemy Institute North Carolina State University (USA) in 70’s and early 80’s
developed the basics of modern Aquaponics4. Good mile stone was set up in year
1980 at the  University of the Virgin
Island(UVI) 1.A survey, conducted by Love et
al. 4, shows that
aquaponics has been receiving growing interest since then 5, which  point out
its increasing  food security  for society.

Food security would be particularly
belongs to global population it now exceeds 7.2billions and is growing rapidly 9.6
billions around 2050.6Urban population growth will require an increasing
demand for animal protein7.

Aquaculture  is
closed system of  fish farming,  where commercial fishes (catfish,ornamental
fish,cray fish or prawns etc.)are grown under controled conditions  in container. 
It includes a new aproach called recirculating aquaculture system (RAS),  reuse of water with
< 10% of total water volume replaced per day8. Hydroponics is a term used to determine the production of plants in soilless media. Plant roots plays major role in a nutrient artificial medium for mechanical support 9.It supports the production of green leaf vegetables Chinese cabbage,lettue,basil,spanich,chilles. In other hand aquaponics system with mature and high stock density of fish,plants such as tomato, peppers and cucumbers.it includes salads capsicum,red salads onions,snowpeas,okra,tomato,bellpepper. To full fill the concept of aquaponics living microbial concept comes a head  that is symbiosis (nitrification)1011.  Nitrification, a two-step process;  First step ammonia is oxidized to nitrite,  2 NH4+ +  3 O2 ? 2 NO2? + 2 H2O + 4 H+ (Nitrosomonas)   Second step nitrite is oxidized to nitrate. 2 NO2? + O2 ? 2 NO3? (Nitrobacter, Nitrospira)  The end product of nitrification produces nitrate(NO3?) plays major role in aquaponics. Nutrient rich waste water in aquaculturesystem is flows into hydroponics system.Plantswill uptake nitrate(NO3?) form along with nutrient rich from waste water where purify by roots(Rhizofiltration)12. Aquaponics is a closed loop system similar to a naturalsystem.Fish takes food and it naturally converted into nitrates and nutrients that present in water are taken up by plants. Fish supply necessary plant nutrients and the plants act as a natural water filter13. Colabration of aquaculture with agriculture can helps to reduce the water usage to production of animal protein and fresh vegetables14.

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