School Age Child Care
What are Piaget`s 4 stages of development?
1. Sensiormotor 0-22. Pre-operational 2-73. Concrete Operation 7-114.

Formal Operations 11-15

Name 5 forms of child care programs.
Latch KeyFamily Care21st CenturySchool District Community Centers
What makes a quality child care program?
Enough staff, back round checks are done, training, education, environment, routine based, and activities.
Staff requirements for teacher`s assistants?
18 with high school diploma
Staff requirements for teacher?
21 years old with training hours (CPR, 1st Aid, Comm. Disease)
Staff ratio for 5-11 year olds?
1 teacher to 18 children
Staff ratio for 11-14 year olds?
1 teacher to 20 children
What is an inspection process?
and evaluation of employees
Sigmund Frued`s 3 parts of the human psyche are?
ID, Ego, and Superego
the source of pleasure seeking drives?
Id
The rational aspect of personality is called?
Ego
The part of personality that controls behavior through the development of conscience is called?
Superego
Frued`s Delineated 5 stages of development are?
1.

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Oral Period (Birth to 1) Awareness through mouth2. Anal Period (1 to 3)Awareness of anus3. Phallic Period (3 to 6) Awareness of genital area4.

Latency Period (7 to 11) quiet feelings5. Adolescence (12 and up) Sexual urges cause struggle to satisfy urges in socially acceptable and safe ways

How might one implement Frued`s Psychoanalytic Theory in the classroom?
Provide guidance and support so that conflicts can be resolved in ways that enhance a child`s self-image. Include families in decisions regarding problem behaviors.

Provide opportunities for children to acquire and practice social skills.

Who developed stages of development that encompass the entire life span with each stage characterized by a challenge or developmental crisis?
Erik Erikson
What are Erikson`s first 5 stages of overcoming developmental crisis?
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth to 1)basic needs are being met2.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3)gaining control over bodily functions3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)being competent in tasks and activities4. Industry vs.

Inferiority (7-11)mastering skills at school, home, and playground5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence and up)search for identity

Kohlberg`s 3 Stages of Moral Development are?
Preconventional Morality (Ages 4-10)Conventional Morality (Ages 10-13)Post-conventional Morality (Ages 13 and up)
Pre-Conventional Morality puts an emphasis on what 2 things?
Punishment and Rewards
What are the 2 stages in Pre-Conventional Morality?
1. Punishment and Obedience2. Naive Egotistical
Conventional Morality emphasizes what?
Social Rules
Conventional Morality includes stages 3 & 4, what are they?
3. Interpersonal Concordance4.

Law and Order

Post-conventional Morality puts an emphasis on what 2 things?
Moral Values and Principles
Stages 5 & 6 are in Post-conventional Morality, what are they?
5. Social Contract6. Universal principles
a person of reflexes and senses is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Sensorimotor (0-2)
thinks symbolically, learns words are symbols for objects, and experiments is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Pre-Operational (2-7)
understands basic logic, masters reversibility and conservation, and still needs to have 1st hand experience is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Concrete Operations (7-11)
 Understands without concrete examples, can hypothesize, can do things cognitively in their head, is what stage in Piaget`s stages of development?
Formal Operations (11-15)
How can Piaget`s Cognitive Theory be implemented in the classroom?
1. offer many different objects and experiences for exploration.

2. Plan age-stage appropriate activities3. Provide play as an opportunity to learn4.

Experiences allow children to practice problem solving and decision making skills5. expose children to ideas of others

This man believed in Classical Conditioning and that behavior can be shaped by controlling events children are exposed to and offering rewards for proper responses.
John Watson
Classical Conditioning?
Stimulus/Response
Believed children are a “blank slate”
John Locke
This man believed children are empty organisms that can be filled with carefully controlled experiences and defined Operant Conditioning.
B.F. Skinner
children play an active part by operating or acting on their environment and are reinforced for their behaviors.*A system of positive and negative reinforces can be used to shape an individuals behavior.

 

Operant conditioning
Believed children observe the behavior of others then pattern their own behavior after that. Defined modeling.
Alert Bandura
Providing an example of desired behavior for the child to imitate.
Modeling
What is growth?
Increase in size, function, or complexity up to some point of optimal maturity

 

What is Development?

 

How individuals grow and change over a lifetime

 

What is Maturation?

Progression of changes that takes place as one ages
 

What is Learning?

Process by which evironmental influences and experiences bring about a permanent change in thinking, feeling, and behavior.

What is Nature vs. Nurture
 

?programmed by genetic makeup
?Nurture:
the result of environmental conditions and experiences

What is Maturation vs. Learning
 

?Dichotomy of human influences
?
How do School-agers differ from preschoolers in the following ways?
 

?Size ?Abilities
???Behavior
?Language ?Socialization

What does Physical Development of School-Aged Children look like:

?Slower rates than preschool years
?No new growth spurt until near adolescents
?Typical growth is 5 lbs/year and 2.5 inches
?Girls and boys are about the same until age 9 when girls pull ahead in height and weight
?

3in; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: left; language: en-US; mso-line-break-override: none; punctuation-wrap: hanging;”>?Variations due to genetics and nutrition

A child’s size can impact their…

?Self-esteem
?Ability to fit in
?Sports
?Participation
?Discrimination

How does Obesity affect School Age Children?
?Survey finds 1/3 of US kids overweight

?Implications of obesity
?Severe medical conditions ?Type II diabetes ?  apnea
??Hypertension and high cholesterol
??60-80% of obese children become overweight adults

What contributes to obesity:

?Heredity  ?Activity level   ?Overfeeding in infancy
?Sedentary activities
?i.e. television, computer, etc.
?Types of food consumed  ?

3in; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: left; language: en-US; mso-line-break-override: none; punctuation-wrap: hanging;”>?Specific/traumatic event  ?Physiological problems

What can you do to prevent obesity?
?Plan activities to promote and evaluate good health

?Plan programs that stress good nutrition
?Offer nutritious meals and snacks
?Model behavior
?Become informed about community health resources

What are the differences in motor skills of preschoolers vs.

school-agers?

 

?Running
?Jumping
?Throwing
?Fine motor:
??Drawing
?Writing

How do you promote children’s cognitive development?
 

?Language skills
?2nd?Model correct English
??Development a buddy system
?Provide a variety of reading materials
?

Curriculum
The plan of activities that accomplish the goals of the program
Academic approach
Results determined outcomes that can be measured, program helps child reach academic goals
Holistic approach
Curriculum evolves based on individual and group activities and interests
Emergent curriculum
A wide variety of activities available, children help plan
Age appropriate
Planned according to universal and predictable growth and changes
Individual appropriate
Allows for ages and stages at different rates and pace
Something to think about…
A quality school-age program should include what activities in its daily schedule?
A quality school-age program should include in its daily schedule:
Standard routinesActivities that meet children’s interestsActivities that foster competencyA balance of active and quiet activitiesMultiple choices to meet all interestsAccommodate diversity and multiple age-groups
Important Functions of Planning
Ensures that short and long term goals are being metEnsures a variety of activities and needed materialsLessens the number of conflictsDivides staff responsibilitiesKeeps parents informedEnsures developmentally appropriate practice
Components of Planning
Age appropriate and developmentally appropriateMeets interests of childrenStudents ability to successfully complete activityNumber of participantsIntended outcomeTime frame requiredMethod of presentationEvaluation of activityHow does it relate to other activities
Integrating Activities
Linking together activities based on a theme or a unitIncorporate learning areasBrainstorm theme ideasContent standards
Sample Unit
Detective ThemeArts and craftsCookingManipulativeActiveField tripGameScienceLiteracy
Selecting and Preserving Activities
Where do you get your ideas for activities?Methods of preserving ideas
Curriculum Area: Games Benifits
BenefitsFunChange of paceCooperationFairnessReinforce cognitive skillsPhysical activityCultural appreciation
Curriculum Area: Games Downside
CompetitivenessStress non-competitive activitiesReward effortImprovement equals successMultiple ages – different expectations and skill levelsOptimum equals age based groupsProvide balance
Curriculum Area: Games Safety
Rules for using equipmentLicensing standards metConsider and eliminate potential hazardsKnow procedures for accidentsFirst aid training/supplies available
Curriculum Area: Games Selecting and evaluating games
Number of primary playersSkills reinforcedLevels of participationSafety factorsElimination factorAge appropriateLevel of fun
Curriculum Area: Games General Development
Grades K, 1, and 2Large muscles fairly well developedSmall muscle coordination not well developedLots of energy, tire easily, recover quicklyTop-heavyGrades 3 and 4More skillfulSmall muscle coordination betterBetter balancedAttention span longerWorks better in groupsMore competitiveGrades 5 and 6Highly coordinatedGood skill and success is important sociallyWilling to practiceGroup and game spirit is strongWant to please their peersNeed rulesSensitive to physical growth
What is the difference between arts and crafts?
Craft activities:Product orientedEngage cognitive skills and problem solvingRequire specific materials and instructionArt activities Process orientedEngage imagination and feelingsBasic supplies & open ended instruction
Curriculum Area: Arts and Crafts Benefits
BenefitsFun – the joy of creativity and the satisfaction of masteryLearning skillsThinking, feeling, relating, coordinatingDiscover special talentsFoster creativity – the act of making something newDevelop appreciation
Curriculum Area: Arts and Crafts Plans for success
Incorporate a balance of arts and craftsInclude music and performance activitiesHave supplies and materials readyStress participation not perfection
Curriculum Area: Literacy Benefits
BenefitsImproves reading and writing skillsIncreases vocabulary and communication skillsPromotes self-expressionLeads to lifelong enjoymentGood readers are typically more successful in school
Curriculum Area: Science Benefits
BenefitsSatisfies curiosityAbilities improve as cognitive thinking skills develop Consider biological, physical, and Earth science
Curriculum Area: Science scientific skills
Scientific skills Observation – fosters curiosityClassification – sort objects by characteristics or sizePredicting – consider alternatives when answering questions about consequences of different actionsMeasuring – chart or quantify results; facilitates classifying and comparingInferring – predict outcomes based on knowledge from past experienceCommunicating – sharing information
Observations
What observations have you made about the behavior of the children in this age group?How is their age or their gender related?What have you noticed about how they interact with each other?What is going on in the child care setting to help the students feel good about themselves?What techniques or classroom management practices have you observed that you will emulate?
How important is getting along with others to the school age child?
Children who have good social skills tend to develop friendships, get better grades in school, and learn the skills to function more effectively as an adult.Children who lack social skills do not develop friendships easily, tend to have difficulties in school, may become bullies, can exhibit passive or aggressive behavior and have emotional problems.
How can care givers help children develop positive behaviors?
Be aware of the Hidden CurriculumSharing, taking turns, communication, social skills, etc….Know your students and understand their skills & abilitiesCoach children to find effective ways of behaving and interacting with othersTeach children appropriated ways to react to situationsEncourage children to communicate their needsRemind them to use their wordsProvide them with the wordsHelp them understand their impact on othersPromote cooperative activitiesSelect activities that teach social skills and help children learn about friendship and respect.

Method of Problem Solving where each child will
Decide to resolve conflictTell the story using “I” messages and conveys their feelingsState what they need for resolutionBrainstorm for options to solve the problemEvaluate the solution
What is Self Image?
Our perception of ourselvesThe perceptions conveyed to us by others
How does Self Image effect behavior?
When children receive positive reactions they behave in ways to gain further approvalWhen children have negative perceptions or reactions about self they may use negative behavior to gain attention
How can caregivers promote positive self esteem and cooperation?
Developing a genuine interest and provide support to each studentSelect activities that are at the child’s developmental levelModeling behaviorProviding adequate space and suppliesSelecting activities that promote cooperation over competition or work toward a common goalReinforcing positive behaviorBased on Behaviorist theory and implies that behaviors followed by positive feedback will result in repeat of desired behaviorProvide rules and guidelines for behavior
Providing Rules and Guidelines for Behavior
Involve children in decision making and setting the rules for behaviorEncourage communication that helps change behaviorEstablish consequences for actions
Types of Rules
Mandatory RulesRules that are not open for discussion or negotiation. Non-negotiableDiscretionary RulesRules that are based on choosing one of a limited number of alternatives NegotiableOptional RulesRules that children can reasonably control themselvesNegotiable
Types of Consequences
Time OutRemoval from activity, generally to sit by oneself for a specific amount of time. Best when followed by a meaningful discussion.

Logical ConsequenceTool to help child learn from and change behaviorBehavior ContractAgreement with child, parent, and center stating what specific behaviors are expected and listing specific consequence for actions.

What is Discipline?
…the sensible and firm guidelines that will lay the foundation for self control
How would you handle a Overly aggressive childExhibits anger and frustration. Often an instigator while claiming to be a victim. May have experienced many failures and feels powerless. May compensate by bullying others.
Can be helped byMake sure they understand rules and consequencesBe consistent with consequencesSelect activities they can complete successfullyTry to anticipated triggers and actionsPraise when praise is appropriate
HOw would you help a Overly quiet childOften overlooked because they do not create problems. Will do what they are told but usually stays by themselves.

Can appear anxious or depressed. May be shy or insecure about competency. May be afraid of rejection.

Can be helped byEncouraging interests and plan activities which they can complete successfullyMake specific suggestions about things to say or do to enter into group activitiesEncourage activities /role playing that practice communication skills
HOw you you help a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or other activitiesOften has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activitiesDoes not seem to listen when spoken to directlyOften has difficulty organizing tasks and activitiesOften loses things necessary for tasks or activitiesIs often easily distracted by extraneous stimuliOften fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seatIs often “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor”
Praise for appropriate behavior and successesPost simple rules and review them oftenEstablish a routine scheduleProvide transition, warning about change with reminders and announcementsReduce stimuli when giving directionsGet to their level. Make eye contact.Develop system to organize belongingsMaintain good communication with parentsPlan physical activityMake expectations explicit and give clear directionsAllow for escape valve, plan ahead of timeHelp child become more self aware in a constructive way
Inclusion:
Refers to placing children with diagnosed disabilities in settings with same age peers
Typically Developing
Refers to children without disabilities
Accommodations:
Changes that are necessary when planning activities to include special needs children
Individualized Education Plan (IEP):
Sets of goals determined by a team of professionals and parents to reflect what the child should accomplish within a year’s time
How would you care for a child with special needs>
Develop a positive attitudeLearn about the child: interests, temperament, and how to work with the childEstablish a working relationship with the parents and be part of the team that supports the childAddress the accommodations that may need to be implemented Be consistent and provide a structured routineRespect confidentiality
A child with disabilities must be included in your program unless
The child’s condition poses a direct threat to the other children, or staff, and the direct threat cannot be eliminated through reasonable accommodationsThe child’s condition would require architectural changes that cannot be readily achievedThe child’s requirement for special equipment or services would impose an undue burden or would fundamentally alter the nature of the program and there would be no reasonable alternativesThe child’s condition would require changes in policies, practices or procedures that would fundamentally alter the nature of the program