Scientific Method and Empiricism Essay

Empiricism is a philosophical philosophy that our cognition merely comes from experiences. It can be described as a cardinal function of observation. Empiricism was finally slightly replaced around the 1970’s by Positivism. Humanism. Marxist. Feminism and Post-Colonialism. However it still plays an of import function today’s society. for illustration in the cataloguing of species. There is about 1. 7 million species are known to science. there is an estimated scope of 4 to 20 million entire species. 10. 000 new invertebrates are found each twelvemonth. There has been over 1000 new species discovered in the Mekong part entirely in the last decennary.

Empiricism is based on a trust of the senses ; nevertheless there is a major accent on ocular observation in peculiar. The head is conveyed as a clean tablet ( slate ) or ‘tabula rasa’ ; it should non be subjected to any sensitivity. This term was coined by Aristotle. what the head thinks must be in it in the same sense as letters are on a tablet. which bears no existent authorship ; in the instance of the head this is what is believed to go on. ( Aristotle. On the Soul. 3. 4. 430a1 ) . a clean head with no influence of old experiences can look at something with an unfastened head. how it truly is. alternatively of how that individual wants to see it.

John Locke. who was a taking philosopher of British Empiricism. said that “there is nil in the head but what there is nil in the head but what entered it by manner of the senses” . This absolutely conveys the construct of Empiricism. It is non performed for the interest of the aggregation for informations ; it is carried out with mention to theory and constructs. It is much more custodies on experience than analyzing person else’s hypothesis’ of a state of affairs. The individual transporting out the probe as I have antecedently mentioned is non influenced by any other elements.

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Sauer stated that ‘geographical cognition remainders upon disciplined observation and it is a organic structure of interventions drawn from classified and decently correlated observations… we are concerned here merely with the relevancy of the observations and the mode in which they are made. ( 1924:19 ) recc reading pg 11 cloke P Sidney Woolridge. a geographer besides stated the necessity of observation in his authorship. where he commemorates what he calls ‘an oculus for country’ . something which he feels that should be promoted in geographers from a immature age: ‘The cardinal rule is that the land. non the map is the primary document… .

From this first rule I pass to the 2nd. that the kernel of preparation in geographaphical fieldwork is the comprise of the land with the map. recognizing that the latter at its best is a really partial and imperfect image of the land. go forthing it as our head stimulation to detect the broad scope of phenomena which the map ignores or at which it hardly intimations. ( cloke pg 11/12 ) Empirical methods are still used to a certain extent today ; Traditional information has been trusted for excessively long. they help incorporating research and pattern and because the Educational procedure or Instructional scientific discipline demands to develop.

The benefits of Empirical methods include the ability to grok and react more consequently to the ways of a state of affairs. to give regard to comparative contrasts. assistance the edifice of cognition and to give the opportunity to make the professional degree of research that has already been achieved. hypertext transfer protocol: //explorable. com/empirical-research The Empirical Cycle consists of the undermentioned phases: Observation- which involves assemblage and organising of empirical informations to for a Hypothesis. Induction- this is the manner of making a hypothesis

Deduction- these effect with freshly acquired empirical informations Testing the hypothesis with new empirical informations Evaluation of the result of proving. However Empiricism was criticized for non being really scientific and undependable. That its methods has many restrictions compared to other attacks i. e. – Positivism. It is notably negligent of theory. The perceptual experience of something. which Empiricism relies on. is non cosmopolitan. What one individual sees as being right can be wrong for another. However. pure empiricist philosophy is non possible ; one ever enters the field of research with some preconceived thoughts of what one is detecting.

In the absence of pure empiricist philosophy. one will jump anything that would enable theory to emerge from informations that has been acquired. Geography is concerned with spacial and temporal distribution of phenomena. procedures and characteristics. It is extremely interdisciplinary. The construct of empiricist philosophy is so rather different to the methods of empiricist philosophy. The thought of empiricist philosophy is so rather an ideal construct where one would divide all ideas and prepossessions from their field of survey ; nevertheless in world this is non to the full possible.

Although empiricist philosophy no longer plays such a dominant function in geographics. initiation is still used to generalize from our observations. It’s non every bit stiff as the ‘theory will emerge from informations gathered’ belief as existed before. The falsity of hypotheses remains prevailing to the inquiry of scientific discipline. It besides enables the ability to divide scientific discipline from non-science. It is what frequently separates scientific discipline and non-science However. issues still originate today with this construct. such as when empirical informations aggregation begins without proper cognition of underlying theory.

It besides has the inclination to over-simplify frequently more complex inquiries. Overall empiricist philosophy has played a major function in the advancement of research in Geography throughout the centuries. although jobs arise in different fortunes such as what I have antecedently mentioned. it being non theoretical plenty or supplying simple replies for complex inquiries. if it is non to the full relied on. alternatively used in concurrence with other constructs such as Marxist. Positivism or Humanitarianism it can turn out to be really utile in the farther patterned advance of the Geography today and in the hereafter. Bibliography:

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