Social Work is a assisting profession which promotes the well being of people while human rights and societal justness are extremely stressed ( IFSW, 2000 ) . The primary mission of societal work on the NASW web page is stated that it is to heighten human wellbeing and assist run into the basic human needs with particular attending to vulnerable and laden people ( NASW, 2007 ) . When the subject “ Vulnerable group ” is discussed, adult females, kids, handicapped and elderly people are chiefly under treatment and the issues of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexual and Transgender population ( LGBT ) are less discussed.
The LGBT population is one of the vulnerable minority groups since the population takes merely a little proportion of the whole population. It takes about 10 per centum of the population ( Hilda, H et Al. 1988 ) . Besides because of the facts that being tribades or homosexual in the society was regarded as mental upset and homosexualism was labeled as a sexual divergence over the early yesteryear decennaries ( Hilda, H et Al. 1988 ) . The LGBT populations had suffered favoritism based on sexual orientation depending on different geographical country. Exclusion is what the population was brought up with and equity is what they had been fighting for.
Although people became more and more cognizant of LGBT issue today, the population is still discriminated and marginalized by the bulk. The perceptual experiences, attitudes, values and stereotypes of people are the major barriers for LGBT to be socially included. As societal work professional who is supposed to advance human rights, societal justness and to assist the laden and vulnerable groups, these influence factors restricting the societal work pattern are needed to be emphasized. At the same clip, individuals who are traveling to assist this population demand to be competent in this specific field of assisting. There are many challenges and troubles to assist this population because of personal and environmental factors.
In this paper, I will seek to convey this issue to my ain local context: lucubrate the state of affairs in Myanmar sing LGBT, brainstorm how they can be helped using societal work pattern and most of import of all, I will seek to analyze and research how my ain perceptual experiences, attitudes, values, experiences, emotions and stereotypes may interfere my ability of societal work pattern with this specific issue. Furthermore I will seek to happen out how societal work pattern can be done to assist the sexual minority in my local context.
In chapter 2, I would research how the issue of LGBT came into being and what is the important literature about this issue for the better apprehension of this population. In chapter 3, I would seek to associate the issue to my ain local context: explicating the values, cultural norms, perceptual experiences and stereotypes in Myanmar and why cheery individuals are important to analyze. In chapter 4, would do a personal contemplation. I would besides seek to analyze myself sing my ain personal values, perceptual experiences and attitude towards this issue. I would besides discourse environmental factors in this chapter. In chapter 5, I would reason with the description of my personal program while I am in MSW. Potential intercession program in three degrees of societal work intercession would besides be discussed.
2.1 History of Homosexuality
Homosexuality had long existed in human history and it can be seen in different civilization in different scenes. It had made a long manner and still doing its manner in front.
Wormer et Al. ( 2000 ) stated that people were morally against homosexualism since ages ago although the term became to be popular in the 1980s. Peoples accepted that homosexualism is morally unacceptable and the attitude of people towards homosexualism is chiefly based on strong spiritual beliefs. Homosexuality was regarded as a wickedness, a offense, a illness in the Roman Empire times and it was besides lawfully out ( Wormer et al. 2000 ) .
Even in the modern times, homosexualism or same sex relationship and matrimony take a controversial subject in arguments. It is controversial when treatment comes for rights talk and legal issues. There are some parts of the universe where homosexualism or same sex relationship is legalized while in some parts it is illegal and strongly out.
Wormer et Al. ( 2000 ) explained that “ Homosexuality refers to sexual attractive force between members of the same gender, frequently but non ever accompanied by sexual behaviour. ” It implies that both male and female who are sexually attracted are covered in the term Homosexuality although males are referred as homosexuals and females as tribades.
2.3 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender people
This term, besides abbreviated as LGBT normally refers to homosexualism while bisexual negotiations about sexual attractive force to members of both sexes. However, in reappraisal of the literature, bisexual and transgender are non as normally seen as sapphic and homosexual are. Mallon ( 2009 ) mentioned that there had non been many researches on the two of import populations besides homosexuals and tribades and the footings and bisexual and transgender were added into research literature merely after 1998.
2.5 LGBT and Social Work
The National Association of Social Workers ( NASW ) had been working on the LGBT issues since 1970s. The National Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender issues was formed in 1982 with 8 specific aims in which advancing societal justness and supporting the rights of individuals who are enduring subjugations and favoritism based on their sexual orientation NASW ( 2010 ) .
Situation in Myanmar
3.1 Situation of LGBT individuals in Myanmar
There is no specific survey and literature about LGBT individuals in Myanmar. The issue is non published nor does non take media coverage despite of its being. Yuuki ( 2009 ) complained that there have non equal rights or chances for LGBT in Myanmar even though there is no evident favoritism towards the population ( parity. 1 ) . There is really small cognition about LGBT in Myanmar and they are merely regarded as the bearers and distributers of HIV/AIDS.
As cited in The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans and Intersex Association of Asia ( 2009 ) , the Penal Code, Act 45/1860, Revised Edition, Section 377 provinces
“ Whoever voluntarily has animal intercourse against the order of nature with any adult male, adult female or animate beings shall be punished with transit for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may widen to 10 old ages, and shall be apt to ticket. ” ( Ottosson, 2007 ) . The jurisprudence is in fact non really clear whether or non all LGBT individuals who have sexual relationship to same sex. The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans and Intersex Association of Asia ( 2009 ) , merely states that male to male sexual relationship is illegal ( p. 1 ) .
There have non much concern on LGBT individuals in Myanmar. Merely gays ; male to male sexual relationship has been concentrated sing the distribution of HIV/AIDS. It has been merely a decennary or so that the LGBT issues involved in public confab and chitchats with the famous persons who had come out of the cupboard and with the popularity of sex alteration operations in neighbouring state, Thailand. Peoples in Myanmar barely know about Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender but homosexuals. When LGBT is discussed, homosexuals would be the major treatment.
3.2 Valuess, Culture norms and stereotypes in Myanmar
Myanmar, being one of the Asiatic states holds and patterns Asiatic values. Buddhism is the national faith and the civilization is non different from other Asiatic states. Masculinity is accepted as superior, being male is believed as natural gift which is related to the good workss one had done in the old life harmonizing to Buddhism belief. Merely males can be monastics and go God.
As seen all over the universe, gender stereotypes can besides be seen in Myanmar. Work force are supposed to be the bread victors while adult females are responsible for the family jobs. Work forces are socially looked down if they can non be able to back up the household. Similarly, adult females are looked down if they can non be able to execute the kid attention and house plants. Min ( 2010 ) explained that males have to act like males and if a male child or girl behaves like a different gender, they would be scolded and punished by the seniors. He besides told the media that it is a shame to show one ‘s gender individuality whether homosexual or sapphic and people dare non come out to their existent gender individuality since they are afraid of favoritism.
3.3 Discrimination against LGBT in Myanmar
Although obvious favoritism against homosexuals was non made populace in Myanmar, there are similar state of affairss in the society. The caput of the Human Rights Education Institute of Burma reported to a media that there is favoritism against homosexuals. Min ( 2010 ) , reported that “ Although several Asiatic states have prejudiced Torahs against homosexualism, it is illegal in Myanmar. Discrimination against homosexuals and tribades is traditionally rooted in our societies and the society does non digest homosexualism. ” ( p. 1 ) .
In a few old ages ago in Myanmar, a cheery individual who expressed himself as homosexual and engaged a same sex matrimony was expelled from his society after he identified as being homosexual. He was a strong member of that artist society before he expresses himself as homosexual but shortly after, he suffered sexual bias. Irrawaddy ( 2010 ) reported that some commented on the instance that the Myanmar society should understand homosexuals and let them to bask their rights, including matrimony, but some believe that homosexuals should be shunned because it is thought they spread the HIV virus ( p. 1 ) .
There are similar instances of favoritism against homosexuals in Myanmar, in a broad society, in the community and even in households. Peoples have small cognition and misconception about homosexuals by the value, norms and stereotypes.
Social Work Practice with LGBT in Myanmar
4.1 Personal contemplation
In reexamining myself, I do non look to accept homosexuals as normal. I did non hold good experience with homosexuals and I found it hard to cover with them. The first clip I recognized cheery individuals was in my adolescence. They appeared to be different from other male childs that I disliked the manner they behave since they do non act like male childs but misss. I see them as cowards and when I encounter those who have sexual relationship with same sex, I used to see them as individuals who are against the spiritual instructions and jurisprudence. Although I came to cognize more about the homosexual individuals, I observed myself that it is still difficult for me to cover with them.
4.2 Personal factor lending the trouble for societal work pattern
Since societal workers value self-respect and worth of a individual, my ain perceptual experience and attitudes towards cheery individuals would be a barrier in societal work pattern with them. The factor that I had bad experience with homosexual individuals where I began to dislike them might besides lend the trouble. It would be hard for me to convey about equity and alteration to them because transference and antagonistic transference issues may disrupt my ability to execute societal work pattern.
More significantly, I do non experience comfy speaking with cheery individuals and when I examine myself sing my vacillation covering with them, the ground buttocks is that I had the experience in which I was approached by some cheery individuals. Thus it is really much likely for me and I easy tend to pigeonhole other cheery individuals that they would near me as good. It can besides be said as pre judgement which contradicts to societal work pattern. Again, my perceptual experience and attitude towards cheery individuals is that they are unblushing and immoral because they approach and sexually hassle the same sex. These personal factors are the barriers that may act upon my ability to execute societal work pattern.
4.3 Environmental factor lending the trouble for societal work pattern
In Myanmar, the cultural and societal norms are strong and conservative that there are misconceptions and societal exclusions for cheery individuals. A individual who works with the homosexual individuals is likely to be seen as person strange since the society tends to dislike cheery individuals. Peoples have really small cognition about LGBT and tend to label and stigmatise them. One of the remarks station on the instance of a cheery individual who was expelled from his society goes every bit mentioned in Irrawaddy magazine ( 2010 ) :
Anyone who is neither adult female nor adult male is foreign or guest. So, existent adult male and adult female have to support their fatherland from invasion of foreigners. By common sense, foreigner or invitee should follow the demands of host. If they do non hold with the footings and conditions of the host, they must travel someplace else. ( p. 1 ) .
It shows that despite of the educational degree, many people do non accept nor tolerant the LGBT population in Myanmar. The factors that the issue is illegal and no right of look may besides ensue the isolation of the LGBT and they would non come out of the cupboard.
5.1 Personal program for societal work pattern with LGBT
During in the MSW plan, for better societal work intercession pattern with the LGBT, particularly with the homosexual individuals in Myanmar, I would seek to analyze more on societal work pattern with diverseness. I will seek to research more about the laden and vulnerable population: what are the demands and how best intercession can be brought. To alter something, I believe that it is of import to alter one ego foremost. Therefore, I would reflect my ain personal perceptual experiences, values and attitudes to seek to be cognizant of myself in every state of affairs of societal work pattern.
5.2 Possible societal work intercession for sexual minority in Myanmar
In footings of micro degree intercession, with the proper cognition on the particular topic and by using societal work values, the LGBT population can be helped to accommodate with the environment. Empower them as good subscribers to the society to have good image.
In mezzo degree, consciousness raising for the household members can be done so as all the household members are acknowledged the LGBT topic and the ways they can assist their LGBT household members. LGBT group work can besides be implemented so that there will be sharing among them for common support and get bying with the troubles they face.
In macro degree intercession, public consciousness can be raised sing the topic by agencies of utilizing thenar flats, streamers and through media so that many people will be acknowledged the know how on LGBT issues.
Now that I am cognizant of my personal failings that interferes my ability to work with the sexual minority, I am certain that after intensive survey while I am in MSW plan, I can work with the population expeditiously under restrictions of my personal values, perceptual experiences and attitudes.