Some Altruism gets weaker since the possible donors

Some researchers such as Dyck & Coldevin (1992) and Dorga (2007) show the positive effect choosing right picture on fundraising results while others such as Black (2013), Renteln (2015) and Vestergard (2013) criticize the usage of image in non-profit fundraising for the possibility to create stereotypes of needy, unaccomplished and sophomoric receivers of the help who are being saved by heroic western society.





In the donation-based crowdfunding platforms as the number of shares increases, the effect of Rational Altruism gets weaker since the possible donors do not know the fundraiser personally. Consequently, the fundraising campaign which started in the social circle of a fundraiser, by getting more spread resembles the fundraising by organizations and NGOs. Although trust is the central issue in for-profit crowdfunding (Duarte et al., 2012), in the donation and non-profit fundraising the emphasis is on the need of recipient (Bekkers & Wiepking 2011). The effect of having knowledge of the recipient need has been studied in researches such as Aguiar (2007), Diamond & Kashyap (1997) and Weerts & Ronca (2007). The theoretical foundation of awareness of need can be found on the Batson (1991). Batson model predicts that noticing other people’s need will arouse empathic concerns witch in turn leads to motives to reduce the stress of others in order to reduce own negative feelings (Dovidio et al. 2006). Lowenstein and Small (2007) also proposed a model which based on that empathy can lead to aid.

Pictures has been considered effective in persuasion (Birdsell & Groarke, 1996). In the social media where there is no verbal communication, and there is more chance for impression management and selective self- representation the effect of images gets amplified (Anderson and Saxton 2016). Walther (2007) defines selective self-representation as revealing prospects and image of one-self in a controlled and socially desirable manner. Also, impression management, is first defined by Goffman (1959) as the attempt by individuals to influence the perception of others about themselves and is highly related to selective self-representation. Based on the idea 


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