Schizophrenia is a mental unwellness with symptoms like psychotic beliefs, hallucinations, disorganized address and behavior, and inappropriate emotions ( Barlow & A ; Durand, 2009 ) . These symptoms would falsify an person ‘s life to a certain extent. For illustration, the irrational ideas may ensue in communicating jobs. In fact, non merely do the symptoms of schizophrenic disorder affect an person, stigmatisation of people with schizophrenic disorder besides has profound effects on those people with schizophrenic disorder.
Stigma is the general negative attitudes towards a certain group of people ( Schneider, 2004 ) . Many bookmans suggested that people with schizophrenic disorder are extremely stigmatized ( Chang & A ; Johnson, 2008 ; Gingerich & A ; Mueser, 2006 ; Prior, 2004 ) . They are by and large described as down, unpredictable, violent, unsafe and aggressive ( Chang & A ; Johnson, 2008 ; Schneider, 2004 ) . Although these may be true for some instances, it is believed that there is overgeneralization of the state of affairs. The state of affairs would besides be worsened by the media ( Chang & A ; Johnson, 2006 ) , which sometimes connect schizophrenic disorder to violent Acts of the Apostless. For illustration, a individual with schizophrenic disorder would be more likely to be a slaying. These negative positions would trip favoritism on people with schizophrenic disorder.
Schneider ( 2004 ) suggested the labeling theory to explicate why people with mental unwellness behave in the manner that the general public describes as unsafe and violent. He explained that they act as unsafe and violent merely because they are stigmatized and play out their assigned functions. Therefore, it can be seen that they may really be socialized to act in those ways alternatively of acting of course.
It should be noted that people are non merely stigmatized while they are enduring from schizophrenic disorder. A research was done by Cheung and Wong ( 2004 ) with 193 people in Hong Kong on the perceptual experience of stigmatisation on people with mental unwellness. The consequence shows that the bulk agrees with the fact that “ most people believe that person with a old mental unwellness is untrusty and unsafe ” . Schizophrenia, being one of the mental unwellnesss, is of no exclusion. The deduction of this research is that stigmatisation on people with schizophrenic disorder is a life-long issue, from the oncoming of the upset until the terminal of one ‘s life.
Gingerich and Mueser ( 2006 ) suggested that stigma on people with schizophrenic disorder may do others experience fright of and avoid interacting with those people. This fright and turning away would in bend cut down the interaction between people with schizophrenic disorder and the populace and there would be less chance to alter the stigmatizing beliefs ( Gingerich and Mueser, 2006 ) .
Holmes and River ( 1998 ) introduced the construct of societal stigma and self-stigma. The aforesaid are societal stigma as the general public stigmatizes those with schizophrenic disorder. Chang and Johnson ( 2008 ) suggested that there are societal messages delivered in the stigma which may take to self-stigmatization of an person. This farther stigmatisation would do even more negative effects on oneself.
Consequence of stigmatisation on people with schizophrenic disorder
As suggested by Tsang, Tam, Chan and Cheung ( 2009 ) , stigmatisation prohibits mentally sick people from recovery. Sing state of affairss in Hong Kong, Tsang et Al. ( 2009 ) found from a study that 80 % of respondents thought societal stigma has negative effects towards mentally sick people. Compared with the high per centum, much less respondents considered societal stigmatisation unacceptable. Which means quite a figure of people tolerate or accept stigmatisation even though they know the impact brought. Other figures found by Tsang et Al. ( 2009 ) besides revealed the badness of stigmatisation in Hong Kong. For illustration, one 4th of respondents are hesitate to accept people with mental unwellness and about 30 % of respondents oppose mentally sick elderly into aged place. These ideas and stigmatisations contribute to the effects brought by schizophrenic disorder and do it more serious in Hong Kong.
There is no uncertainty that stigmatisation airss negative effects on people with schizophrenic disorder throughout their life. Chan, Mak and Law ( 2009 ) confirmed the point above after reexamining a batch of literatures. First, it imposes restraints in day-to-day life on those with schizophrenic disorder. Furthermore, it may take to lower self-pride, decreased life satisfaction and societal version. It besides hinders help-seeking behaviour. Apart from the above impacts, Corrigan ( 1998 ) besides suggested that stigmatisation would take to favoritism, followed by loss of societal chances as members of society withhold the opportunities related to work or income. Therefore lead to hapless quality of life.
It should be noted that the psychological, societal and biological facets cause the negative effects and they are interrelated. Socially, negative attitudes towards people with schizophrenia inhibit the employment chances ( Corrigan, 1998 ) . The claim is besides supported by the determination by the Equal Opportunities Commission ( 1997 ) in Hong Kong. It stated that the mentally sick people ‘s employment rate is low ( around 30 % ) . The unemployment jobs may trip a batch of other jobs. It is obvious that unemployment causes fiscal jobs. It besides places load on clients ‘ relations. Furthermore, as stated by Mowbray, Bybee, Harris and McCrohan ( 1995 ) , “ employment offers chances for societal interaction, builds self-esteem and individuality, and is the best forecaster of recovery and societal integrating ” . However, without a occupation, there may be disappointment and self-blame of being a load to the household or being incapable to gain a life. The psychological facet of the people is therefore affected and may cut down life satisfaction.
Tsang et Al. ( 2003 ) besides suggested that stigmatisation non merely impact the person but besides his household or societal web. An illustration illustrated is that a big figure of people would alter seats in public conveyance when sitting following to people who appear to hold mental unwellness. When traveling out with the mentally sick people, their relations or households would experience abashed. Thus their emotions are besides affected. And because of the stigmatisation of experiences that irritate the mentally sick people, they may insulate themselves. The household is besides likely to hide their unwellness because they feel ashamed of the schizophrenic people. This is peculiarly true in Hong Kong as Chinese stresses the importance of corporate representation of households ( Tsang et al. , 2003 ) . This farther prohibits the person from interacting with other people. Because of the isolation, the person is non rather possible to seek aid from other. Without societal support and societal resources, the schizophrenic people are difficult to accommodate to the environment. This forms a barbarous circle and the state of affairs may go worse.
Biological facets may besides increase the earnestness of stigmatisation. Age of oncoming of mental unwellness may be an of import factor. If a individual is mentally sick since he/she was immature, his/ her societal web would contract down as there may be favoritism and isolation. Thus the support is limited. Furthermore, if the individual suffers from schizophrenic disorder during college or secondary school, his/her instruction is non competitory plenty in Hong Kong as there are more and more pupils having third instruction ( Census Department, 2005 ) . With the mental unwellness and lower than mean academic accomplishment, they face a batch more troubles in employment.
It can be seen that stigmatisation causes many negative effects on people with schizophrenic disorder. Therefore, it is necessary to cut down the stigma on them. However, there should be some consideration when intervening in the state of affairs. Chiu, Chui, Kelinman, Lee and Tsang ( 2006 ) pointed out that those intercessions which focus on altering public ‘ attitude towards schizophrenic disorder are really insulating those stigmatized to be a group that deserves particular interventions. This in bend reinforces the stigmatisation. Chiu et Al. ( 2006 ) besides stressed that there may be the possibility of doing those stigmatized more cognizant of the fact that they are being stigmatized. They may go hopeless about altering the current state of affairs and merely conform to the stigmatisation.
Hong Kong has really taken some actions to step in in the stigmatisation on people with schizophrenic disorder. However, it seems that the actions taken are non rather effectual in cut downing the stigma. For illustration, “ head-shrinkers changed the Chinese term for schizophrenic disorder from “ splitting of the head to “ perceptual upset ” ” ( Chiu et al. , 2006, p. 1694 ) . However, Chiu et Al. argued that the new term was re-stigmatized rapidly after a short period of clip.
Besides altering the name, there have been anti-stigma programmes which promote a sense that “ schizophrenic disorder is an unwellness like any other ” ( Davies, Haslam, Read & A ; Sayce, 2006 ) . Davies et Al. ( 2006 ) pointed out that these programmes failed to cut down the stigma as they deliver the message that persons can non command themselves when they are enduring from schizophrenic disorder. This makes the public feel that those with schizophrenia go even more unpredictable and therefore increasing the stigma.
As it has been mentioned, stigma on people with schizophrenic disorder can be divided as societal stigma and self-stigma. Therefore, intercessions at both community and single degree are needed to cut down the stigma on people with schizophrenic disorder.
For the community degree, Gingerich and Mueser ( 2006 ) suggested allowing people understand more about the state of affairs alternatively of altering how they think about the state of affairs straight. One common but effectual manner is instruction ( Gingerich & A ; Mueser, 2006 ) . Education allows people to develop a better apprehension on schizophrenic disorder, for illustration, the cause, effects and interventions. They may be able to see psychiatric symptoms as apprehensible psychological or emotional reactions to life events, therefore cut downing the fright on people with schizophrenic disorder ( Davies et al. , 2006 ) . A research done by Chan et Al. ( 2009 ) discovered that it is more effectual in cut downing stigma on schizophrenic disorder if there is a talk about schizophrenic disorder followed by a picture show which includes existent instances of schizophrenic disorder. They explained the effectivity of the education-video theoretical account as leting participants to acquire adequate information and background before holding deeper processing of the picture.
It is suggested that there was small or no organized protagonism by psychiatric patients to endeavor for their ain involvement ( Chiu et al. , 2006 ) , like statute law and resource allotment on people with schizophrenic disorder. Besides, it is suggested that hapless intervention of schizophrenic disorder may escalate the stigmatisation of schizophrenic disorder ( Prior, 2004 ) because people may over-generalize those little group who are ill treated and have adverse symptoms as the bulk of people with schizophrenic disorder. Recommending for the betterment of services for people with schizophrenic disorder can therefore assist to cut down stigma by leting better recovery. Besides, services like employment aid can assist incorporate them in society and let them to develop a societal web ( Prior, 2004 ) .
For single degree, interventions like medicine, psychosocial instruction ( Chang & A ; Johnson, 2008 ) . In add-on, household attentions and supports are of import to cut down stigma on an person with schizophrenic disorder ( Chang & A ; Johnson, 2008 ; Gingerich & A ; Mueser, 2006 ) as it is the first system that the person would locate. If the household is a supportive one, it is more likely that the person would be less self-stigmatized.
In decision, stigmatisation airss great impacts on persons with schizophrenic disorder and their households. These impacts included decreased life satisfaction and societal version. Unemployment is besides an of import factor that affects societal and psychological operation of people with schizophrenic disorder. On the other manus, intercessions should non concentrate on altering populace ‘s attitude towards people with schizophrenic disorder. Alternatively, it should concentrate on allowing people understand more about schizophrenic disorder and supplying supports to people with schizophrenic disorder. In the community degree, there can be instruction and protagonism. In the single degree, there can be medicine, psychosocial instruction and household support.