Study Guide Biology – Griffin SasdiWhat is Ecology?Charles DarwinCurrents philosophyRelations of organism to one another and to their physical surroundingsIt can give a better understanding of the interactions between organisms and their environmentsBiosphere extends several Kilometers above earth’s surface and 8 km below ocean’s surfaceTerrestrial habitats-farms town cities Aquatic habitats- ocean lakes sea Food, climate, habitats, conditionsLevels of OrganizationStudy of structure, function, ecology and evolution at the level of the organismbfFood habitatIf there isn’t enough resources populations will decrease, If there is a lot of resources population will increase Community is a group of independent organisms of different species Community ecology- study of interactions between species in communities Ecosystem community of living organisms and nonliving. Ecosystem ecology is the study of living and nonliving components of the ecosystem and interactions Niche organism’s role is an ecosystem. Habitat is a natural home or environment of an animal, plant , or other organisms. Because there living space is different and food sources are different.Population DynamicsSize of the population the growth rate the density and structure relate because they all affect the populationClumped, random, and uniformBecause the population growth increases over time and because the resources or habitat the pop growth increases overtimeExponential growth Because there are limited resources Population expansion decreases as resources become scarce leveling carrying capacity When it reaches carrying capacity Number of people other living organisms or crops that a region can support w/o environment degradation The amount of birth rate increase population and the amount of death rate decreases population reaching equilibrium. Immigration means enter, so the amount that enters increases pop. Emigration means to leave means a decrease of pop Species interactionsModels of Matter and Energy flowA food chain network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms and ending at apex predator species Because the predators have to feed on prey and it stops10% RuleTrophic each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy A food web is the natural interconnection of food chains and generally a graphical representationgraphical representation designed to show the biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystemNumbers biomass and energyProducersSun10%Because organisms use much of the energy that they consume for life processes, such as respiration, movement, and reproduction. Some of the remaining energy is released into the environment as heat.Nutrient CyclesCarbon enter through respiration and combustion Carbon dioxide is absorbed by producers to make carbs put off as oxygen Animals feed on plants The dead organisms (dead animals and plants) are eaten by decomposers in the ground.dead, buried, and decomposing organisms are compressed under extreme pressure and heat for millions of years and release carbon dioxideNitrogen cycle steps fixation, nitrification, ammonification and denitrification. During the first step, nitrogen fixation, special bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia which is used by plants. The second step, nitrification, involves converting ammonia into nitrite ions that are taken by plants as nutrients. ammonification, in which decomposing bacteria convert the waste compounds that are rich in nitrogen into simpler compounds. The last step in the nitrogen cycle is denitrification, wherein bacteria convert simple nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen gas, which then returns to the atmosphere and starts the cycle again Earth’s atmosphere carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur through plants and animals Precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, evaporation, condensationHuman ImpactNatural resources exists without the actions of humankind. And renewable resources can be used and recycled more than once.CoalNatural Resource DepletionConservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth’s biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactionsReuse and recycle, take care of the environment, no littering, don’t buy or use what you don’t usually consumeTrees in different levels of the tree lives different living organisms that feed on different resources?The homeostasis is affected because it isn’t constant anymore because it has reached carrying capacity which decreases population because animals start to emmigrateMutualism is when both benefit, commensalism is when both are neutral, and parasitism is when one benefits and the other ‘Plant-> snake-> hawk-> alligator?BillionsOrganism, species, population, community, ecosystem, biome , biosphereIf one factor is removed or changed it can affect the whole communityThe species that is the first to colonize in succession. This is process take a very long timeExponential growth is when the growth rate rise over the carrying capacityLower birth rates, increase, death, rates, and leading to emigrationHumans impact the environment by polluting it Chlroloruns and other halogented ozone depleting substances are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ozone depletionDeforestation and habitat destruction and when humans tear down forests and animals homes for their own purpose and to get more wood or create land to lose their homes.A species living outside its native distributional rangeUnsustainable energy is inexhaustible er petroleum, coal, and natural gasIt is cycled through one organism to another 10%Tropical rainforestOxygen and carbonPhotosynthesis takes in glucose and release oxygen and release carbon dioxideCellsA cell is the basic unit of life and every living organism has cellsRobert Hooke, Matthias Schleiden, Louis Pasteur, swannThree parts of the cell theory are 1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells 2 Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms 3 Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their genetic material onto daughter cellsCell TypesThe two cell types are eukaryotes and prokaryotesA prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus or organelles EX- all bacteriaSome cell structures that a prokaryotic cell has is a nucleoid It does not have a nucleus or organellesThe nucleoid is in prokaryotic cells and it is like a nucleus but it is not a real oneA eukaryotic cell has a nucleus and organelles Ex- animals and plants.An organelle is the part of a cell that had a specific job to do for the cellBacterial cells were the first type of cells to evolvePlasma membrane- organelle meant to protect the surroundings of the cellNucleus- organelle that contains the cell’s genetic information in the form of DNANucleolus- organelle located in the center of the nucleus where ribosomes are assembledCytoplasm/Cytosol- the “jelly-like” liquid of the cell that fills up the remaining spaceCytoskeleton: organelles that provides support for the cellER-organelle that is the site for protein and lipid synthesis In rough proteins are made. In smooth lipids are madeRibosomes- organelle that helps make proteinsGolgi Apparatus- packages proteins and transports them to another organelle or out of the cellVacuoles- organelle used to store food, water, enzymes, and wastes for the cell.Lysosomes- the “clean up crew” for the cell. Centrioles- used for helping the cell during cell division in animal cellsMitochondria: organelle that converts into energy using cellular respirationCilia: hair-like projections that functions in cell movementFlagella- long tail-like projection with a whip-like motion that helps a cellChloroplast- an organelle that converts light, water, and carbon dioxide into food for cellCell wall- rigid barrier that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane and provides support for cell Plants vs Animal CellsFour differences between plant and animal cells are plant has a cell wall and animal does not Plant cells have the organelle chloroplast and animal does not Animals cells have centrioles and plants cells do not plant cells are a part of photosynthesis and animals cells are notTwo similarities between plant and animals cells are that they both eukaryotic cellsAlso they both have mitochondria, nucleus, and vacuoles4. Cellular organization Organisms become multi-celled because of mitosis which is where the cells duplicate. The three parts of the cell theory 1 all living organisms are composed of one or more cells2 cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms3 cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their genetic material onto their daughter cells This is important because these three parts help you identify a cellProkaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic cells do. They both have a cell membrane The eukaryotic cells are more complex because they have more organellesAnimal cells do not have chloroplast but plant cells do. They both are eukaryotic cells.Cell: Energy, Enzymes, and transport Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for reaction such as cellular respirationThey increase the likelihood of a reaction by lowering the energy required for a reaction to occurIn the process, enzymes are left unchanged The resulting molecules from the reaction are called productsThe law of conservation of mass states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. the amount of matter cannot changeAntoine Lavoisier promoted this ideaCells get energy from foodAdenosine triphosphate, or ATP for short, is the energy currency of life. ATP is a high-energy molecule found in every cell Its job is to store and supply the cell with needed energyThe cell uses atp to give the cells energy to make foodEnzymes- a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reactionEnzymes are biological molecules (typically proteins) that significantly speed up the rate of virtually all of the chemical reactions that take place within cellsThey are extremely important for life and serve a wide range of important functions in the bodyex: aiding in digestion and metabolismThe binding of an inhibitor can stop a substrate from entering the enzyme’s active site and hinder the enzyme from catalyzing its reaction. Inhibitor binding is either reversible or irreversible. Irreversible inhibitors usually react with the enzyme and change it chemicallyPlasma membraneAll cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane. The membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer arranged back-to-backThe membrane is also covered in places with cholesterol molecules and proteins The plasma membrane is selectively permeable and regulates which molecules are allowed to enter and exit the cell.structure of plasma membrane plasma membrane consists of both lipids and proteins. The fundamental structure of the membrane is the phospholipid bilayer, which forms a stable barrier between two compartments.Cholesterol builds up with the lipidsScattered in the lipid bilayer are cholesterol molecules, which help to keep the membrane fluid consistent.Cellular transport in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. The condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forcesthe process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentration, to areas of low concentration. When the molecules are even throughout a spacemembranes that allow some things through, the cell membrane is selectively permeable, water and oxygen move freely across the cell’s membrane, by diffusionIsotonic & hypertonicIf the concentration of solute (salt) is equal on both sides the water will move back in forth but it won’t have any result on the overall amount of water on either side.Fermentationis an anaerobic process in which energy can be released from glucose even though oxygen is not available takes place in bacteria and in the muscle cells of animals.In muscle cells, another form of fermentation takes place When muscle cells contract too frequently (as in strenuous exercise), they rapidly use up their oxygen supplyAs a result, the electron transport system and Krebs cycle slow considerably, ATP production is slowed muscle cells have the ability to produce a small amount of ATP through glycolysis in the absence of oxygen The muscle cells convert glucose to pyruvic acid. An enzyme in the muscle cells then converts the pyruvic acid to lactic acid. As in the yeast, this reaction frees up the NAD while providing the cells with two ATP molecules from glycolysis the lactic acid buildup causes intense fatigue, and the muscle stops contractingMutations Mutations that occur in somatic cells usually result in killing that body cell only An exception is that the DNA that regulates the cell cycle. It can result in cancer.